8NO. OF PLANTS WITH CAPACITY There are 671 sugar mills in India.
9In 1950, there were 139 sugar factories in the country with an annual installed capacity of 1.67 million tonnes.Today, India has about 671 sugar factories with an annual sugar production of 24.1 million tonnes.India has 20% of the total sugar mills in the world and accounts for about 15% of the global production.
11IntroductionIndia is the second largest producer of sugar from cane after Brazil.Production capacity is 24 million tons / year.The total sale value in 1999 is 5 billion US$.Total capital employed around 4 billion US$.
12been the biggest contributor to this industry. Better quality cane with higher sucrose content hasbeen the biggest contributor to this industry.However manufacturing techniques have not changedmuch.The average recovery varies from as low as 7% to ashigh as 13% whereas sucrose content in the cane canbe 18%.Efforts are directed towards better manufacturingtechnique to achieve higher yield.
13BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR CANE SUGAR PRODUCTION CaOSTEAMCRUSHINGLIMINGHEATINGTHIN JUICERAW JUICECRYSTALLIZATIONEVAPORATIONMOLASSESTHICK JUICERAW SUGAR
14SUGAR MANUFACTURE (CANE MILLLING) Sugar CaneCane CarrierCane leveller or kicker to feed the canecutting knives uniformlyCane cutter-Ist cutting the cane to piecesMincer - IInd stage of cutting to finer piecesMilling TandemComprising of Six mills
15SCHEMATIC ARRANGEMENT FOR JUICE CLARIFICATION Raw Juice pH 5.0Heated to 650C on Juice HeatersSimultaneous Liming and Sulphitation and the finalpH is kept around 7.0/7.2Heated to C on Juice Heaters.CLARIFIERSubsequently juice is allowed to settle for 2.5 hours. The CLEARsupernatant juice is separated for further processing. The non-sugarsprecipitated as calcium sulfite complex compounds are further treatedon Rotatory Vacuum Filters (RVF) for futher extraction of residual juice.
16SUGAR MANUFACTURE (CONTD.) Prepared cane is subjected to twelve compressions which helps to squeezethe juice with application of high pressure. At final stage water is added andthen squeezed so that no sugar is left when the material leaves the Mills.The product after milling or extraction of juice is known as bagasse.Juice delivered to the Boiling House Bagasse Bye Productfor Clarification and Sugar Boiling (Fibre + Water + Little salts)Used as fuel in Boilers5% sold to paper industries
17CLARIFIER Muddy Juice Clear Juice (15o Brix) Rotatory Vacuum Filter Vapour Cell(For part Evaporation)Filter cake or Press Filter Juice Quadruple Effect Evap.Mud (Bye product. (Back to the Juice (Evaporation of waterSold to farmers to tank to be mixed up to 75%)be used as manure with raw juice andfor the cane fields) re-processed) Concentrated material(called “SYRUP”of 60 Brix)SulfitationSulfited syrup pH 5.0
18BOILING PROCESS IN VACUUM PANS I Stage:Syrup + B-seed + Melt from C-double cured SugarA-massecuiteBatch CentrifugalA-Light & A-Heavy Molasses Finished Product SugarHopper-Drying & CoolingGraderPowder Graded SugarWeighingStitchingSugar Godown
19A - Light & A - Heavy Molasses B-Massecuite II Stage:A - Light & A - Heavy MolassesB-MassecuiteContinuous Centrifugal MachinesB - Seed B - Heavy Molasses.Magmised and used asseed for A-massecuite.
20III Stage: B - Heavy Molasses + C - Light Molasses C - Massecuite Continuous Centrifugal MachinesMagmised Final Molasses to storage tanks(A bye-product sold to distilleriesproducing rectified spirit,Second Curing alcohol, etc. )C - Double Cured sugar C- Light Molasses (Rich in sugar and therefore(Melted to give clear melt sent back to the process forThis is pumped to the pan C-Massecuite boiling)floor and boiled withsyrup to produceA - massecuite)
21CORELATION OF PERMEATE FLUX WITH CONCENTRATION ON SPRIAL MEMBRANE Repeat the four-step process under Point #1.