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Environmental Studies Mr. Skirbst Science Topic 28
Surveying Goal of the surveying team is to determine the stream gradient
Surveying Goal of the surveying team is to determine the stream gradient Stream gradient: stream slope
Surveying Stream slope = rise / run
Surveying Stream slope = rise / run In the field: rise = (determined by surveying)
Surveying Stream slope = rise / run In the field: rise = (determined by surveying) run = (calculated using the Pythagorean Theory)
Surveying Surveying: Using instruments to make measurements of the land
Surveying Data Table:
Bench Mark (BM) Transit Stream Slope Line of site Cross hairs Rod
Bench Mark (BM) Transit Cross hairs BB D
Bench Mark (BM) Transit Cross hairs BB D
Cross hairs BB D Rise Run Stream
BB D Rise Run Stream
Rise Run Stream Rise Run
Rise Run Stream (Stream) 2 = (Rise) 2 + (Run) 2 Pythagorean Theory
Goal of the stream team is to determine the stream discharge
Stream Team Goal of the stream team is to determine the stream discharge Stream discharge- water volume released in a period of time
Stream Team Volume =
Stream Team Volume = width x height x length ( 3 dimensions)
Stream Team Volume = ( width x height) x length Discharge (Q) = area x velocity (cubic feet per second)
Stream Team Stream width –
Stream Team Stream width – Distance from bank to bank at the cross-section
Stream Team Stream depth–
Stream Team Stream depth– average depth along the cross-section
Stream Team Stream depth– average depth along the cross-section (must be average since depth is not uniform)
Stream Team Average depth determined by taking depths at regular intervals and dividing by number of intervals
Stream Team Stream area = width x depth (2 dimensions) (feet 2 )
Stream Team Stream length –
Stream Team Stream length = stream speed
Stream Team Stream length = stream speed Speed (velocity) = distance/time
Stream Team Stream length = stream speed Speed (velocity) = distance/time (feet/second)
Stream Team Discharge (Q) = area x velocity
Stream Team Discharge (Q) = area x velocity units = cubic feet per second (ft 3 /sec)
The goal of the tree team is to calculate the % canopy cover, measure the tree density, and identify species of trees. Tree Team
The goal of the soil team is to analyze the texture, chemistry, and biology of the soil. Soil Team
Soil texture - Soil Team
Soil texture – how the soil feels Soil Team
Soil texture – the composition of soil in terms of the relative amounts of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. Soil Team
1.Clay – < 0.002 mm 2.Silt – 3.Sand – 4.Gravel – Soil Team
1.Clay – 2.Silt – 0.002 mm to 0.05 mm 3.Sand – 4.Gravel – Soil Team
1.Clay – 2.Silt – 3.Sand – 0.05 mm to 2.0 mm 4.Gravel – Soil Team
1.Clay – 2.Silt – 3.Sand – 4.Gravel – > 2.0 mm Soil Team
Method for determining texture Soil Team
Method for determining texture Settling Rate: Soil Team
Method for determining texture Settling Rate: Larger particles settle first, followed by smaller particles Soil Team
Method for determining texture Soil Sieve: Soil Team
Method for determining texture Soil Sieve: Passing soil sample through a series of sieves to separate particle sizes Soil Team
Soil Biology: Extracting the organisms in the soil for observation Soil Team
Soil Biology: Extracting the organisms in the soil for observation Macroinvertebrates – big bugs Soil Team
Soil Biology: Extracting the organisms in the soil for observation Macroinvertebrates – big bugs Microinvertebrates –small bugs Soil Team
Extraction of organisms: Berleese funnel Soil Team
Soil Chemistry: Analyzing the soil nutrients that support plant life Soil Team
Soil Chemistry: Analyzing the soil nutrients that support plant life N P K Soil Team
The goal of the water team is to determine the biological health of the stream. Water Team
Sample locations: Water Team
Sample locations: A, B, C, D (work FROM downstream TO upstream!) Water Team
Sample technique: Water Team
Sample technique: Kick net – kick up sediment in 2ft 2 area downstream of net Water Team
Sample technique: Kick net – kick up sediment in 2ft 2 area downstream of net Catch net – hand net Water Team
Benthic macroinvertebrates: bottom big bugs Water Team
Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI): Water Team
Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI): A measure of how tolerant the benthic macroinvertebrates are to pollution. Water Team
Pollution Tolerance Index (PTI): A measure of how tolerant the benthic macroinvertebrates are to pollution. Value 1 -4 (1 = very health 4 = not healthy) Water Team
Reporter – work with others in team to interview everyone Support Team
Reporter – work with others in team to interview everyone Photographer – take pictures of everyone doing their job Support Team
Reporter – work with others in team to interview everyone Photographer – take pictures of everyone doing their job Videographer – video everyone doing & explaining their job Support Team
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