# Environmental Studies Mr. Skirbst Science Topic 28.

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Environmental Studies Mr. Skirbst Science Topic 28

Surveying Goal of the surveying team is to determine the stream gradient

Surveying Goal of the surveying team is to determine the stream gradient Stream gradient: stream slope

Surveying Stream slope = rise / run

Surveying Stream slope = rise / run In the field: rise = (determined by surveying)

Surveying Stream slope = rise / run In the field: rise = (determined by surveying) run = (calculated using the Pythagorean Theory)

Surveying Surveying: Using instruments to make measurements of the land

Surveying Terms

Surveying Data Table:

Bench Mark (BM) Transit Stream Slope Line of site Cross hairs Rod

Bench Mark (BM) Transit Cross hairs BB D

Bench Mark (BM) Transit Cross hairs BB D

Cross hairs BB D Rise Run Stream

BB D Rise Run Stream

Rise Run Stream Rise Run

Rise Run Stream (Stream) 2 = (Rise) 2 + (Run) 2 Pythagorean Theory

Stream Team

Goal of the stream team is to determine the stream discharge

Stream Team Goal of the stream team is to determine the stream discharge Stream discharge- water volume released in a period of time

Q (discharge)

Stream Team Volume =

Stream Team Volume = width x height x length ( 3 dimensions)

Stream Team Volume = ( width x height) x length Discharge (Q) = area x velocity (cubic feet per second)

Stream Team Stream width –

Stream Team Stream width – Distance from bank to bank at the cross-section

Stream Width

Stream Team Stream depth–

Stream Team Stream depth– average depth along the cross-section

Stream Team Stream depth– average depth along the cross-section (must be average since depth is not uniform)

Stream Team Average depth determined by taking depths at regular intervals and dividing by number of intervals

Stream Depth

Stream Team Stream area = width x depth (2 dimensions) (feet 2 )

Stream Team Stream length –

Stream Team Stream length = stream speed

Stream Speed

Stream Team Stream length = stream speed Speed (velocity) = distance/time

Distance

Time

Distance Time

Stream Team Stream length = stream speed Speed (velocity) = distance/time (feet/second)

Stream Team Discharge (Q) = area x velocity

Stream Team Discharge (Q) = area x velocity units = cubic feet per second (ft 3 /sec)

Tree Team

The goal of the tree team is to calculate the % canopy cover, measure the tree density, and identify species of trees. Tree Team

http://www.arborday.org/trees/whatTree/whatTree.cfm?ItemID=E6A

Soil Team

The goal of the soil team is to analyze the texture, chemistry, and biology of the soil. Soil Team

Soil texture - Soil Team

Soil texture – how the soil feels Soil Team

Soil texture – the composition of soil in terms of the relative amounts of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. Soil Team

1.Clay – < 0.002 mm 2.Silt – 3.Sand – 4.Gravel – Soil Team

1.Clay – 2.Silt – 0.002 mm to 0.05 mm 3.Sand – 4.Gravel – Soil Team

1.Clay – 2.Silt – 3.Sand – 0.05 mm to 2.0 mm 4.Gravel – Soil Team

1.Clay – 2.Silt – 3.Sand – 4.Gravel – > 2.0 mm Soil Team

Method for determining texture Soil Team

Method for determining texture Settling Rate: Soil Team

Method for determining texture Settling Rate: Larger particles settle first, followed by smaller particles Soil Team

Method for determining texture Soil Sieve: Soil Team

Method for determining texture Soil Sieve: Passing soil sample through a series of sieves to separate particle sizes Soil Team

Soil Biology: Extracting the organisms in the soil for observation Soil Team

Soil Biology: Extracting the organisms in the soil for observation Macroinvertebrates – big bugs Soil Team

Soil Biology: Extracting the organisms in the soil for observation Macroinvertebrates – big bugs Microinvertebrates –small bugs Soil Team

Extraction of organisms: Berleese funnel Soil Team

Soil Chemistry: Analyzing the soil nutrients that support plant life Soil Team

Soil Chemistry: Analyzing the soil nutrients that support plant life N P K Soil Team

The goal of the water team is to determine the biological health of the stream. Water Team

Sample locations: Water Team

Sample locations: A, B, C, D (work FROM downstream TO upstream!) Water Team

Sample technique: Water Team

Sample technique: Kick net – kick up sediment in 2ft 2 area downstream of net Water Team

Sample technique: Kick net – kick up sediment in 2ft 2 area downstream of net Catch net – hand net Water Team

Benthic macroinvertebrates: bottom big bugs Water Team

Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI): Water Team

Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI): A measure of how tolerant the benthic macroinvertebrates are to pollution. Water Team

Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI): A measure of how tolerant the benthic macroinvertebrates are to pollution. Value 1 -4 (1 = very health 4 = not healthy) Water Team

Reporter – work with others in team to interview everyone Support Team

Reporter – work with others in team to interview everyone Photographer – take pictures of everyone doing their job Support Team

Reporter – work with others in team to interview everyone Photographer – take pictures of everyone doing their job Videographer – video everyone doing & explaining their job Support Team

Job Application