Presentation on theme: "Authored by John W. Desmarais 18-Dec-1999"— Presentation transcript:
1Authored by John W. Desmarais 18-Dec-1999 Updated by Brockman 09-Jul-2008Modified by Lt Colonel Fred BlundellTX-129 Fort Worth Senior SquadronFor Local Training Rev Jan-2014
2This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Member’s personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentation’s Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.
3Compass There are two major types of compass used for navigation: LensaticOrienteeringThe compass most used in SAR is the orienteeringRegardless of type, make sure your compass azimuth ring will read a maximum or 2 degree graduationsMake sure the compass has a dampening system to help the needle settle fasterHave a means to secure it so it won’t get lost
4Orienteering CompassOrienteering compasses tend to be popular for hikers, mainly because they are fairly cheap and easy to use.
5Follow a Direction with an Orienteering Compass Set your compass to the azimuth you want (for instance 20 degrees) at the index line.Turn your body holding the compass steady until the red end of the needle is over “N” (North) on the dial. This is called “boxing” or “centering” the needle.
6Determine a Bearing with an Orienteering Compass Select a landmark and hold the compass level and point the direction of travel arrow at the landmark.Turn the compass dial until the “N” aligns with the red end of the needle. Read the heading at the index line. This is the “azimuth” or “bearing”
9Compass-to-Cheek Technique The centerhold technique is considered faster and easier. It can be used in all conditions of visibility, over any type of terrain, and helmets and eye glasses do not have to be removed.
10Different models may vary in details Lensatic Compass UseDifferent models may vary in detailsHold the compass level in the palm of your handRotate it until the desired azimuth falls under the fixed black index lineTurn the bezel ring until the luminous line is aligned with the north-seeking arrow. Once the alignment is obtained, the compass is preset.To follow the azimuth, use the centerhold technique and turn your body until the north-seeking arrow is aligned with the luminous line.
11Lensatic Compass (Continued) To measure an azimuth, turn your entire body toward the object, pointing the compass cover directly at the object. Once you are pointing at the object, simply look down and read the azimuth from beneath the fixed black index line. You can even use this method at night.
12When using any compassThe arrow of a compass is also affected by metal- a van, knife, or even power lines can affect the use of your compassSafe Distances:High tension power lines: 55 metersVehicle: 10 metersSteel helmet: ½ meterTelephone wires or fence: 10 meters
13Compass CircleAzimuths (bearings) are given in degrees in a clockwise directionSince there are 360 degrees in a circle- an azimuth can be any number up to 360
15Sometimes the G-M is so small you may not have to worry about it.
16Pace Count The number of paces it takes you to cover 100 meters Pace can be affected by a number of factorsVisibility. Poor visibility, such as in fog, rain, or darkness, will shorten your pace.Clothing. Excess clothing and boots with poor traction affect the pace length.Surfaces. Sand, gravel, mud, snow, and similar surface materials tend to shorten the pace.
17Pace Count (Continued) Slopes. Your pace lengthens on a downslope and shortens on an upgrade. Keeping this in mind, if it normally takes you 120 paces to walk 100 meters, your pace count may increase to 130 or more when walking up a slope.Winds. A head wind shortens the pace and a tail wind increases it.Elements. Falling snow, rain, or ice cause the pace to be reduced in length.
18Pace Count (Continued) Determining Pace CountWalk a MEASURED 100 meter course and record your pace countCount only your left or right step- not bothWalk the Return of that 100 meter course and record your pace countAdd the two together, and divide the sum by two to get your average pace count on that terrainWork the Math1st Leg 121Return Leg 119Sum 240 / 2Average Pace100 Meters120
19Pace Count (Continued) Calculating a distance to travel is simply a matter of basic mathFor example, to walk 250 meters using the previous pace count of 120 paces takes 300 paces120 paces (100 meters)+ 60 paces (50 meters is 1/2 of 100 meters)300 paces (250 meters)
20Pace Count(Continued)The big problem in pacing is to maintain a straight line. At night, the average person tends to walk in a circleIn daylight, you should use a compass and steering points (well defined objects in your line of travel) towards which you can steer
21Pace Count (Continued) Keep track of the paces you have walked in the field. It is too easy to forget and be off course. Try using some of the following. For every 100 meters tryMove a bead on your pace counterPlace a mark in a notebookTie a knot in a stringPut a pebble in your pocket
22Pace Count (Continued) Suppose you want to pace off one kilometer (one kilometer is 1000 meters).Put ten pebbles in your right pocketWhen you go 100 meters, move one pebble to your left pocketWhen all ten pebbles are in your left pocket- you have gone one kilometer.Of course you could tie knots in a string- one for every 100 meters until you got ten also.
23Steering PointsIt is difficult to follow a straight line using only a compass because of a tendency to drift while walkingIt is best to pick out objects in the line of your azimuth and use them as steering points
24Steering Points (Continued) Pick out a distinctive tree, bush, rock, land feature, etc. that is in line with your travel azimuthWalk to that point (remember your pace count) and shoot your azimuth and find another steering point
25Steering Points (Continued) Continue following your steering points until you reach your location.Be careful- distinctive features from a distance may be difficult to find as you move toward them.Pay close attention and mark your position and record your pace count at each stop in the event you have to go back.
26Steering Points (Continued) If there are no steering points or it is nightIn a team situation, put one person ahead where he/she may still communicate by voice or hand signal with the navigator.The navigator will shoot an azimuth and line up the person on point by directing them left or right until they mark the azimuth pathTravel to the point person and repeat the process
27Navigating Past an Obstacle Basically make a box around the obstacleAccuracy counts, especially around larger obstacles
28Only figure your straight line distance when walking around an obstacle.