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1 Viewing This Presentation
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2 Radiation Safety Training for Use of Radioactive Materials
Welcome to Purdue University’s online radiation safety training for use of radioactive materials. Section 1

3 Modules Radiation Safety Program Radiation Basics Biological Effects
Laboratory Safety Instruments & Monitoring Techniques Personnel Dosimetry & Exposure Limits Procurement & Receiving Waste Management & Disposal Transfer & Transportation Decontamination & Emergency Procedures Security This training will cover the basic information required for you to safely work with radioactive materials here at Purdue. Topics will include Radiation basics, Laboratory safety, Exposure limits and waste management. Please pay close attention to all sections as they contain important information that is essential for the safe use of radioactive materials. Section 1

4 Module 1 Radiation Safety Program Responsibilities Regulations
Authorization (Project) Requirements Module 1 In this section we will outline the responsibilities and regulations as well as project requirements relating to the radiation safety program Section 1

5 Responsibilities US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
Purdue University Radiation Safety Program Radiation Safety Committee Personnel Principal Investigator (PI) Authorized Users Other Personnel The responsibility for radiation safety can de divided into three main levels: the NRC, Purdue-REM, and laboratory personnel. Section 1

6 Responsibilities: NRC
US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) The Commission formulates policies, develops regulations governing nuclear reactor and nuclear material safety, issues orders to licensees, and adjudicates legal matters. The nuclear regulatory commission is responsible for developing policies to regulate nuclear safety. If you would like more information regarding NRC polices you can visit their web site at Section 1

7 Responsibilities: Purdue University
Radiation Safety Program: Authorized by Purdue University Executive Memorandum No. B-14 Radiation Safety Committee (RSC) Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) in the Dept. of Radiological and Environmental Management (REM) Radiation Safety Staff Radiation Safety Manual The radiation safety staff at REM are responsible for regulating use of radioactive materials on campus. The radiation safety manual details all expectations for users and can be found on our website. Please take time to read through the safety manual. Section 1

8 Responsibilities: REM
REM serves as a consultant to the University Community in the following areas: Construction Health and Safety, Environmental Health, Fire and Safety Equipment Service, Hazardous Material Management, Industrial Hygiene, Laser Safety, Radiation Safety, and Safety and Ergonomics REM assists in monitoring regulatory compliance with various federal, state, and university regulations involving environmental, health and safety issues. Services include training, consultation, emergency response, and waste removal. REM serves as a consultant to the university in several areas including: environmental health, laser safety, and ergonomics as well as radiation safety. REM assists in monitoring regulatory compliance with various federal, state, and university regulations. Section 1

9 Responsibilities: REM Radiation Safety Section
Responsible for complying with regulations set forth by the US NRC, as well as the Indiana State Department of Health, for the safe use of radioactive materials and radiation producing devices.  This is accomplished by providing several types of training, radioactive waste pickups, calibration services, personnel dosimetry to monitor radiation exposure, and consulting support for any safety issues identified by Purdue University employees and students. The radiation safety division provides several types of training, radioactive waste pickups, calibration services, personnel dosimetry to monitor radiation exposure, and consulting support for any safety issues. Section 1

10 Responsibilities: RSC
The mission of the Radiation Safety Committee is to ensure the safety of the University and community in the utilization of all radioactive materials and radiation producing devices at the University or by University faculty, staff, or students. Read Slide Section 1

11 US NRC Regulations and Regulatory Guides
US NRC Rules and Regulations 10 CFR Part 19 - Notices, Instructions and Reports to Workers: Inspection and Investigations US NRC Rules and Regulations 10 CFR Part 20 – Standards for Protection Against Radiation US NRC Regulatory Guide 8.13 – Instruction Concerning Prenatal Radiation Exposure Many others If you would like more information concerning NRC regulations governing the use of radioactive material you can click on the links here. Section 1

12 10 CFR Part 19 Workers Rights:
to be informed of storage, transfer, and use of radioactive materials, to further instruction on health protection problems associated with radiation exposure and procedures to minimize exposure, to receive radiation exposure history upon written request to the RSO, to request NRC inspection, to be instructed in and required to observe applicable provisions of NRC regulations and licenses, and to be instructed in the appropriate response to warnings. NRC regulation 10 CFR part 19 covers workers rights. All radiation workers are entitled to proper training and information regarding storage, transfer, and use of radioactive materials. Workers also have the right to bring up concerns without fear of punishment. Section 1

13 10 CFR Part 20 Occupational dose limits Surveys and monitoring
Precautionary procedures Waste disposal Records of surveys Enforcement Storage and control of licensed material 10 CFR 20 discusses occupational dose limits, monitoring, precautionary procedures, waste disposal. Section 1

14 US NRC Policy Statement: 61 FR 24336
Freedom of Employees in the Nuclear Industry To Raise Safety Concerns Without Fear of Retaliation Retaliation against employees or students engaged in protected activities, whether they have raised safety concerns within the University or to the NRC, will not be tolerated. Problems should be first addressed within the existing University hierarchy. Under NRC policy Employees are free to voice concern without fear of repercussion. If you have concerns about safety please consult personnel within the university first and if the problem continues to persist seek higher authority. Section 1

15 Authorization (Project) Requirements
Approval Process begins after required forms are submitted to REM. Complete Required Training Follow Laboratory Safety Practices (see Module #4) Recordkeeping Decommissioning Read slide Section 1

16 Project Requirements: Approval Process
Forms must be completed and approved by RSO, RSC Form A-1:  Project Summary & Evaluation for Use of Radioactive Materials and Radiation Producing Devices (New/Amend Project Form) Form A1-S:   Radiation Facility Approval Request (New Lab Application) Form A-4:  Application to Use Radioactive Materials and/or Radiation Producing Devices (New User Application) Form SM-1: Survey Meter Registration Training must be completed by all users As part of the project approval process all required forms must be properly filled out and submitted to REM. Radiation safety training is part of the approval process and must be completed by all users. Section 1

17 Project Requirements: Complete Required Training
Available Training: (General) Radiation Safety Training for Use of Radioactive Materials Sealed Source Training (includes irradiator and nuclear gauges) Diagnostic x-ray (includes DEXA) Analytical x-ray (diffraction) Laser Safety Declared Pregnant Worker DOT Training (Transport of Hazardous Materials) Radiofrequency/Electromagnetic Safety Training Others, as needed Note: Some retraining may be required. Awareness training is also available as needed. REM offers training in a variety areas. Retraining is also available as needed. Section 1

18 Project Requirements: Recordkeeping
Use Radioactive Material Logbook Keep the most recent authorization printout in this binder Authorized users and locations listed Authorized nuclides, compounds, and amounts Survey Log Waste and Inventory Logs Radionuclide Receipts KEEP YOUR RECORDS UPDATED! REM provides each laboratory with a radioactive materials binder. All records relating to the use of radioactive material should be stored within this binder. It is especially important that logs of contamination surveys are kept. Logs should be kept even if no radioactive material was used doing a month this should be noted in the record. Section 1

19 Project Requirements: Laboratory Safety Practices
See Module #4 of this training. Please review module four of this training for safe laboratory practices. Section 1

20 Project Requirements: Decommissioning
All radiation-labeled equipment must be certified HAZARD FREE prior to service or disposal Liquid scintillation counters, gamma counters, and gas chromatographs could contain radioactive sources Prior to moving out of an area and abandoning equipment - notify REM When a laboratory no longer wishes to use radioactive material it will be decommissioned. This process involves removing all radioactive sources and equipment. REM will perform a final survey to check for any contamination and remove all labels once the lab has been deemed clean. Section 1

21 Project Requirements: Enforcement
May obtain an injunction or court order to prevent a violation Civil penalties Criminal penalties willful violation of, attempted violation, or conspiracy to violate any regulation It is your responsibility to follow all regulations. Violations can result in penalty. Section 1

22 Module 2 Radiation Basics Definitions and Units Background Exposure
Types ALARA Half-Lives and Decay Module 2 In this module we will cover the most basic radiation concepts including… Section 1

23 Definitions & Terms Radioactivity Ionizing Radiation Contamination
Spontaneous emission of particles and/or electromagnetic radiation from an unstable nucleus. Ionizing Radiation Radiation of sufficient energy to strip electrons from the orbit of an atom causing ionization. Contamination Radioactive material in an unwanted location. Half-Life The time required for any given radioisotope to decrease to one-half it’s original quantity After 10 half-lives, the radioactivity is reduced to 0.01% of the original activity Read slide Section 1

24 Radiation Units Exposure - ionization in air
Units: roentgen R, (milliroentgen, mR)(C/kg of air) Survey instrument readings (i.e. Geiger-Mueller, Ion) Absorbed Dose - energy deposited in matter Units: rad (millirad, mrad) (Gy, mGy, J/kg) Dose Equivalent - biologically weighted absorbed dose Units: rem (millirem, mrem, Sv, mSv) Measured by dosimetry Derived or Calculated Read slide Section 1

25 Radiation Units2 Activity- quantity of radioactive material
millicurie (mCi) 2.22 billion disintegrations per minute (dpm) 37 million disintegrations per second (dps) Becquerel (Bq) 1 dps so 1 mCi = 37 MBq and 1µCi = 37 kBq Section 1

26 Background Exposure Average Annual Background Radiation Exposure in the US is approximately 620 mrem Personal background exposure may be influenced by location and lifestyle Source: NCRP Report #160 It is important to note that background radiation is always present. The amount can vary depending on your location and occupation. The average amount is approximately 360 mrem per year and is primarily a result of radon. Section 1

27 Types of Radiation There are 4 main types of radiation, each of which has different shielding requirements Alpha Particle made up of 2 protons and 2 neutrons Atomically large Beta Electron particle Moderately easy to shield – avoid lead or high “Z” material Gamma/x-rays Energy only – not particulate More difficult to shield Neutrons Neutral particle Difficult to shield We are primarily concerned with 4 main types of radiation: alpha, beta, gamma, and neutrons. Alpha particles consist of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. They are atomically large and as a result have a very short range. Shielding can be accomplished by a sheet of paper. Alpha particles are not a large concern externally as the dead layers of skin generally protect us. Internally alpha particles present a much greater threat. Beta particles are a highly energetic electrons. They can be easily shielded with a few milimeters of plexiglass. Shielding with lead or other high density material can create Bremsstrahlung radiation . Gamma rays/ x-rays are Neutrons are neutral particles w Section 1

28 ALARA: As Low As Reasonably Achievable
Methods Time Distance Shielding Amount Contamination Control Dosimetry Notification trigger level of 100 mrem per wear period for whole body exposure ALARA stands for as low as reasonably achievable. It consists of several methods to reduce your overall exposure including: time, distance, shielding, and amount. Section 1

29 ALARA: Time The less time spent in a radiation area the lower the accumulated exposure to the worker. Plan all work efficiently. It is best to do an experiment using a non radioactive surrogate and allow someone to watch the your technique, or videotape the work. Reducing time will reduce exposure. To reduce exposure time, plan ahead. Perform a “dry” run of the experiment or procedure without radioactive materials. This will help lower the amount of time you spend correcting ineffective procedure. Less time equates to less exposure. Section 1

30 ALARA: Distance The greater the distance the lower the exposure. Your goal should be to never allow the distance between you and any source to become zero. Therefore: Never touch any source if you can avoid it. Use tweezers, tongs, holders, racks, or other engineered fixtures. Move sources to the back of hoods or in other ways away from personnel. It is important to maximize the distance between you and the source of radioactivity. Using tweezers or other devices to hold the source instead of your hands is best. Try to store sources where they will be away from personnel. Section 1

31 ALARA: Distance (2) Inverse Square Law (Point Source) d I1d
Intensity of Radiation decreases as the inverse square of the distance. Doubling distance, exposure = ¼ of original; Tripling distance = 1/9 of original exposure. The inverse square law simply states that the intensity of radiation exposure will decrease as the inverse square of the distance meaning that double the distance will reduce your exposure to one fourth the original. 2 1 I1d = I2 d Section 1

32 ALARA: Shielding Always use shielding. The greater the shielding the lower the exposure to workers. 1 cm of plastic for most Betas. Lead for gammas, or x-rays. Graded shielding is best, i.e. plastic first then mass like lead. Check effectiveness of shielding with a meter. The use of proper shielding will also help reduce your exposure to radiation. 1cm of plastic is generally sufficient for most beta particles. Lead shielding is generally used for gamma and x-rays. Layering shielding materials will provide the best results. It is important that you check shielding with a survey meter. Section 1

33 ALARA: Shielding (2) Alpha Beta Gamma Neutron Paper/Skin Plexiglas
Lead Paraffin/Water/Concrete This is a visualization of the relative amounts of shielding needed for each type of radiation. Section 1

34 ALARA: Amount The smaller the amount of radioactive material the lower the exposure. Use the smallest volume or the lowest specific activity needed for an experiment. Remove debris from the work area. Clean the area. Decontaminate when contamination is found. Survey the area on a regular bases. Do your “wipe tests” on a regular basis. It is important to perform a contamination survey after each experiment. If contamination is detected, it should be removed. Keeping a clean work area will help reduce the chance of contamination and unnecessary exposure. Section 1

35 Dosimetry Individuals working with significant amounts of radioactive material are provided dosimetry to measure their radiation exposure When exposures exceed specified low trigger limits of 100 millirem during the period (monthly or bimonthly) the user is notified A form must be completed and returned to acknowledge that the user is aware of the exposure and will take steps to reduce if possible Dosimetry is provided to monitor radiation exposure. The dosimetry should be worn whenever working with radioactive materials. Users will be notified if they exceed 100mrem during the specified period. Section 1

36 Module 3 Routes of Exposure Biological Effects Risk Analysis
Biological Effects from Radiological Exposure Routes of Exposure Biological Effects Risk Analysis Module 3 covers the biological effects caused by radiation exposure Section 1

37 Routes of Exposure An individual can be exposed to radiation:
Internally Intake by mouth, nose, eyes, or any open cut Externally Energy is passed through the body and/or absorbed by tissues Contamination Residual radioactivity on the skin irradiates skin and other tissues There are several ways in which an individual can be exposed to radiation: Internally, externally, and contamination. Section 1

38 Routes of Radiation Exposure
An individual can be exposed to radiation through these routes: Internal (alpha, low energy beta) Inhalation Ingestion Injection (wound) Absorbtion External (high energy beta, gamma, neutron)

39 Biological Effects Acute (one-time) high level dose
Can cause radiation damage and symptoms quickly Chronic (long-term) low level dose Body has time to repair/replace damaged cells Effects, if any, appear after years Risk of cancer with 1 rem of radiation increases from the normal rate of 20% to 20.03% Read slide Acute effects are highly unlikely using millicurie amounts of radioactivity in a research setting Section 1

40 Biological Effects of Acute Radiation Exposure*
Symptom Dose To Target Nausea, Diarrhea 100 rem Whole Body Cataracts 200 rem Eyes Erythema 300 rem Skin Sterility in men 500 rem Gonads Death (LD50/60) - no treatment Death (LD50/60) - with treatment 600 rem Gastrointestinal Syndrome ≥ 600 rem Cerebrovascular Syndrome ≥ 3000 rem *Source: Merck Manual Online Medical Library

41 Chronic Biological Effects
Stochastic (by chance): the effects have no threshold and the severity of the effect does not vary with the dose Cancer (including leukemia) Deterministic: the effects have a threshold and the severity of the effect does vary with the dose Cataracts Long term exposure to radiation can result in stochastic or deterministic effects. an example stochastic effect would be cancer, where there is no specific dose that will necessarily result in a person developing cancer. Cataracts are an example of deterministic effects, there are known thresholds for developing these effects. Section 1

42 Risk Analysis High doses - there is a correlation between dose and effect Low doses (<10 rem) - it is unclear what the risk is at this level. BEIR VII Report assumes linear no-threshold dose response, so any dose could have a negative effect – doses are maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) Hormesis – some scientists believe that low doses of radiation may be beneficial There is a known correlation between exposure to high doses of radiation and effects. At low doses it is unclear what correlation exists. There is also a theory that low doses of radiation may be beneficial- this does not mean you should purposely expose yourself. Section 1

43 Module 4 Laboratory Safety Posting and Labeling
Facility Classification Eating, Drinking, Smoking, Application of Cosmetics Personal Protective Equipment Equipment Maintenance Module 4 This module will cover Laboratory safety. Section 1

44 Posting and Labeling In room/area
Door: Lab Classification Near radioactive waste: Waste Poster On equipment used for radioactive materials Radioactive materials label Do not place Radioactive Materials label on something that is not used for radioactive materials or is not radioactively contaminated Labels should be on all entrances to a radioactive lab. Labs that produce waste should also have a waste poster near the radioactive waste. REM will supply both the labels and the poster. Any equipment that is used for radioactive material should have a radioactive sticker. Don’t mix Section 1

45 Eating, Drinking, Smoking, & Cosmetic Application
While the consumption of food and beverages is generally discouraged in chemical labs, restrictions are different for each laboratory class. Eating, drinking, smoking, and cosmetic application are discouraged in all chemical labs. Class B and class C radioactive labs are NOT permitted to store, prepare, or consume beverages or food. Class D labs can store food in designated areas only. Section 1

46 Storage and Use of Radioactive Material
The use of food containers for handling or storing radioactive materials is not permitted. Any other containers used must be clearly marked as containing radioactive material. See Section 9.2 of the Purdue University Radiation Safety Manual. The use of food containers for handling or storing radioactive materials is not permitted. Any other containers used must be clearly marked as containing radioactive material. Section 1

47 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
A minimum of gloves, lab coat and shoes that cover the feet are required for work with unsealed sources of radioactive material For operations with splash potential - safety glasses or goggles are required Remember that gloves should not be worn outside the lab – this has the potential to spread contamination. At minimum lab personnel should where gloves, a lab coat, and closed toe shoes when working with radioactive material. It is also a good idea to wear goggles if there is any chance of splashing or when working with volatile chemicals. Section 1

48 Gloves For contamination control, but not considered shielding
Remove when finished with handling material or when contaminated; whichever comes first Consider double-gloves during procedures that are likely to contaminate It is important that you wear gloves at all times while working with RAM. To reduce your chance of contamination try wearing two pairs of gloves and changing the outer pair frequently. Use your survey meter to check for contamination. Monitor your gloves frequently and change when they become contaminated Section 1

49 Equipment Maintenance
All equipment used for radioactive material use MUST have a “radioactive materials” label affixed. If equipment requires maintenance, remove materials from area and clean surfaces. Attach Hazard Clearance and Declaration Form (aka: “Clean Sheet”) to equipment. Equipment used with radioactive materials should be properly identified as such through use of a radioactive materials sticker. If the equipment is no longer used for radioactive materials or is going to be moved to a non-rad area it needs to be checked for contamination and verified as clean. Section 1

50 Module 5 Purpose Commonly Used Instruments Monitoring Guidelines
Instruments & Monitoring Techniques Purpose Commonly Used Instruments Monitoring Guidelines Efficiencies Module 5 This section will cover instruments and monitoring techniques Section 1

51 Purpose Surveys must comply with the regulations and determine the extent of the radiation levels, concentrations or quantities of radioactive material, and potential radiological hazards In order to comply with regulations, a survey must be performed after each experiment using radioactive material to check for contamination. Record of these surveys should be kept on-site. If contamination is found, it should be cleaned and they area should be surveyed again. Section 1

52 Commonly-Used Instrument Types
Survey Meter or Rate Meter with an associated: Geiger-Mueller (G-M) Pancake Probe Geiger-Mueller (G-M) End-Window Probe Sodium Iodide (NaI) Probe Alpha probe Liquid Scintillation Counter Ion Chamber Best for P-32 There are several commonly used survey meter types. P-32 is best detected with a GM pancake probe. H-3 cannot be detected using this type of meter and is best detected with the use of a liquid scintillation counter. It is possible for c-14 to be detected using a GM but with low efficiency, use of liquid scinitillation counters are much more efficient. For counting wipes for removable contamination Section 1

53 Survey Instruments: Geiger-Mueller (GM) Detector
Measures both fixed and removable beta (with exception of low-energy beta emitters such as H-3), gamma, and alpha contamination. Can accommodate different probes End-window, pancake NaI scintillator Alpha Meter efficiency can vary widely due to: Energy of radionuclide Geometry The Geiger-Mueller survey meter is useful for detecting both fixed and removable beta and gamma contamination. There are several different probes avialbe to use with a GM including: …. GM’s are not good for detecting low energy beta emitters like tritium. Section 1

54 Survey Instruments: Ion Chamber Type Detector
These are dose reading type survey meters. Usually have a door or cap over the window. Most application is found in differentiating beta verses gamma dose. Many ‘Dose Calibrators’ are ion type chambers. Work on the principle of ‘air ionization’. Ion chambers are very good to use when you need to distinguish between beta and gamma dose. Most chambers have a removable cover over the window which can be used to shield betas. Section 1

55 Survey Instruments: Ion Chamber Type Detector2
Ion chamber usage. Readings are usually recorded with the door both open and closed. This gives beta plus gamma and gamma only reading. Used in finding dose in an area or shielding effectiveness. Open (beta & gamma) Closed (gamma only) Here you can see an ion chamber with the different set ups for gamma detection and beta/gamma detection. Section 1

56 Monitoring Guidelines: General
Lab surveys should be performed on a regular basis to prevent contamination in the laboratory and to keep exposures to personnel ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The frequency of surveys will depend on the amount of radioactive material used and the experimental procedures. Perform surveys during the experiment and at the end of each experiment. Clean up any contamination found. A survey of the use area should be performed and documented: Monthly - if material is used at all Weekly - if greater than 1 mCi is used Daily - if greater than 5 mCi is used If no material was used during the month, document this. Proper technique is important – move the probe slowly over the area to be surveyed at a close distance, within ¼ inch of surface. It is preferable that the authorized user performing the experiment also be the one performing the survey (this person should know the potential areas of contamination). Make a record of the survey- example on next page Lab surveys should be completed after each radioactive procedure. It is also a good idea to perform a survey during the experiment to check for contamination. Surveys should be properly documented. REM and the NRC do not know you performed a survey if there is no record of it. Section 1

57 Monitoring Guidelines: Documentation Example
Project Director ________________________started on ____________ (date) Bldg____________________ Room # _________________________________ Surveys can be recorded in a form like the one shown here. *Areas surveyed at a minimum should include bench top, floor, waste area, equipment, and other areas that could potentially be contaminated equipment. Maintain records for 3 year minimum. Section 1

58 Monitoring Guidelines: Survey Meters
Is it working? Will it detect the type of radiation of interest? Will it detect the level of radiation expected in the area? What is background in the area? Is the instrument ‘in’ calibration? Do I know the meter scale factor? Make sure that the survey meter you are using will detect the type of radiation you want to detect. Is the instrument sensitive enough to detect the levels you’ve been working with. Also check the calibration date. Section 1

59 Monitoring Guidelines: Survey Meters (2)
Is it Working? Check battery level and meter integrity. Replace the batteries as necessary. REM recommends alkaline type batteries as they do not leak as often. Use known source to check operation. Use the audio if the instrument has a speaker. Use most sensitive scale (i.e. lowest scale x0.1 or x1) if possible. Notify REM for assistance with survey meter problems. Replace the batteries in the meter. Check to see if the speaker is turned on, and if applicable, change the speaker batteries. Check to ensure that the window of the probe is intact and unbroken. Disconnect and then reconnect the cable from the probe to the meter. If it still doesn't work, contact REM for assistance. Section 1

60 Monitoring Guidelines: Survey Meters (3)
Will it detect the type of radiation of interest? Tritium will not be detected by a common survey meter. You must perform a wipe test, counted with a liquid scintillation counter or other window-less counting system. Carbon-14 will be detected with very low efficiency. Most common survey meters will not detect tritium and will have a low detection efficiency for carbon-14. It is best to perform a wipe test in combination with a liquid scintillation counter to detect contamination. Section 1

61 Monitoring Guidelines: Survey Meters (4)
Will it detect the level of radiation expected in the area? Is the meter made for detecting background levels? Note: Some meters sold on the Internet for as little as $25 will not detect typical laboratory contamination at all. Make sure the survey meter you are using will actually detect the isotopes used. If you are unsure feel free to contact REM for assistance. Section 1

62 Monitoring Guidelines: Survey Meters (5)
What is background in the area? Background radiation in laboratories can vary greatly. Sources or radioactive waste can contribute to background. It is difficult to find contamination in a high background area. Take a background measurement before performing you survey. This measurement should be taken in an area similar to the one you are working in but where there is no chance of radiation. Section 1

63 Monitoring Guidelines: Survey Meters (6)
Is the instrument ‘in’ calibration? Check the calibration ‘due’ date on the sticker or tag affixed to the instrument. The instrument must be within the dates given. REM has a calibration service for the University. If the instrument is out of calibration, notify REM for calibration. Most meters on campus are calibrated once a year by REM. Check your calibration sticker to make sure you are within the calibration date. If you notice that your meter is not within calibration please contact REM. Section 1

64 Monitoring Guidelines: Survey Meters (7)
Do I know the meter scale factor? Some meters give you a multiplication factor. Other meters show you the topmost reading expected on the scale. Some types give a different scale for X100. Check yourself as scales can be confusing. Try to use to lowest or most sensitive scale setting available. Know what scale you are using so you can understand the readings you are getting. Section 1

65 Survey Meter Face Scaler Dependent (what scale are you on?)
Example: Using the x10 scale, the meter reads 15,000 CPM for contamination, or Approx mR/hr for radiation exposure Section 1

66 Monitoring Guidelines: Wipe Tests
Measures removable contamination that could be spread to other areas Perform with moderate pressure over at least 100 square centimeters Count the filter in an appropriate counter Focus on areas where contamination could be easily spread - FLOORS! Performing wipe tests will allow you to find removable contamination. Swipe areas that are most likely to be contaminated. You can count the filters using an LSC for h-3 or c-14 or use a GM to detect p-32. Section 1

67 Monitoring Guidelines: Wipe Tests2
A wipe test is the most sensitive way to detect removable contamination. covers a large surface area high efficiency when counted by liquid scintillation (LSC) only practical measure of 3H contamination Efficiency of removal - approximately 10% For high energy beta emitters, wipes can be checked with GM meter Here you can see how to perform a swipe test. Section 1

68 LSC Readout Example Protocols can be tailored to counting needs
Keep as survey record documentation > 200 dpm in any channel indicates contamination If you detect anything above 200dpm you have found contamination and should take appropriate action to clean it. Again, proper documentation is required. Section 1

69 Efficiencies Used to convert observed count rate (cpm) to activity (dpm). Determined by counting a known standard with the instrument. Efficiency (Eff) = cpm/dpm x 100% E.g.: If a GM counter has an efficiency of 5% (.05), what activity is present when it reads 300 cpm? 0.05 = 300/X Therefore, the activity present is 6000 dpm. The efficiency of you meter can be determined by dividing you count rate by the activity. Section 1

70 Typical Meter Efficiencies @ 1/4 inch
Isotope End-Window (% efficiency) Pancake (% efficiency) C-14 1 5 S-35 12 P-32 25 I-125 0.05 0.1 Typical efficiencies for a GM pancake and end-window probe are shown here. As you can see they have a low efficiency for C-14 and I-125 but are much better for P-32. Section 1

71 Typical Efficiencies of Liquid Scintillation Counting
H percent C percent S percent P percent I percent Your results may vary depending on counter, quenching, etc. Liquid scintillation counters have a very good efficiency for most isotopes. Section 1

72 Module 6 Personnel Dosimetry & Exposure Limits Purpose Dosimeter Types
Regulatory Exposure Limits Purdue Dosimeter Issuance Triggers User Responsibilities Module six In this section we cover exposure limits for radiation workers. Section 1

73 Purpose of Dosimetry Monitoring is required for those likely to receive, in 1 year from sources external to the body, a dose in excess of 10 percent of the occupational exposure limits. Read slide Section 1

74 Dosimeter Types Passive (most commonly issued at Purdue) Active
Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLDs) Film Badges Active Pocket Electronic There are two common types of dosimeters used to monitor personal doses. TLDs will allow a user to get an after the fact reading while active pocket dosimeters will allow an real time dose. Section 1

75 Dosimetry Guidelines Wear correct dosimeter
Wear dosimeter in correct location Store in low background area when not in use Do not remove from occupational location Avoid physical damage (e.g. water, heat, impact) Report unusual occurrences to REM that may effect dosimetry integrity/readings Wear your dosimeter over the critical area of your body when working with RAM. Store away from sources when not in use. Section 1

76 Dosimetry Placement Proper placement: Whole Body: Ring: Fetal:
Outside of clothing Front side of body Between neck and waist Ring: Under gloves (minimizes potential for contamination) Chip side (name plate) facing palm Worn on hand most likely to receive greatest dose. Fetal: Abdominal area Read Slide Section 1

77 Ring Dosimetry Wear this on palm side.
The ring dosimeter should be worn on the hand that will receive the most exposure with the film side on the inside of the palm. Wear this on palm side. Section 1

78 Film Dosimetry (a.k.a. Film Badge)
Here you can see the inside of a film badge. Section 1

79 Adult Occupational Dose Limits: 10 CFR 20 Subpart C
Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE) Whole Body - Annual 5 rem Dose Equivalent to Any Organ or Tissue (TODE) - Annual 50 rem Dose Equivalent to the Skin or Extremities (SDE) - Annual Dose Equivalent to the Lens of Eye (LDE) - Annual 15 rem Dose Equivalent allowed to Embryo/Fetus (Declared Pregnant Worker)– 9 month gestation period 0.5 rem This is a voluntary declaration that, if the declaration is made, must be done so in writing to the RSO. The whole body effective dose limit is set at 5 rem per year for an adult occupational dose limit. For a declared pregnant woman the dose is restricted to 0.5 rem over the 9 month period. Note 1: Annual Occupational Dose Limits for Minors (i.e. personnel under 18 yrs. of age) is 10% of the adult limit. Note 2: Non-occupational (i.e. general public) TEDE is limited to an annual limit of 0.1 rem, and an hourly exposure limit of 2 mR. Section 1

80 Dosimetry Issue Levels
Low energy beta emitters (e.g. H-3, C-14, P-33, S-35, Ca-45) No dosimeter issued Higher energy beta emitters (e.g. P-32, Sr-90) Ring dosimeter issued for ≥ 1 mCi Whole body dosimeter issued for ≥ 5mCi Low energy gamma emitters (e.g Cr-51, Co-57, I-125) Higher energy gamma emitters (e.g. Na-22, Co-60, Cs-137, I-131) Ring dosimeter issued for ≥ 0.1 mCi Whole body dosimeter issued for > 1.0 mCi Neutron emitters (e.g. Tritium generators, Cf-252) Extremity dosimeter issued for ≥ 10 mCi Whole body dosimeter issued for any use

81 User Responsibilities
Return dosimetry promptly! If dosimetry is not returned, it cannot be processed. Dosimeters returned late may be considered degraded and “unreadable”. Also, there is a cost (late fee) associated with unreturned dosimetry. Notify REM if you will not work with materials requiring dosimetry for extended periods. We can suspend your service and reactivate it when it is needed. Section 1

82 Module 7 Radioactive Material (RAM) Procurement Receiving RAM
This module covers the procurement and receiving of radioactive materials. Section 1

83 Radioactive Material (RAM) Procurement
Consult with REM personnel, RAM procurement webpage. All packages containing radioactive material must be shipped to REM at CIVL B203 to go through a required check-in process. When ordering, attach Form R-1 in OnePurdue order. Only approved radioisotopes, chemical forms, and amounts may be ordered. All radioactive purchases go through REM. You need to attach an R-1 form to orders. Consult REM if you have any questions about ordering. Section 1

84 RAM Procurement (cont’d)
Remember to place orders before Noon (12 PM) Please allow 3 business days when ordering because: All individuals in the approval process must approve the order Technical problems are not uncommon Special Note: Vendors take holidays, too! On long holiday weekends, shipments will not be sent out until vendor returns from holiday. Orders should be placed by noon and please allow time for the processing and shipment of purchases. Please note that vendors may be on holiday and this could add to the time for an order to be delivered. Section 1

85 Receiving RAM Deliveries will be made after 1 PM on the day that REM receives the shipment from the vendor. Only laboratory personnel who are knowledgeable and are able to immediately secure the material should physically receive the RAM from REM. The receiver will sign for confirmation of receipt, and keep a copy for laboratory records. REM will deliver all shipments on the same day that they are received. Deliveries are made after 1pm each day. Only authorized users can accept RAM deliveries and must sign a receipt of delivery. Section 1

86 Recommendations Order only what you will immediately use
Consider an aliquot into separate vials to avoid reopening and subjecting compound to warming and cooling cycles Store material according to manufacturer’s recommendations Read Slide Section 1

87 Module 8 General Information Procedures
Waste Management & Disposal General Information Procedures Radioactive Waste Management Summary Module 8 In this module we will cover general radioactive waste management procedures Section 1

88 General Information ALL containers provided by REM
Follow YELLOW waste flow chart Segregate P-32/P-33 (short half-life) from long-lived isotopes Waste is picked up on Tuesday ONLY Waste Pickup Request Form REM will provide each lab with containers for waste at the request of the laboratory. Waste should be sorted according to the yellow waste poster. In general, long and half short life isotopes should be separated. Make sure that the label is properly filled out. If you have a waste pickup request please submit the waste pick up form which can be found on the REM form website by 5pm Monday. Pick ups are generally performed each Tuesday. Section 1

89 This is the waste poster.
Section 1

90 Waste Poster

91 Procedures: Waste Labeling
The following information is needed on all waste labels if ANY waste is in the container. Liquid Waste Authorization # Radionuclide Amount (in mCi) Date waste was added Solvents in the container pH (must be ≥ 6 and ≤ 9) Solid Waste

92 Procedures: Waste Labeling3
Separate waste between long and short half-life. (Short is defined as less than 30 days) Declare all chemicals in a percentage format Record pH of solution List all radionuclides and amounts in mCi Date when container is sealed or full Do NOT abbreviate or use acronyms for chemicals or solutions (e.g. use phosphate buffered saline, water NOT PBS or H20) The pH should be within 6-9. If it is outside this range please correct before requesting a pickup. Be sure to list the amount of all radionuclide's in milicuries. Section 1

93 Procedures: Waste Labeling2
Record the amount and the date every time something is added to the container. Use a separate sheet if necessary. Complete a Waste Pickup Request when container is nearly full or won’t be used for extended periods Every time something is added to the waste container record the date and amount. When the container is full or will not be used for a long period of time request a waste pick up. Section 1

94 Procedures: Labeling & Packaging
Waste Scintillation Vials Place flats containing waste vials upright in original box; tape box shut Label box with radioactive waste label For vials shipped in bulk Cap tightly Use rigid container (radwaste bucket) To contain leakage, double bag with absorbent material* between bags *Absorbent material will be supplied by REM Read slide Section 1

95 Procedures: Packaging
Waste Tips Radioactivity predominantly in liquid form Total activity in liquid and solid should be no more than originally ordered Keep a running total of waste added to each container Use absorbent paper around carboy opening to limit container contamination Keep vendor containers separate from other waste Rule of thumb 10% solid and 90% liquid. Cover container with diaper or AP to prevent contamination. Section 1

96 Radioactive Waste Management Summary
Segregate radioactive waste according to waste segregation poster. Enter radionuclide and activity disposed into each container in waste log book. Label containers to be picked up with: Radionuclide(s), Activity, Authorization number, Date, pH (if liquid), Solvents and percentages (if liquid) Seal containers (use zip tie, tape or staple shut if bag, cap if carboy, screw on lid of bucket, tape scintillation vials into original box, seal or close sharps container) Submit online waste pickup form to REM. It is suggested that a waste log be kept near the waste area to keep a record of the isotope and activity added to each container to aid the person preparing the radioactive waste for pickup in labeling the waste. Please separate waste according to the waste poster. Record the contents on the label. Seal each container appropriately and submit a waste pickup form when you are ready to have REM collect it. Please don’t wait for waste to pile up. Section 1

97 Transfer & Transportation RAM Transfer RAM Transportation
Module 9 Transfer & Transportation RAM Transfer RAM Transportation Module 9 This section covers the transfer and transportation of radioactive materials Section 1

98 RAM Transfer All RAM transfers must be approved by REM prior to transfer On-Campus: receiving individual must be authorized to possess type and amount of material Off-Campus: Only REM will ship or receive material Non-vendor sources (i.e. “gifts”, joint research) Will be treated in same manner as vendor sources Transfers of any radioactive material have to be approved by REM before any transfer, either on or off campus. Section 1

99 RAM Transportation Transportation of radioactive materials will be done through REM, as a general rule. PIs on campus may only transport radioactive materials under the specific approval by the RSO. DOT (Department of Transportation) regulatory requirements must be met Packaging Labeling Emergency Contacts Other requirements REM will transport all RAM unless you have specific approval by the RSO. DOT regulatory requirements must be met when transporting. Section 1

100 Module 10 Contamination: General Comments Contamination Response
Decontamination & Emergency Procedures Contamination: General Comments Contamination Response Emergency Response Module 10 Decontamination and emergency procedures are covered in this section. Section 1

101 Contamination: General Comments
Typically contamination incidents have been with P-32 at research institutions The incidents occurred because researchers did not perform a proper survey The contamination was spread to areas such as cars, churches, and homes These would likely have been prevented if the lab performed proper surveys Resulted in notices of violation from NRC At research institutions, like Purdue, contamination incidents generally occur with P-32 These incidents occurred because researchers didn’t perform a survey at the end of the experiment. As a result, contamination was spread to cars, homes, etc. Had the researcher performed a survey contamination would have been prevented. Section 1

102 Contamination Response
An area is considered “contaminated” if: Survey meter is twice background (be aware that you could be detecting a source), and/or Wipe test results indicate > 200 dpm in any channel If a survey or wipe indicates contamination Decontaminate using disposable towels and soap or decontamination solution If bench paper is contaminated, dispose in radioactive waste Continue the process until the area is no longer contaminated If there is floor or personnel contamination, notify REM immediately Contamination is considered anything that is twice background as indicated by a survey meter or over 200 dpm with a wipe test. If you detect contamination on bench paper replace the bench paper. If you discover it on a non removable surface decontaminate using disposable towels and soap or a decontamination solution. Perform a wipe test or check the area with your survey meter to make sure all contamination was removed. If you detect floor contamination contact REM for assistance with decontamination. Section 1

103 Emergency Response Response is dependent on type of emergency.
Personal Injury Spills (Major and Minor) Fire Medical problems take priority over radiological concerns. In the event of a emergency, human life always outweighs exposure to radioactive material. Section 1

104 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES (INJURY)
Personal Injury Treat injured personnel first. Administer any life-saving procedures without regard for contamination. Do not move a seriously injured person unless he or she is in further danger. Contact medical personnel (i.e. call 911). Notify REM ( ). Read slide Section 1

105 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES (SPILLS)
Major and Minor Spills See Radiation Safety Manual Notify REM between 8-5 CALL (or if no one can be reached) After hours CALL Purdue Police at 48221 Always call this number for spills. Techs have pagers and may be in your building. Section 1

106 EMERGENCY PROCEDURES (FIRE)
Activate the building fire alarm system (fire pull station). If not available or operational, verbally notify persons in the building. Notify the Fire Department at 911. Isolate the area and evacuate the building: Shut down equipment in the immediate area, if possible. Close doors to isolate the area. Use a portable fire extinguisher to control a small fire or assist in evacuation if possible. Provide the fire/police teams with the details of the problem upon their arrival. Notify Radiological and Environmental Management at Read slide Section 1

107 Security Regulatory Requirement Guidelines Incidents
Module 11 Security Regulatory Requirement Guidelines Incidents Model eleven This module covers matters relating to safety. Section 1

108 Security (10 CFR 20) Licensed Material:
Shall be secured from unauthorized removal, or Shall be controlled and maintained under constant surveillance. All licensed radioactive material should be securely stored so that no unauthorized personnel can remove or have access to it. Section 1

109 Security Security of Radioactive Material
Lock freezers or storage areas Lock doors when lab is unattended to prevent unauthorized access to radioactive material and other lab equipment Obtain a lockbox from REM if needed NRC Places High Priority on Security The NRC conducts security screens during campus inspections to evaluate security adequacy. Incidents at other campuses have kept the focus on security. Labs have been found unsecured by the NRC in the past – repeat violations may negatively impact our license! Store radioactive materials in a locked storage area, REM can provide a lockbox if requested. Both the NRC and REM will randomly check to make sure RAM is securely stored. Section 1

110 SECURITY NRC AREA OF EMPHASIS
Secure laboratories when unoccupied Secure RAM if laboratory security is not feasible Challenge visitors or unauthorized individuals Account for RAM through inventory records Unoccupied laboratories should be secured either with a locked entrance or locked storage area. If you do not recognize someone in your lab area, ask them for identification. REM employees will periodically perform waste pick ups and lab surveys. They should have a ID identifying themselves. Section 1

111 REM’s Radiation Safety Group
James F. Schweitzer, Ph.D Radiation Safety Officer Zach Tribbett Health Physicist Sharon K. Rudolph Isotope Ordering & Distribution Jerry J. Gibbs Waste Handling & Meter Calibration Mike Nicholson Waste Handling & Animal Hospital Support REM Main Office Civil Engineering Building, Room B173     Section 1

112 Test To complete the online training, you must take a short test. A score of 75% or better is considered passing. Upon successful completion of the test, you will receive an confirmation. Included in this is the link to sign up for the required classroom session. A list of available dates are present in the online registration. You will need to complete a test to indicate Blackboard course completion. A passing grade is 75%, or more of correct responses. Your results ed to you, and will be your only record of completion. You will need to submit a completed Form A-4, with your and your Principal Investigator’s required signatures. Bring the completed Form A-4 to your classroom training.

113 Click here to begin the test.
Test Link Bring a completed Form A-4 (make sure that both you AND your Principal Investigator have signed the form) to the classroom session. Thank you! You will need to complete a test to indicate Blackboard course completion. A passing grade is 75%, or more of correct responses. Your results ed to you, and will be your only record of completion. You will need to submit a completed Form A-4, with your and your Principal Investigator’s required signatures. Bring the completed Form A-4 to your classroom training. Click here to begin the test.


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