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1 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem OULD BOUAMAMA Responsable de léquipe MOCIS Méthodes et Outils pour la conception.

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Presentation on theme: "1 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem OULD BOUAMAMA Responsable de léquipe MOCIS Méthodes et Outils pour la conception."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem OULD BOUAMAMA Responsable de léquipe MOCIS Méthodes et Outils pour la conception Intégrée des Systèmes Laboratoire d'Automatique, Génie Informatique et Signal (LAGIS - UMR CNRS 8219 et Directeur de la recherche à École Polytechnique de Lille (Poltech lille) mèl : Tel: (33) (0) , mobile : (33) (0) Ce cours est dispensé aux élèves de niveau Master 2 et ingénieurs 5 ème année. Plusieurs transparents proviennent de conférences internationales : ils sont alors rédigés en anglais. Toutes vos remarques pour lamélioration de ce cours sont les bienvenues. Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs. Ce cours et bien dautres sont disponibles à

2 2 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille 1.Bond graphs for modelling J. Thoma et B. Ould Bouamama « Modelling and simulation in thermal and chemical engineering » Bond graph Approach, Springer Verlag, « Les Bond Graphs » sous la direction de Geneviève Dauphin-Tanguy. Collection IC2 Systèmes Automatisés Informatique Commande et Communication, Edition Hermes, 383 pages, Paris B. Ould Bouamama et G. Dauphin-Tanguy. « Modélisation par Bond Graph. Eléments de Base pour l'énergétique ». Techniques de l'Ingénieurs, 16 pages BE8280 B. Ould Bouamama et G. Dauphin-Tanguy. « Modélisation par Bond Graph. Application aux systèmes énergétiques ». Techniques de l'Ingénieurs, 16 pages BE Bond graphs for Supervision Systems Design A.K. Samantaray and B. Ould Bouamama « Model-based Process Supervision. A Bond Graph Approach ». Springer Verlag, Series: Advances in Industrial Control, 490 p. ISBN: , Berlin B. Ould Bouamama et al.. « Model builder using Functional and bond graph tools for FDI design ». Control Engineering Practice, CEP, Vol. 13/7 pp B. Ould Bouamama et al.. " Supervision of an industrial steam generator. Part I: Bond graph modelling". Control Engineering Practice, CEP, Vol 14/1 pp 71-83, Part II: On line implementation, CEP, Vol 14/1 pp 85-96, B. Ould Bouamama et al. « Software for Supervision System Design In Process Engineering Industry. » 6th IFAC, SAFEPROCESS,, pp Beijing, China, 29-1 sept Few References

3 3 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille CONTENTS (1/3) CHAPTER 1: Introduction to integrated design of engineering systems Definitions, context Why an unified language and systemic approach Different representations of complex systems, Levels of Modelling Modeling tools for mechatronics Why bond graph ? What we can do with bond graphs. Methodology of Fast prototyping, Hardware in the Loop (HIL), Software in the Loop (SIL) Interest of Bond graph for Prototypin g CHAPTER 2: Bond Graph Theory Historic of bond graphs, Definition, representation Power variables, Energy Variables True and pseudo bond graph Bond graph and block diagram Basic elements of bond graph (R, C, I, TF, GY, Se, Sf, Junctions,….) Model Structure Knowledge Construction of Bond Graph Models in different domains (electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, …)

4 4 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille CONTENTS (2/3) CHAPTER 3: Causalities and dynamic model Definitions and causality principle Sequential Causality Assignment Procedure (SCAP) Bicausal Bond Graph From Bond Graph to bloc diagram, State-Space equations generation Examples CHAPTER 4: Coupled energy bond graph Representation and complexity Thermofluid sources, Thermofluid Multiport R, C Examples CHAPTER 5: Application to industrial processes Electrical systems Mechanical and electromechanical systems Process Engineering processes : power station

5 5 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» CONTENTS (3/3) CHAPTER 6: Automated Modeling and Structural analysis Bond Graph Software's for dynamic model generation Integrated Design for Engineering systems Bond Graph for Structural analysis (Diagnosis, Control, …) Application ANNEXE1: Case studies Symbols2000 Software Tutorial and How to create Capsules ? Case Studies Application des Bond graphs en énergétique ANNEXE2: A paper (in French) published in Techniques de lingénieur : Copyright please : do not diffuse B. Ould Bouamama et G. Dauphin-Tanguy. " Modélisation par Bond Graph. Application aux systèmes énergétiques ". Techniques de l'Ingénieurs, 16 pages BE8281, B. Ould Bouamama et G. Dauphin-Tanguy. " Modélisation par Bond Graph. Eléments de Base pour l'énergétique ". Techniques de l'Ingénieurs, 16 pages BE8280, Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

6 6 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille 1.Bond graphs for modelling J. Thoma et B. Ould Bouamama « Modelling and simulation in thermal and chemical engineering » Bond graph Approach, Springer Verlag, « Les Bond Graphs » sous la direction de Geneviève Dauphin-Tanguy. Collection IC2 Systèmes Automatisés Informatique Commande et Communication, Edition Hermes, 383 pages, Paris B. Ould Bouamama et G. Dauphin-Tanguy. « Modélisation par Bond Graph. Eléments de Base pour l'énergétique ». Techniques de l'Ingénieurs, 16 pages BE8280 B. Ould Bouamama et G. Dauphin-Tanguy. « Modélisation par Bond Graph. Application aux systèmes énergétiques ». Techniques de l'Ingénieurs, 16 pages BE Bond graphs for Supervision Systems Design A.K. Samantaray and B. Ould Bouamama « Model-based Process Supervision. A Bond Graph Approach ». Springer Verlag, Series: Advances in Industrial Control, 490 p. ISBN: , Berlin B. Ould Bouamama et al.. « Model builder using Functional and bond graph tools for FDI design ». Control Engineering Practice, CEP, Vol. 13/7 pp B. Ould Bouamama et al.. " Supervision of an industrial steam generator. Part I: Bond graph modelling". Control Engineering Practice, CEP, Vol 14/1 pp 71-83, Part II: On line implementation, CEP, Vol 14/1 pp 85-96, B. Ould Bouamama et al. « Software for Supervision System Design In Process Engineering Industry. » 6th IFAC, SAFEPROCESS,, pp Beijing, China, 29-1 sept Few References

7 7 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » PART 1 INTRODUCTION & MOTIVATIONS Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

8 8 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SKILLS and OBJECTIVES Systemic approach for global analysis of complex multiphysic systems. Finding innovative solutions Reasoning based on analogy. Transversal skills on dynamic modeling of Engineering systems independently of their physical nature. Deduction in a systematic way state equations and their simulation diagram for nonlinear systems. Training with new software's tools for integrated design and simulation of industrial systems. Managing of multidisciplinary teams. Keywords : Bond Graphs, Mechatronics, Integrated design, Simulation, Dynamic Modelling, Automatic Control

9 9 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille ORGANISATION OF THE LECTURE Lecture : 16h Illustrated by pedagogical examples and real systems Case Studies : Dynamic vehicle Simulation, Active suspension active, Robotics, Power station, Hydraulic platform, …). Case Study : 14h Integrated design of simulation platform of multiphysical system using specific software's (Symbols2000, Matlab-Simulink..)

10 10 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Objectifs et organisation du cours 5/5 Required Knowledge : Physics : Conservative laws of mass, energy and momentum, thermal transfer, basis of mechanics, hydraulic, electricity, …. Basis of simulation : notion of causality, numerical simulation, … Differential calculus and integral

11 11 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Chapter 1 Introduction to integrated design of engineering systems

12 12 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» MotivationsMotivations Complexity of systems are due of coupling of multi energies (mechanical, electrical, thermal, hydraulic, …). Example : Power station : Why dynamic modeling ? Design, Analysis, Decision, Control, diagnosis, …. Which skills for this task Multidisciplinary project management Which kind of tool I is needed ? Structured, unified, generic, Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

13 13 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille What is Mechatronic Systems Mecatronics (« Meca »+ « Tronics » Engineering systems putting in evidence multiple skills Mechanics : Hydraulics, Thermal engineering, Mechanism, pneumatic Electronics : power electronics, Networks, converters AN/NA, Micro controllers, Automatic control : Linear and nonlinear control, Advanced control, Stability, … Computer Engineering : Real time implementation Why Mechatronics ? Integrating harmoniously those technologies, mechatronics allows to design new and innovative industrial products simpler, more economical, reliable and versatile (flexible) systems.

14 14 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Mechatronics ; Synergetic Effects Information technology System theory Automatic control Computer engineering Diagnosis Artificial Intelligence Software Electronics Power electronics, Networks, converters AN/NA, Micro controllers Actuators, Sensors Mechanics Hydraulics, Thermal engineering, Mechanism Pneumatic Mechanical elelents Precision mechanics MECHATRONICS

15 15 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Examples of Mechatronic systems Examples of Mechatronic systems include: Remotely controlled vehicles such as the Mars Rover A rover is a space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a planet or other astronomical body. Control of Take- off and up to exploration of Mars planet Remote control Embeded supervision,, net work communication Virtual simulation ….; Automation systems : Vehicle stability control; Automated landing of aircraft in adverse weather; Precision control of robots, Design of hybrid vehicle …;

16 16 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» From Electromecanical to Mechatronic systems Before 1950 Complex systems are studied as electromechanical sub systems Around 1950 Emergence of semi conductors, electronic control and power electronics Design of microcontrollers because of appearance of computer engineering. Possibility to design embedded control systems more efficient 1969 : Mechatronics was first introduced in Japan Yaskawa Electric Corporation

17 17 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Definition of Mechatronics Definition given by Rolf Isermann: The new integrated systems changed from electro-mechanical systems with discrete electrical and mechanical parts to integrated electronic- mechanical systems with sensors, actuators and digital microelectronics.

18 18 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» 18 \18 Methodology for testing Development of generic models and Control algorithms Industrial validation Validation using HiL Test Validation using SiL Test Validation using MiL

19 19 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Tests in Mechatronic systems Tests can be executed using Dynamic models (Model-in-the-Loop, MiL), Existing function (Software-in-the-Loop, SiL), Or a real industrial computer (Hardware-in-the-Loop, HiL) MiL (Model in the Loop) Test object : model Input signals are simulated Output signal values are saved to be compared to the expected values Automatic test execution through: – The development environment used for modeling Specific software's (MATLAB/Simulink )

20 20 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Cycle en V SiL (Software in the Loop) Test object: generated code Environment is simulated The inputs and outputs of the test object are connected to the test system The generated code is executed on a PC or on an evaluation board Automatic test execution through: – use of MATLAB/Simulink with Realtime Workshop) – Interfaces to external tools HiL (Hardware in the Loop) Test object: real ECU Environment simulation through environment models (e.g.: MATLAB/Simulink) Inputs and Outputs are connected to the HiL-Simulator Comparison of the ECU output values to the expected values Automatic test execution through the control software of the HiL-Simulator

21 21 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Bond Graphs : Tools for Integrated Design Bond graphs bond graph is an unified graphical language used for any kind of physical domain. The tool is confirmed as a structured approach for modeling and simulation of multidisciplinary systems. Bond graphs for modelling and more… Because of its architectural representation, causal and structural properties, bond graph modelling is used not only for modelling but for : Control analysis, diagnosis, supervision, alarm filtering Automatic generation of dynamic modelling and supervision algorithms Sizing Used today by industrial companies (PSA, Renault, EDF, IFP, CEA, Airbus,…).

22 22 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille LEVELS OF MODELLING 1. Technological 2. Physical Energy description ( Storagee, dissipation, …. 3. Mathematical 4. Algorithmic This level constructs the architecture of the system by the assembly of different sub- systems, which are the plant items (heat exchanger, boiler, pipe...). The technological level can be represented by the so-called word bond graph. The modelling uses an energy description of the physical phenomena based on basic concepts of physics such as dissipation of energy, transformation, accumulation, sources, …). Here, the bond graph is used as a universal language for all the domains of physics. Level is represented by the mathematical equations (algebraic and differential equations) which describe the system behavior. The algorithmic level is connected directly with information processing, indicates how the mathematical models are calculated

23 23 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille THE FOUR LEVELS IN THE BG REPRESENTATION A Word bond graph : technological level is used to make initial decisions about the representation of dynamic systems Indicates the major subsystems to be considered As opposite to block diagram the input and outputs are not a signals but a power variables to be used in the dynamic model A bond graph is a graphical model : physical level The phenomena are represented by bond graph elements (storage, dissipation, inertia etc..) From this graphical model (but having a deep physical knowledge) is deduced Dynamic equations (algebraic or differential) : mathematical level Simulation program (how the dynamic model will be calculated) is shown by causality assignment : Algorithmic level

24 24 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille WHAT WE CAN DO WITH BOND GRAPH ?

25 25 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille BOND GRAPH FOR ALARM FILTERING National Project : EDF-LAIL world-wide project: CHEM

26 26 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille THE EKOFISK JACKING OPERATION

27 27 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Raising of 6 decks and their interconnecting bridges simultaneously by 6,5 meters Heaviest platforms deck tons Raising to take place in summer 1987 Expected shut down 28 days A feasibility study in coordination with Phillips Petroleum Company. Norway, during the second half of 1985 The jacking operation

28 28 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL APLICATIONS Electrochemical integrated with transport sytem Nuclear power plant FCC process : Refinery Catalytic Cracking.

29 29 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Bond Graph for Integrated Supervision design Dynamic Models generation RRAs generation Sensor Placement Diagnosis Results New instrumentation architecture Process Real Time Implementation Datas from process Sensors P&ID Structural Analysis RRAs Technical specifications

30 30 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Dedied Software (FDiPad)

31 31 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Graphical User Interface (1/4) Architectural model Behavioral model Data base

32 32 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» 32 \ Graphical User Interface (2/4) Fault signature Residuals

33 33 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Architectural model

34 34 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS AND MONITORABILITY ANALYSIS

35 35 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Sensor placement

36 36 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» 36 \ Simulation interface

37 37 PART: 2 Bond Graph Theory CHAPTER 2: Bond Graph Theory Historic of bond graphs, Definition, representation Power variables, Energy Variables True and pseudo bond graph Bond graph and block diagram Basic elements of bond graph (R, C, I, TF, GY, Se, Sf, Junctions,….) Model Structure Knowledge Construction of Bond Graph Models in different domains (electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, …)

38 38 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLilleFoundersFounders J. Thoma

39 39 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille THE FIRST IDEA The first system used by Paynter teaching in the Civil Engineering Department at MIT and first ideas The first paper

40 40 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille HISTORIC OF BOND GRAPH MODELLING Founder of BG : Henry Paynter (MIT Boston) The Bond graph tool was first developed since 1961 at MIT, Boston, USA by Paynter April, 24, 1959) Symbolism and rules development : Karnopp (university of California), Rosenberg (Michigan university), Jean Thoma (Waterloo) Introduced in Europe only since Netherlands and France ( Alsthom ) Teaching in Europe, USA … France : Univ LyonI, INSA LYON, EC Lille, ESE Rennes, Univ. Mulhouse, PolytechLille, ….. University of London University of Enshede (The Netherlands) Companies using this tool Automobile company : PSA, Renault Nuclear company : EDF, CEA, GEC Alsthom Electronic :Thomson, Aerospace company....

41 41 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille DEFINITION, REPRESENTATION DEFINITION REPRESENTATION P = e.f e f 1 2 Mechanical power :

42 42 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Bond as power connection The power is represented by the BOND Bond The direction of positive power is noted by the half-arrow at the end of the bond direction of power

43 43 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Bonds activation INFORMATION BONDS INFORMATION BONDS The signal is represented as information bonds: no power Example : Sensors Example : Sensors Detector of effort Detector of effort such as pressure, voltage, temperature Detector of flow Detector of flow such as current, hydraulic flow Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

44 44 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Bond Graph model in block diagramme CORRECTOR ACTUATOR BOND GRAPH MODEL SENSOR C X Y Information system Energetic system

45 45 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Some definitions (1/2) BOND GRAPH MODELING Is the representation (by a bond) of power flows as products of efforts and flows with elements acting between. These variables and junction structures to put the system together. Bond graphs are labeled and directed graphs, in which the vertices represent submodels and the edges represent an ideal energy connection between power ports. C Edge (bond) C vertex Submodel (Component) E vertex Submodel (Component ) E

46 46 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Some definitions (2/2) The vertices are idealized descriptions of physical phenomena: they are concepts, denoting the relevant aspects of the dynamic behavior of the system. The edges are called bonds. They denote point-to-point connections between submodel ports. The bond transports a power as product of two generic energy variables Which generic variables are used ?

47 47 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille 1. Power variables Two multiports are connected by power interactions using Variables Power variables are classified in a universal scheme and to describe all types of multiports in a common language. Two conjugated variables Effort e(t) : voltage, temperature, pressure Flow f(t) : mass flow, current, entropy flow,

48 48 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » How to select them Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Tamb (J,f) Chimie, electrochimie Mécanique Thermique Électrique Economique Hydraulique Thermofluide Thermodynamique

49 49 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Electrical DOMAIN Mechanical (rotation) Hydraulic Chemical Thermal Economic Mechanical (translation) POWER VARIABLES FOR SEVERAL DOMAINS VOLTAGE u [V] CURRENT i [A] FORCE F [N] VELOCITY v [m/s] FLOW (f) EFFORT (e) TORQUE [Nm] [Nm] ANGULAR VELOCITY [rad/s] [rad/s] UNIT PRICE P u [$/unit] FLOW OF ORDERS f c [unit/period] PRESSURE P [pa] VOLUME FLOW dV/dt [m 3 /s] TEMPERATURE T [K] ENTROPY FLOW dS/dt [J/s] CHEM. POTENTIAL [J/mole ] [J/mole ] MOLAR FLOW dn/dt [mole/s]

50 50 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille 2. ENERGY VARIABLES The momentum or impulse p(t), (magnetic flow, integral of pressure, angular momentum, … ) The general displacement q(t), (mass, volume, charge … )

51 51 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Why energy variables ? ENERGY VARIABLES The momentum or impulse p(t), (magnetic flow, integral of pressure, angular momentum, … ) The general displacement q(t), (mass, volume, charge … ) Why energy variables ? Energy stored by a spring

52 52 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Electrical DOMAIN Mechanical (rotation) Hydraulic Chemical Thermal Economic Mechanical (translation) ENERGY VARIABLES FOR SEVERAL DOMAINS CHARGE q [Coulomb] FLUX Φ [Wb] DISPLACEMNT x [m] MOMENT J [Ns] Impulse (p) Displacement (q) ANGLE [rad ] [rad ] ANGULAR MOMENTUM [Nms] [Nms] accumulation of orders qe Economic momentum Pe VOLUME V [m 3 ] MOMENTUM p p Ns/m 2 Nbr of MOLE n [-] ? ENTROPY S [J/K] ?

53 53 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Energy variables : analogy P,V u,q Q,T x, F Displacement F, u, Impulse

54 54 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Why pseudo bond graph? In process engineering systems, each plant item is associated with a set of process variables. The number of variables is higher than DOF For hydraulic : Pressure-mass flow, volume flow For thermal: température, specific enthalpy _entropy flow, enthalpy flow, thermal flow, quality of steam…. For chemical : chemical potential, chemical affinity, molar flow… Complexity of used variables Use pseudo bond graphs allows to manipulate more intuitive variables and easily measurable (concentration, enthaly flow, …) therefore easy to simulate. Entropy is not conserved ….

55 55 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille PSEUDO BOND GRAPH Thermal Hydraulic PRESSURE P [ pa ] MASSE FLOW [ Kg /s ] Chemical CONCENTRATION C [ mole/m 3 ] MOLAR FLOW [ mole/s] TEMPERATURE T [K] HEAT FLOW [W ]CONDUCTION ENTHALPY FLOW [ W ] SPECIFIC ENTHALPY h [ J/kg ] CONVECTION TEMPERATURE T [K] FLOW (f) EFFORT (e) DOMAIN

56 56 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Pseudo energy variables Mass m stored by any accumulator, Total enthalpy (or internal energy) U stored by any heated tank, Number of moles n accumulated in a reactor. Thermal energy Q stored by any metallic body.

57 57 Let us learn bond graph language Go head

58 58 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille EXAMPLE1 : ELECTRICAL INDUCTION MOTOR uaua uiui iaia LOAD (J,f) ELECTRICAL PART MECHANICAL PART Inductor RaRa LaLa ELECTRICAL PART u a iaia MECHANICALPART LOAD

59 59 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille EXAMPLE 2: POWER STATION FEED WATER RECEIVER HEATER TH TH BOILER TW TW PW PW MOTOR TB TB PB PB TURB INE STEAM HEATER TURBINE PUMP TR TR PP PP PIPE TP TP PP PP PUMP RECEIVER Ui Load U i source

60 60 Where is the generecity ?

61 61 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille FEW ELEMENTS FOR A BIG PURPUSE 61 \ Tamb (J,f) Se Sf Se RS R R R R R TF GY I I I I C C C C

62 62 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille BOND GRAPH ELEMENTS ACTIVE ELEMENTS Generate and Provide a power to the system SfSe One port element R,C,I, Se,Sf 0,1 Tree ports element BOND GRAPH ELEMENTS PASSIVE ELEMENTS (transform received power into dissipated (R) or stored (C, I) energy RCI TF, GY Two ports element JUNCTIONS Connect different elements of the systems : are power conserving TF, GY0,1 They are not a material point (common effort (0) and common flow ((1) Energy transformation or transformation from one domaine to another

63 63 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Bond graph well suited automated modelling JunctionsJunctions Passive elements Active elements JunctionsJunctions SYMBOLS DEMOS

64 64 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Passive elements Representation Definition The bond graph elements are called passive because they transform received power into dissipated power (R-element), stored under potential energy (C-element) or kinetic (I-element).

65 65 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille R element (resistor, hydraulic restriction, friction losses …) v1v1 v2v2 i ELECTRICAL R Constitutive equation : For modeling any physical phenomenon characterized by an effort-flow relation ship f R:R 1 Representation e HYDRAULIC p1p1 p2p2 T1T1 T2T2 THERMAL

66 66 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Examples of R elements Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

67 67 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille BUFFERSBUFFERS C Constitutive equation (For modeling any physical phenomenon characterized by a relation ship between effort and flow C Constitutive equation (For modeling any physical phenomenon characterized by a relation ship between effort and flow C element (capacitance) Examples: A) C element (capacitance) Examples: tank, capacitor, compressibilityELECTRIC i1i1 i2i2 C i HYDRAULIC h A: section h: level : density C= A/ g p f C:C 1 Representation e THERMAL mcTmcT

68 68 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Examples of C elements Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

69 69 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille f I:I 1 Representation Representation e I Constitutive equation (For modeling any physical phenomenon characterized by a relation ship between flow and effort I Constitutive equation (For modeling any physical phenomenon characterized by a relation ship between flow and effort Inertance : I element ELECTRIC V1V1 V2V2 i p1p1 p2p2 HYDRAULIC l MECHANICAL F : Magnetic flux p : impulsion of pressure Q : momentum

70 70 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Tetrahedron of State 4 variables : e, f, p, q 3 Bg elements : R, C, I

71 71 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille TRANSFORMER Convert energy as well in one physical domain as well between one physical domain and another Examples Examples: lever, pulley stem, gear pair, electrical transformer, change of physical domain…. Representation Representation f1f1 TF:m e1e1 f2f2 e2e2 Defining relation e 1 = m.e 2, e 1 = m.e 2, f 2 = m.f 1 f 2 = m.f 1 Where m : modulus Simple transformer Modulated transformer (m is not cste) f1f1 MTF:m e1e1 f2f2 e2e2 u Defining relation e 1 = m(u).e 2, e 1 = m(u).e 2, f 2 = m(u).f 1 f 2 = m(u).f 1

72 72 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille EXAMPLES OF TRANSFORMERS TF:m TF:b/a F2F2 F1F1 u1u1 u2u2 i2i2 i1i1 Electrical transformer Hydraulic piston TF:A Hydraulic power is transducted into mechanical power A : area of the piston F2F2 F1F1 ab Lever

73 73 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille 4. GYRATOR Convert energy as well in one physical domain as well between one physical domain and another Examples Examples: Gyroscope, Hall effect sensor, change of physical domain…. Representation Representation f1f1 GY:r e1e1 f2f2 e2e2 Defining relation e 1 = rf 2 e 1 = rf 2 e 2 = rf 1 e 2 = rf 1 Where r : modulus f1f1 MGY:r e1e1 f2f2 e2e2 u Modulated Gyrator (if r is not cste) Defining relation e 1 = r(u)f 2 e 1 = r(u)f 2 e 2 = r(u)f 1 e 2 = r(u)f 1

74 74 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille u i GY:r u i = ri = K(i ind )i MGY:r u i i ind r = K(i ind ) MODULATED GYRATYOR Example of gyrator : DC motor

75 75 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille ACTIVATED ELEMENTS (1/2) EFFORT AND FLOW SOURCES Se, Sf A source maintains one of power variables constant or a specified function of time no matter how large the other variable may be. Effort source Se 1. Effort source Se Generator of voltage, gravity force, pump, battery... f Se e Se = e(t) f MSe e Modulated effort source Modulated effort source u Se = e(t,u) Simple effort source

76 76 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille ACTIVATED ELEMENTS (2/2) source Sf 2. Flow source Sf Current generator, applied velocity.. Representation Representation f Sf e Sf = f(t) f MSf e Modulated flow source Modulated flow source u Sf = f(t,u) Simple flow source

77 77 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille 0 - JUNCTION Common effort junction 0 - JUNCTION Common effort junction Power conservation a i = +1 if 0 a i = -1 if 0 0 e1e1 e2e2 e3e3 e4e4 f1f1 f2f2 f4f4 Representation Representation f3f3 JUNCTIONS (1/5) Defining relation

78 78 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Jonction 0 : Loi de conservation dénérgie 0 C:Ct Bilan é nerg é tique 0 C:Ch Bilan massique Cas dynamique 0 Bilan massique.P3.P3.P1.P1 P2P2 Cas statique 0 Bilan é nerg é tique

79 79 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » : JUNCTIONS (2/5) : Examples of 0-junction E C R ii1i1 i2i2 0 E i i1i1 E i2i2 E R C Se:E Se:E i = i 1 + i 2 0 C:1/k 0 P P P 1 I:M c McMc MpMp Se:Fr C:1/k 1 I:M p Se:Fr

80 80 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille 1 e1e1 e2e2 e3e3 e4e4 f1f1 f2f2 f4f4 1 - JUNCTION Common flow junction 1 - JUNCTION Common flow junction Representation Representation Defining relation Power conservation a i = +1 if 0 a i = -1 if 0 : JUNCTIONS (3/5) : 1 JUNCTION

81 81 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille : JUNCTIONS (4/5) : Examples of 1-junction 1 P1P1 P2P2 1 R:R 1 R:R 2 P 2 -P 3 P3P3 P 1 -P 3 P1P1 P2P2 P3P3 R1R1 R2R2 E C R L URUR ULUL UCUC i 1 E i i i Se:E Se:E E =U R + U L + U C URUR R L C ULUL UCUC i k M F(t) b 1 F FRFR FCFC C:1/k I:M R:b FMFM

82 82 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Junction 1 : thermal system 1 T1T1 T2T2 R TRTR T1T1 T2T2 Cas statique Cas dynamique 1 T1T1 T2T2 R TRTR TCTC C

83 83 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » ExerciseExercise L1L1 E C1C1 R1R1 i1i1 i2i2 i4i4 R3R3 L2L2 i3i3 i6i6 R2R2 C2C2 k mg MpMp i5i5

84 84 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille : JUNCTIONS (5/5) : Physical interpretation of the junction elements Electrical circuits 0-junction : Kirchoffs currents law 1-junction : Kirchoffs voltage law Mechanical systems 0-junction : Geometric compatibility for a situation involving a single force and several velocities which algebraically sum to zero 1-junction : Dynamic equilibrium of forces associated with a single velocity (Newtons law when an inertia element is involved). Hydraulic systems 0-junction : Conservation of volume flow rate 1-junction : requirement that the sum of pressure drops around a circuit involving a single flow must sum algebraically to zero.

85 85 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Structural Model u y D in D out Sources Se, Sf Structure de Jonction 0, 1, TF, GY Dissipation dénergie R Stockage dénergie I, C Capteurs De, Df

86 86 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SummarySummary

87 87 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille BUILDING ELECTRICAL MODELS 1.Fix a reference direction for the current, it will be used as power direction 2.For each node in circuit with a distinct potential create a 0-junction 3.Insert 1-junction between two 0-junctions, attach all bond graph elements submitted to the potential difference (C,I,R,Se,Sf elements) to this 1-junction 4.Assign power directions to all bonds 5.For explicit ground potential, delete corresponding 0-junction and its adjacent bonds. If non explicit ground potential is shown, choose any 0-junction and delete it 6.Simplify resulting bond graph (remove extraneous junctions); for example is replaced by 1 1 Hydraulic, thermal systems similar, but mechanical different

88 88 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Simplifications of Bond graphs 0 1 Example of simplification 0 1 C 0 C C 1 R C 0 1 R C 0 R C 0 R

89 89 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Electrical circuit : Example1 E R1R1 b a g C b 0 g 0 (2) a R:R 1 C Se:E a 0 b 0 g 0 (3,4) R:R 1 C Se:E a 0 b 0 (5) 1 R:R 1 C Se:E (6) (1)

90 90 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Electrical circuit : EXAMPLE2 1 R:R 1 uR1uR1 Se:E E i R1 i C1 0 C:C 1 u C1 i R1 1 I:L 1 i L1 u L1 u C1 i L1 1 TF I:L 2 R:R 2 L1L1 E C1C1 R1R1 0 i R1 i C1 i L1 R2R2 L2L2

91 91 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Electrical circuit : Example3 L1L1 SE C1C1 R1R1 i R1 i C1 R2R2 C2C2 SF i R2 i C2 SF

92 92 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille BUILDING MECHANICAL MODELS 1.Fix a reference axis for velocities 2.Consider all different velocities ( absolute velocities for mass and inertia and relative velocities for others). 3.For each distinct velocity, establish a 1-junction, Attach to the 1-junction corresponding Bond graph elements 4.Express the relationships between velocities. Add 0-junction (used to represent those relationships) for each relationship between 1-junctions 5.Place sources 6.Link all junctions taking into account the power direction 7.Eliminate any zero velocity 1-junctions and their bonds 8.Simplify bond graph by condensing 2-ports 0 and 1-junctions into bonds : for example : is replaced by 1 1

93 93 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Mechanical system : EXAMPLE (1/2) g k f V ref V1V1 (2) 1 1 V ref V1V1 1 VkVk 1 VfVf C:1/k I:M R:f (3) Relationship between velocities (4) 1 1 V ref V1V1 1 VkVk 1 VfVf C:1/k I:M R:f 0 Se:-Mg Sf (5,6) 0 V1V1 V ref V1V1

94 94 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Mechanical system : EXAMPLE (2/2) (Simplifications) 1 1 V ref V1V1 VkVk VfVf C:1/k I:M R:f 0 Se:-Mg Sf 0 V1V1 V ref V1V1 1 V 1- V ref Sf V ref 0 1 VfVf R:f VkVk C:1/k 1 V1V1 Se:-Mg I:M Se:-Mg 1 R:f C:1/k I:M Eliminate any zero velocity 1-junctions and their bonds V1V1 VfVf VkVk Simplification

95 95 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Exercise 1 : mechanical 1 R:f1 C:1/k1 C:1/k3 R:f2 I:Mb I:Ma Se:-F(t) C:1/k2 x Ma k2k2 k3k3 k1k1 f1f1 f2f2 Mb F(t) m1m1 m2m2 m3m3 R3R3 k1k1 k2k2 k3k3 + Vref=0 m 1,f 1 m 2,f 2 m 3,f 3

96 96 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Electro-mechanical sytem IFIF 1 R:Ra I:La Se:U F IFIF URUR UIUI 1 R:Ra I:La Se:U A IAIA URUR UIUI UmUm IAIA 1 R:B I:J Se:Load m m R I

97 97 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Exercise 3 : Hydro-mechanical and suspension R4R4 C1C1 C2C2 C3C3 Se 1 Sf R7R7 R5R5 R6R6 Air Pompe P 1 Piston Cylindre Compresseur Atmosphère Se 2 :P 0 Arbre De:L MpMp McMc MpMp Sf:Fr C:1/k R:Ra

98 98 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille BUILDING HYDRAULIC MODELS 1.Fix for the fluid a power direction 2.For each distinct pressure establish a 0-junction (usually there are tank, compressibility, ….) 3.Place a 1-junction between two 0-junctions and attach to this junction components submitted to the pressure difference 4.Add pressure and flow sources 5.Assign power directions 6.Define all pressures relative to reference (usually atmospheric) pressure, and eliminate the reference 0-junction and its bonds 7.Simplify the bond graph

99 99 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Hydraulic system : EXAMPLE (1/2) Inertia I Resistance R 1 Resistance R 2 Pump P1P1 P2P2 P3P3 P4P4 P at Se:P 1 0 P1P1 0 P2P2 0 P3P3 0 P4P4 P at R:R 1 I 1 R:R 2 C C Se:P 1 1 R:R 1 11 IR:R 2 0 C Se:P 1 R:R 1 1 I R:R 2 C

100 100 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille EXAMPLES OF BG MODELS : Hydraulic 0 C:C R R:R 1 Se:P PP I : l/A 1 P P -P R PRPR PRPR Se:-P 0 P0P0 1 R:R 2 P R -P 0 Valve 1 R2R2R2R2 Pump P PRPR LC P0P0 De PID

101 101 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille EXERCISES : Mechanical (pneumatic valve) Vanne u(t) x(t) Block diagramme Pe : pressure from controller (0,2 -1 bar ) x : valve position [0-6 mm] f : friction m : mass of part in motion [kg] 1 : Rubbery membrane of section A [m²] 2 : Spring of elasticity coefficient Ke [ kgf/m ] 3 : Stem, 4 : packing of watertightness, 5 : seating of valve, 6 : valve 7 : pipe

102 102 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille EXERCISES : Bond graph model of the pneumatic valve Se:Pe 1 C:1/ke FkFk R:f FfFf Df x PePe Pneumatic energy TF: A F Mechanical energy I:m FIFI

103 103 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille EXERCISES : Hydraulic control system PID 0,2 -1 bar psi Pe x LT PRPR P0P0

104 104 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille EXERCISES : Bond graph model of the hydraulic system 0 1 R:R V C:C R 1 C:ke FkFk De:P 0 x PePe TF: A F I:m FIFI R:f FfFf PID u

105 105 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille EXERCISES Hydraulic systems

106 106 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille EXAMPLES OF BG MODELS :Thermal C:C b 0 TSTS R:R a 1 TSTS T S - T a Se:-T a TaTa TSTS TsTs TaTa Source of heat

107 107 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille PART 3 CAUSALITY CHAPTER 3: Causalities and dynamic model Definitions and causality principle Sequential Causality Assignment Procedure (SCAP) Bicausal Bond Graph From Bond Graph to bloc diagram, State-Space equations generation Examples

108 108 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille CAUSALITIESCAUSALITIES Definition direction of the efforts and flows Causal analysis is the determination of the direction of the efforts and flows in a BG model. The result is a causal BG which can be considered as a compact block diagram. From causal BG we can directly derive an equivalent block diagram. It is algorithmic level of the modeling. Problematic Importance of causal proprieties Simulation Alarm filtering Monitoringability Controllability Observability

109 109 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille ConventionConvention A B e A B System A impose an effort e to system B e The causal stroke is placed near (respectively far from) the bond graph element for which the effort (respectively flow) in known. f Cause effect relation : effort pushes, response is a flow Indicated by causal stroke on a bond Effort pushes Flow points

110 110 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille PRINCIPLEPRINCIPLE

111 111 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille CALCULATION EXAMPLE PRPR P R P1P1 P P2P2 R:K 1 P1P1 P2P2 P R R:K 1 P1P1 P1P1 P

112 112 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Remarks about causalities the orientation of the half arrow and the position of the causal stroke are independent the orientation of the half arrow and the position of the causal stroke are independent e f A B e f A B A B e System A impose effort e to B A B f System A impose flow f to B e f

113 113 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Causality for basic multiports Required causality Required causality The sources impose always one causality, imposed effort by effort sources and imposed flow by flow sources. Indifferent causality (applied to R element) Indifferent causality (applied to R element) Conductance causality u R i eFi R 1 )( 1 f R e fe ef f e R Resistance causality f Se e f Sf e

114 114 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Integral and derivative causality Preferred (integral) Preferred (integral) causality causality f C e f eI e f C e f e fI f e Derivative

115 115 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Causalities for 1-junction Only 1 bond without causal stroke near 1 - junction Rule 1 e1e1 e2e2 e3e3 e4e4 f1f1 f2f2 f4f4 f3f3 Causal Bond Graph model Strong bond 1-Junction e1e1 e4e4 e3e3 f2f2 Block diagram

116 116 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Causalities for 0-junction Only 1 causal stroke near 0 - junction Rule 0 e1e1 e3e3 e4e4 f1f1 e2e2 f4f4 f3f3 f2f2 0-Junction f1f1 f4f4 f3f3 e2e2 Block diagram Strong bond

117 117 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille TF JUNCTION f1f1 TF:m e1e1 f2f2 e2e2 Defining relation e 1 = m.e 2 e 1 = m.e 2 f 2 = m.f 1 f 2 = m.f 1 Where m : modulus 2 CAUSALITY SITUATIONS If e 2 and f 1 are known : If e 2 and f 1 are known : e1e1 m e2e2 f2f2 m f1f1 f1f1 TF:m e1e1 f2f2 e2e2 f2f2

118 118 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille CAUSALITY OF TF JUNCTION If e 1 and f 2 are known : f2f2 TF:m e2e2 e1e1 f1f1 e2e2 1/m e1e1 f1f1 f2f2 RULE : A symmetrical position of the causal stroke

119 119 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille CAUSALITY OF GY JUNCTION 2 CAUSALITY SITUATIONS If f 2 and f 1 are known : If f 2 and f 1 are known : e1e1 r f2f2 e2e2 r f1f1 f1f1 GY:r e1e1 f2f2 e2e2 f2f2 f1f1 GY:r e1e1 f2f2 e2e2 Defining relation e 1 = r.f 2 e 1 = r.f 2 e 2 = r.f 1 e 2 = r.f 1 Where r : modulus

120 120 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille CAUSALITY OF GY JUNCTION If e 1 and e 2 are known : If e 1 and e 2 are known : f2f2 GY:r e2e2 e1e1 f1f1 f2f2 1/r e1e1 f1f1 e2e2 RULE : Skew - symmetrical position of the causal stroke

121 121 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Sequential Causality Assignment Procedure (SCAP) Apply a fixed causality to the source elements Se and Sf Apply a preferred causality to C and I elements. With simulation, we prefer to avoid differentiation. In other words, with the C-element the effort-out causality is prefered and with I -element the effort in causality is preferred. Extend the causality through the nearly junction, 0, 1, TF an GY Assign a causality to R element which have indifferent causality. It these operations give a derivative causality on one element, It is usually better to add other elements (R) in order to avoid causal conflicts. This elements must have a physical means (thermal losses, resistance …).

122 122 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille e f Power variables show the type of energy Four Information given by BG A B There exists a physical link between A and B A supplies power to B Flow is input for B and effort is output

123 123 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » From BG to Bloc Diagram (1/2) Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

124 124 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » From BG to Bloc Diagram (2/2) Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

125 125 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Application to Electrical system : BG model E(t) L C R1R1 R2R2 V(t) Se:E(t) E(t) 1 1 I:L 2 R:R R:R 2 5 C 6 1. BOND GRAPH MODEL De:e 6

126 126 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Application to Electrical system:State equation u xyxy 2. STATE EQUATIONS Structural laws - 1 junction - 0 junction Constitutive equations

127 127 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Application to Electrical system : Block Diagram (1/2) E C L R2R2 U(t) R1R1 1 I:L Se:E E R:R 2 R:R C f6f6 f5f5 - Se:E e2e2 e3e e1e1 e4e4 f2f2 f2(0) e6e6 e 6 (0) 1-Junction e 2 =e 1 -e 3 -e 4 f 2 =f 1 =f 3 =f 4 0-Junction f 6 =f 4 -f 5 e 6 =e 4 =e 5

128 128 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Application to Electrical system : Block Diagram (2/2) Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Causal graph Bloc Diagram

129 129 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Application to Hydraulic system: BG model Se:P PP De:P C u PID P ref PCPC + - Pump P0P0 PC P0P0 PCPC R2R2R2R2 R1R1R1R1 P l 1 PI1PI1 R:R 1 I:I 1 PR1PR1 PCPC 0 C:C R PCPC P0P0 1 R:R 2 P R2 Se:-P 0 Atmosphere

130 130 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Application Hydraulic system: Block Diagram 1 junction 0 junction 1 junction Structural laws Calcul de C R et I 1 Constitutive equations I:I 1 C:C R R:R 1 R:R 2

131 131 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Application Hydraulic system: Block Diagram Se:P PP De:P C u PID P ref PCPC PI1PI1 R:R 1 I:I 1 PR1PR1 PCPC 0 C:C R PCPC 1 R:R 2 P R2 Se:-P 0 P0P0 Atmosphere Se:P P PCPC P R1 P Se:-P 0 P R2 PCPC P I1

132 132 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille EXAMPLE (How to avoid derivative causality ?) E C i iCiC UCUC E C R i iCiC UCUC C 0 E i UCUC Se:E iCiC Derivative causality Current infinite ? R 1 E iRiR uRuR iRiR 0 uCuC iRiR iCiC C uCuC Se:E Integral causality adding R

133 133 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Derivative causality : example 1 TF TF:b/a 1 Se:F(t) I:M 1 I:M 2 C:1/k 1 Se:F(t) I:M 1 TF TF:b/a 1 I:M 2 C:1/k 0 C

134 134 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Transfer Function Se:E E i R1 1 R:R 1 uR1uR1 i R1 0 u C1 i R1 i C1 C:C 1 u C1 Causal Bond Graph Model E C1C1 R1R1 iRiR iCiC U C1 Schematic Equations from causal BG There is one C element in integral causality, so the differntial equation is the 1 st order (one state variable) C element in integral causality R element in conductance causality i R1 =U R1 /R 1 Junction 1 Junction 0

135 135 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille State Equations SENSORS ACTUATORS u CORRECTOR PROCESS x y ycyc X-x System to be controlled M A Bond graph

136 136 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille STATE EQUATION The state vector, denoted by x, is composed by the variables p (impulse) and q (displacement), the energy variables of C- and I-elements. Properties the state vector does not appear on the Bond graph, but only its derivative The dimension of the state vector is equal to the number of C- and I- elements in integral causality

137 137 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille HOW TO OBTAIN STATE EQUATION WRITE STRUCTURAL LAWS ASSOCIAED WITH JUNCTION (0,1, TF, GY) CONSTITUTIVES EQUATIONS OF EACH ELEMENT (R, C, I) TO COMBINE THOSE DIFFERENTS LAWS TO OBTAIN STATE EQUATION

138 138 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille ApplicationApplication Se:U a iaia uaua 1 L I:J R:f Se:- L f J 1 R:R a I:L a uMuM iaia u Ra u La iaia Df:i m Df: m MGY:K r = k(i F )

139 139 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille STATE EQUATION Equations from causal BG There is 2 I element in integral causality, so there is 2 state variable I element in integral causality R element in conductance causality MGY 1- Junction State equation

140 140 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SIMULATIONSIMULATION Use of Symbols software Automatic generation of the state equation

141 141 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Application : do it 1 R:R 1 uR1uR1 Se:E E i R1 i C1 0 C:C 1 u C1 i R1 u L1 1 I:L 1 i L1 u C1 i L1 TF :m u R2 i R2 1 R:R 2 C:C 2 0 us L1L1 E(t) C1C1 R1R1 i R1 i C1 i L1 R2R2 Us(t) i R2 C2C2 De:Us(t) S-FUNCTION FROM SYMBOLS S-FUNCTION FROM SYMBOLS BLOCK_DIAGRAM SIMULINK BLOCK_DIAGRAM SIMULINK COMPARAISON SYMBOLS_SIMULINK COMPARAISON SYMBOLS_SIMULINK

142 142 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille COUPLED BOND GRAPHS CHAPTER 4: Coupled energy bond graph Representation and complexity Thermofluid sources, Thermofluid Multiport R, C Examples PART 4

143 143 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille INTRODUCTION TO MULTIPORT ELEMENT SINGLE BOND GRAPH : One energy e f ä The constitutive relation is scalar MULTIBOND GRAPH : more than one energy ä Representation : A bond coupled by a ring ä The constitutive relation is matrix e 1, e 2... f 1, f 2... e 1, e 2... f 1, f 2... e1e1 f1f1 enen eiei f2f2 fnfn

144 144 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Coupled bond graph Constitutive equations C C Chemical Hydraulic Thermal C C

145 145 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Coupled Bond graphs Representation

146 146 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Convection Heat transfer (1/2) eneral expression for convected energy G eneral expression for convected energy Internal specific energy Pressure energy Kinetic energy

147 147 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Convection Heat transfer (2/2) Modeling Hypothesis

148 148 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Coupling of thermofluid variables 1 Rc

149 149 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Thermofluid pump Bond graph models A) Modulated source Pump as single flow source 1 Rc B) Using R Multiport

150 150 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » d Activated bonds C) Use of an activated element f 1 1 e 1

151 151 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » SOFTWARE REPRESENTATION Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

152 152 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » d How to modelise a sensor ? 0 C 1 2 I 3 e Hydraulic system case PI

153 153 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » d SOFTWARE REPRESENTATION

154 154 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille How to represent it in Symbols2000 ? 1

155 155 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Example of multiport elements R MULTIPORT Representation R R 1

156 156 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Constitutive equation for R-multiport Physical law ( Continuity) Physical law ( Continuity) Constitutive equation Constitutive equation

157 157 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Inertia of the fluid Rc Thermal power Hydraulic power 1 R I Impulse of pressure p

158 158 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Dynamic bond graph model of the pipe Fluid moving with inertia

159 159 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Bond graph model of the pipe Global Model Step response for hydraulic model to pressure difference

160 160 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille C - MULTIPORTS H,m Heater CRepresentation C 0 BG model Input Output Constitutive equations

161 161 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Thermofluid example : heated tank Pe Po=0 H,m Two ports C Tex One ports C Q State variables I element : p

162 162 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Bond graph model De:TDe:L C R c R:R ex RmRm Ambiance C Environnement Se:P 0 =0 R:R s R c R:R e I:I

163 163 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Constitutive equations (1/4) Constitutive equations (1/4) Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Jonction 1 1 Elém ent R :Re Jonction 0 1 Elément I:l/A

164 164 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Constitutive equations (2/4) Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Jonction 0 2 Multiport C : C R niveau dans le réservoir indiqué par le capteur De :L

165 165 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Constitutive equations (3/4) Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Capacité thermique Température indiquée par le capteur De :T Jonction 1 2 Vanne de réglage R :Rs Eléments R : Rm et R :Ra

166 166 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Constitutive equations (4/4) Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille J onction 1 3 et 1 4 Elément C :Cm : stockage dénergie Q par le métal du réservoir Jonction 0 3 Eléments de couplage R C1 et R C2

167 167 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Global Dynamic Model Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

168 168 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Simulation using State equations format Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille SimulinkSimulink Generation of S-function from Symbols2000

169 169 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » From BG to Block Diagram Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille EXO SUR SYMBOLS

170 170 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » SYSTEMES CHIMIQUES Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

171 171 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Physico chemical processes (1/4) n c constituents Types of applications : distillation column, fuel cell,.. Variables Parameters

172 172 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Physico chemical processes (2/4) Thermique Hydraulique Mixture A) Used variables Chemical Constituents B) Mixture to constituents transformation ?

173 173 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Physico chemical processes (3/4) 1 e e e e Mixture (gaz) Specie 1 Specie i Specie n c e e D) Use a transformer Bloc C) Use a bloc diagramme

174 174 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Physico chemical processes (4/4) Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille 1 Rc INPUTINPUT Gaz (mixture) 0 C C 1 Rc OUTPUTOUTPUT

175 175 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Chemical system RS 11 Recepteur R el 1 C:C A C:C B C:C C C:C D 1

176 176 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Electrochemical Process Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

177 177 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Electrochemical Model Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Chimique-électrique Production H2O Distribution de la tension

178 178 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Integrated models

179 179 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille ThermoéconomieThermoéconomie Thermoéconomie : modeste contribution [cf. réfence : Oud bouamama « Integrated Bond graph modelling in Process Engineering linked with Economic System ». European Simulation Multiconference ESM'2000, pp , Ghent (Belgique), Mai 2000 ] Heater Market place Reactor Inlet Outlet

180 180 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Chemical model

181 181 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Thermofluid model

182 182 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Economic model FA m Reinvestment R:R T DC 1 FA 10 /0 CUC mP R:R SC Supplier Factory inventory P UC C m P SC P FA P IA DC m SC m IA m Fromhydraulic model I:I A C:C

183 183 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Global integrated model

184 184 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

185 185 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » 185 PART 5 Application to industrial processes CHAPTER 5: Application to industrial processes Electrical systems Mechanical and electromechanical systems Process Engineering processes : power station

186 186 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» BG Methodology Of modeling complex system

187 187 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Thermal system Electrical analogy Thermal system : bath of water heated by a source of temperature

188 188 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Word bond graph of the thermal process Cas 1 : Thermal bond graph of the process neglecting the thermal capacity of the wall

189 189 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» EquationsEquations Structural equations Constitutive equations

190 190 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» State equations

191 191 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Block diagram

192 192 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» CHAP4 / 192 Refinement of the model by adding bond graph elements As an example, we can include the thermal capacity of the wall of the bath 1.

193 193 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» STATE EQUATIONS

194 194 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Automated modelling using Symbols

195 195 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Link with Matlab-Simulink

196 196 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Easy to derive a model adding new elements

197 197 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Electrical system 1 R:R 1 uR1uR1 Se:E E i R1 i C1 0 C:C 1 u C1 i R1 u L1 1 I:L 1 i L1 u C1 i L1 TF :m u R2 i R2 1 R:R 2 C:C 2 0 us L1L1 E(t) C1C1 R1R1 i R1 i C1 i L1 R2R2 Us(t) i R2 C2C2 De:Us(t) SIMULATION using MATLAB SIMULATION using MATLAB SIMULATION using Symbols2000 SIMULATION using Symbols2000

198 198 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Mechanical system x1x1 x2x2 k1k1 k2k2 m2m2 m1m1 1 F2F2 I:m I:m 1 0 C:k 2 C:k 1 Se:- m 2 g Fm 2 Se F m1 F1F1 g 1 F2F2 I:m I:m 1 C:k 2 C:k 1 Se:- m 2 g Fm 2 F m1 F1F1 Se:- m 1 g

199 199 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Mechanical example x1x1 x2x2 k1k1 k2k2 m2m2 m1m1 g 1 I:m I:m 1 C:k 2 C:k 1 Se: m 2 g Fm 2 F m1 Se: m 1 g F k1 F k2

200 200 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» Do it

201 201 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs.» BuildingBuilding Source of heat T ROOM T amb T ref PID R radiator T RAD R losses R room Sensor + -

202 202 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille PART 6 Automated modelling CHAPTER 6: Automated Modeling and Structural analysis Bond Graph Software's for dynamic model generation Integrated Design for Engineering systems Bond Graph for Structural analysis (Diagnosis, Control, …) Application

203 203 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Why Bond graph is well suited The bond graph model : can be supported by specific software: the model can be graphically introduced in the software and generate automatically the dynamic model. It can be completely and automatically transformed into a simulation program for the problem to be analyzed or controlled or monitored. See Bond graph suited for automatic modelling Graphical tool Unified language Causal and structural properties Systematic derivation of equations

204 204 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Main Softwares (1/5) CAMP-G : The Universal Bond Graph Preprocessor for Modeling and Simulation of Mechatronics Systems. CAMP-G : The Universal Bond Graph Preprocessor for Modeling and Simulation of Mechatronics Systems. 20-sim : Twente Sim the simulation package from the University of Twente. 20-sim : Twente Sim the simulation package from the University of Twente. Dymola : BG modeling software from Dynasim AB Dymola : BG modeling software from Dynasim AB MS1 : BG modeling software from Lorenz Simulation MS1 : BG modeling software from Lorenz Simulation SYMBOLS 2000 : SYstem Modeling in BOndgraph Language and Simulation

205 205 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Main Softwares (2/5) ENPORT ( From RosenCode Associates, Inc) The is the first bond graph modeling and simulation software written in the early seventies by Prof. R.C.RosenbergProf. R.C.Rosenberg Sftware did not request causalities to be specified, and it transformed the topological input description into a branch admittance matrix which could then be solved. Not available in a commercial ARCHER determination of structural controllability, observability and invertibily of linear models. It is a high quality academic work based on the research at the "Ecole Centrale de Lille" catering mostly to automatic control theory Not commercially available. Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

206 206 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Main Softwares (3/5) CAMP-G : The Universal Bond Graph Preprocessor for Modeling and Simulation of Mechatronics Systems. CAMP-G : The Universal Bond Graph Preprocessor for Modeling and Simulation of Mechatronics Systems. is a model generating tool that interfaces with Languages such as MATLAB® / SIMULINK®, ACSL® and others to perform computer simulations of physical and control systems Based on a good GUI, doesn't support object based modeling. Equations derived are neither completely reduced nor sorted properly. 20-sim : Twente Sim the simulation package from the University of Twente. Modeling and simulation program that runs under Windows. Advanced modeling and simulation package for dynamic systems that supports iconic diagrams, bond graphs, block diagrams, equation models or any combination of these. allows interaction with SIMULINK®. good product recommended for modeling of small to medium sized systems. The graphics and hard copy output quality is poor. Not control analysis support. Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

207 207 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Main Softwares (4/5) Bond graph tool box for Mathematica this toolbox features a complete embedding of graphical bond graph in the Mathematica symbolic environment and notebook interface Mathematica Till review, the tool box did only support basic bond graph elements and junction structures. Recommended for tutorial use in modeling of very small simple systems. MS1 : BG modeling software from Lorenz Simulation MS1 : BG modeling software from Lorenz Simulation is a modeling workbench developed in partnership with EDF (Electricité de France), which allows free combination of Bond Graph, Block Diagram and Equations for enhanced flexibility in model development. Models can be introduced in Bond Graph, Block Diagram or directly as equations MS1 performs a symbolic manipulation of the model (using a powerful causality analysis engine) and generates the corresponding simulation code. Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

208 208 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Main Softwares (5/5) Modelica : Object-Oriented Physical System Modeling Language Modelica : Object-Oriented Physical System Modeling Language This is a language designed for multi domain modeling developed by the Modelica Association, a non-profit organization with seat in Linköping, Sweden. Models in Modelica are mathematically described by differential, algebraic and discrete equations. SYMBOLS 2000 : SYstem Modeling in BOndgraph Language and Simulation SYMBOLS 2000 : SYstem Modeling in BOndgraph Language and Simulation Allows users to create models using bond graph, block-diagram and equation models. Large number of advanced sub-models called Capsules are available for different engineering and modeling domains.Capsules has a well-developed controls module, that automatically transforms state-space modules from BG or block diagram models and converts them to analog or digital transfer functions. Most control charts and high-level control analysis can be performed. This software is recommended for use in research and industrial modeling of large systems. FDI analysis tool boox is developed by B. OUL DBOUAMAMA & A.K. Samantaray Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille

209 209 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Some demonstrations using SYMBOLS 2000 From BG model to Matlab S-function GUI interface

210 210 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Simulation in Matlab DEMONSTRATION Electrical system Mechanical system : suspension Electromechanical system : DC motor Hydraulic system

211 211 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille PART 7 Conclusions

212 212 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Why Bond graph is well suited Modelling Unified representation language Shows up explicitly the power flows Makes possible the energetic study Structures the modeling procedure Makes easier the dialog between specialists of differents physical domains Makes simpler the building of models for multi-disiplinary systems Shows up explicitly the cause - to efect relations (causality) Leads to a systematic writing of mathematical models (linear or non linear associated Identification No black box model identification of unknown parameters, but knowledge of the associated physical phenomena Physical meaning for the obtained model

213 213 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Why Bond graph is well suited Analysis Putting to the fore the causality problems, and therefore the numerical problems Estimation of the dynamic of the model and identification of the slow and fast variables Study of structural properties choice and positioning of sensors and actuators help for control system design Functioning in faulty mode Control Physical meaning of the state variables, even if they are not always measurable Possibility to build a state observer from the model Design of control laws from simplified models

214 214 « Integrated Design of Mechatronic Systems using Bond Graphs » Prof. Belkacem Ould BOUAMAMA, PolytechLille Why Bond graph is well suited Monitoring Graphical determination of the monitorability conditions and of the number and location of sensors to make the faults localisable and detectable Design of software monitoring systems Determination of sensitive parts of a system Simulation Specific softwares (CAMAS, CAMP+ASCL, ARCHER, 20 SIM) A priori knowledge of the numerical problems which may happen (algebraic-differential equation, implicit equation) by the means of causality Physical meaning of the variables associated with the bon-graph mode For fast Prototypage


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