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Skills and Techniques KEY CONCEPT 1 THE CONCEPT OF SKILL AND SKILLED PERFORMANCE In this KEY CONCEPT you examine in detail what a skill is, what makes.

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Presentation on theme: "Skills and Techniques KEY CONCEPT 1 THE CONCEPT OF SKILL AND SKILLED PERFORMANCE In this KEY CONCEPT you examine in detail what a skill is, what makes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skills and Techniques KEY CONCEPT 1 THE CONCEPT OF SKILL AND SKILLED PERFORMANCE In this KEY CONCEPT you examine in detail what a skill is, what makes a skilled performance,how skills are performed using an information processing model, classification of skills And how a MODEL performer can be used to enhance and Develop performance Demonstrator Please!

2 What is a the difference between a SKILL and a TECHNIQUE? A skill is a movement with a purpose, for example - Shooting, passing,dribbling,tackling etc. A technique is HOW you perform a skill, for example Set shot, jump shot, lay-up, hook shot, slam dunk Skills and techniques vary in difficulty according to their Requirements, your level of ability and your previous Experience

3 Classification of SKILLS Skills are classified in 3 main ways these are - Open Closed Simple Complex Discrete Continuous

4 OPEN CLOSED Skills are classed as OPEN if they are performed in UNPREDICTABLE situations Skills are classed as CLOSED if they are performed in CONTROLLED situations Most skills have both open and closed elements and occur At different points along the CONTINUUM For example dribbling past opponents in basketball For example performing a Free throw in basketball

5 SIMPLE COMPLEX Skills can also be classified on the CONTINUUM as Either simple Or complex Simple skills have * Little decision making * Little information to be processed * Few subroutines Complex skills have *Much decision making *Much information to Be processed * Many subroutines

6 DISCRETE CONTINUOUS Skills can be placed along the CONTINUUM between Discrete and continuous Discrete skills have a clear beginning and end – for example Throwing a javelin or a long jump Continuous skills are ongoing in nature – do not have a clear Beginning and end and are repetitive or cyclical movement Patterns – for instance a long distance runner.

7 What makes a skilled performer? A skilled performer can carry out linked movements with The maximum efficiency Movements are carried out in a fluent, controlled and accurate way Minimum time and effort are required Correct options are selected Skills and techniques are selected which reflect the performers Ability and experience

8 Questions 1. Describe the difference between a simple skill/technique and a Complex skill/technique 2. Describe the qualities that you would see in a skilled performance. 3. Provide an example and explanation of an activity which contains Both open and closed skills

9 Information processing model Understanding of how you learn and perform SKILLS can be Increased by studying the information processing model The information processing model contains 4 parts, (Page 59) Input Decision making Output Feedback

10 Input The first part of the loop is INPUT. This is the Information which you receive from your senses Sound – team mates shouting for a pass,giving you Information etc. Feel – the strength of the wind, the underfoot Conditions etc. Sight – what you see – where the ball is, where the Opposition is, where your team mates are, where the Basket is etc.

11 Decision Making You then have to make decisions about your performance based On the information you received from your senses – input. You have to separate important information from the less Important information For instance - you see a defender approaching you but you know That you have enough time to shoot the basketball before the Defender arrives – therefore you can ignore the defender, concentrate On the shot and perform it successfully A less skilled performer may see the defender, rush the shot and Be unsuccessful

12 Output The third part of the loop is OUTPUT This is the way in which you move and how you perform the Skill depending on the decisions you have made

13 Feedback After you have performed your chosen skill or movement you then Receive information about your performance Information about your performance is called FEEDBACK With this information you can evaluate your performance and Adapt it to help you be more successful in the future. For example – was the pass you made successful – if not why not? This then leads you into the INPUT part of the loop again

14 Questions Describe in detail the Information Processing Model and discuss Its relevance to performing and learning skills

15 KEY CONCEPT 2 Skill and Technique improvement by using Mechanical analysis Movement analysis Consideration of Quality In this KEY CONCEPT you examine in detail how you can collect RELEVANT and DETAILED information about your performance Of a skill or technique You can then use the information gained to create a detailed plan to Improve your performance You can also use this process to review and monitor any Improvement in your performance

16 Mechanical analysis Mechanical analysis is looking at your performance of a skill or Technique in a MECHANICAL way. MECHANICS is about FORCE, FRICTION, LEVERAGE, PLANES OF MOVEMENT, ETC. Mechanical analysis is often used in activities where the SKILLS are Highly Technical and are often CLOSED skills In our course we rarely use MECHANICAL analysis,but you should Know it exists and understand the basic principles of it

17 Movement analysis The method of analysing a skill which we use most often is Movement analysis In Movement analysis we break the skill down into 3 parts Preparation Action Recovery Preparation is the movements you make BEFORE you perform the SKILL Action is the movements you make AS you perform the SKILL Recovery is the movements you make AFTER you perform the SKILL

18 MOVEMENT ANALYSIS This is a useful way to examine your performance of a skill or Technique in many different activities By analysing skills in this way it is possible to discover which parts Of the skill/technique require improvement It is then possible to design an improvement programme to Improve the aspects of the skill/technique which have been Identified as weak

19 Movement analysis The method of ANALYSING SKILLS which we use most Often is MOVEMENT ANALYSIS. See handout

20 Question Higher Past Paper 2004 Mechanical analysis, movement analysis and consideration of Quality are regarded as being useful methods when analysing Performance in the area of skills and techniques (a)Choose an activity. Describe, in detail, the method Of analysis you used to gather information about your Performance of ONE selected skill or technique (4)

21 Key Concept 3 The development of SKILLThe refinement of TECHNIQUE In this KEY CONCEPT you examine in detail The different STAGES of skill learning Principles of EFFECTIVE practice METHODS of practice Motivation, concentration and feedback &

22 Stages of Skill Learning There are 3 important stages when learning and developing skills These are Preparation stage Practice stage Automatic stage

23 Preparation (Cognitive) stage During the preparation stage you find out WHAT the skill involves You find out what the parts of the skill are - SUBROUTINES and You make your first attempts at learning/performing each part At this stage errors are likely to be common and so you will Need advice, encouragement, and perhaps support to avoid Injuries. Positive feedback will help you to improve and Remain motivated

24 Practice(Associative) Stage During the practice stage you link together all the required SUB – ROUTINES of the skill Your ability, experience and the difficulty of the skill you are Learning will determine the amount of practice time required Simple skills will require less practice and consolidation than Complex skill Gradually appropriate practice will reduce the number of mistakes Made during performance The METHOD of practice you will use will differ according to the skill being practiced

25 Automatic (Autonomous) stage By this stage most sub – routines have become automatic As a result you do not need to think about them You can now concentrate on other aspects of your performance Other than the skill which you can now perform AUTOMATICALLY You can now think about other things like – where your team mates Are, what the best option is etc. At the AUTOMATIC stage errors are less likely and you can Concentrate on more detailed aspects of your performance

26 Question Describe, in detail, the three stages of skill learning and Explain how you went through this process in the learning of ONE skill from an activity of your choice.

27 Methods of Practice When developing SKILLS and TECHNIQUES you can use a number Of different METHODS OF PRACTICE The most regularly used METHODS of PRACTICE are 1.Solo/shadow/partner/group 2.Opposed/Unopposed 3. Gradual build up 4. Repetition/drills 5. Whole - Part - Whole 6. Conditioned/Small sided/Coached games 7. Massed(Continuous) / Distributed(Spaced)

28 Solo/shadow/partner/group Practices can be done in different sized groupings You can perform practices On your own – SOLO eg. Movement practice in Badminton Mirroring or copying another person – SHADOWING eg. Copying the movement patterns of a MODEL performer Work with another person – PARTNER eg. One person feeds the other performs the skill Work with more than one other person – GROUP Eg. Group of 5 practicing passing in a circle Increasing the number of people in the practice session may be A useful way of increasing the difficulty of the practice - PROGRESSION

29 Opposed/unopposed Varying the degree of opposition in a practice is a useful way of Making a practice meaningful and avoiding practice which is inappropriate It can also be used to increase the level of difficulty of a practice - PROGRESSION Practices can often be performed with NO opposition PASSIVE oppositionACTIVE opposition Performing a practice with NO opposition may be suited to the early Stages of learning a SKILL – PREPARATION STAGE Practicing with PASSIVE opposition may be suited to the middle Stages of learning a SKILL – PRACTICE STAGE Practicing with ACTIVE opposition may be suited to the final Stage of learning a SKILL – AUTOMATIC STAGE It is important that your partner knows which level of opposition They are expected to provide

30 Gradual build up Gradual build up is a useful method for learning COMPLEX skills It is also a useful method of learning skills which have an element Of RISK By using GRADUAL BUILD UP you can learn a skill in stages BIT BY BIT By doing this you can make the practice more demanding in small Stages. If these small stages are realistic and achievable then this method of learning skills can produce a high level of CONFIDENCE - amount of information to be processed - number of decisions to be made - number of subroutines to be learned - amount of co-ordination required - environment in which skill is to be performed - accuracy and speed of decision making etc.

31 Repetition / drills During practice it can be productive to repeat an action many times You may practice the whole skill or smaller parts of the skill over and over The intention is to GROOVE the technique so that all the parts of the Skill ( sub routines) work well together This type of practice works best with fairly CLOSED, COMPLEX skills Drills are routines or sequences of movements that are designed to give You the opportunity to repeat a skill or technique Eg. Set shot > rebound > pass. Drills can also be made more game–like and therefore more demanding And pressurised - PROGRESSION (See P. 71)

32 Whole / part / whole This method of practicing skills is often used when you already have Some experience of the activity You need to be able to perform a version of the whole skill already You can then use whole-part-whole to refine parts of the skill Which need improved before attempting the whole skill again After analysing the skill usingMovement analysis You identify which PARTS OF THE SKILL are weak and you Can then practice these parts in isolation before putting them Back into the full skill Skills which allow parts of the performance to be SEPERATED Are most suited to this method of learning eg. Lay- up in Basketball. Whole-part-whole works less well with continuous skills as it is Difficult to isolate parts of these skills eg. Handspring in gymnastics

33 Conditioned /small sided/coached games When you are learning and developing OPEN skills using a Games like situation can be a useful method to use This can allow you to refine and develop skills in a more Demanding and realistic situation

34 Conditioned games Conditioned games can take many forms. Often Conditioned games Are used to provide one side with an advantage This makes achieving tasks or successfully performing skills easier For example if you play 5v3 in Basketball the attacking side has a Numerical advantage and will therefore have more attacking options, More passes available, and more shooting opportunities. 5v3 could also be used to make defensive duties more difficult and could be used to put extra pressure on defensive skills like closing down attackers, blocking shots, and winning rebounds You can also change the formal rules of the game to emphasise through The game particular skills or techniques that you have been working on For example if you had been practicing Drop shots in Badminton you Could encourage the use of the Drop shot in the game by awarding Extra points for any rally which is won by successfully performing A Drop shot

35 Small sided games Reducing the number of players in a team can be a useful way of For improving performance Reducing the number of players in a team gives each player MORE Opportunities to practice skills and techniques in a realistic, Games like situation The MORE times you practice skills and techniques in a demanding Games like situation the better your performance will be when you are Required to perform these skills in a real game under real pressure to Perform successfully

36 Coached games While playing a real game the coach/teacher may wish to interrupt The game to emphasise a particular point Often this interruption or Coaching will be to highlight something In the game which the coach/teacher considers necessary to Improve performance For instance the coach may interrupt your game of Badminton To emphasise improvements to your shot placement, performance Of a technique etc. This Coaching can only be done in certain circumstances Opportunities to coach in Real games are limited by rules Eg. Time outs in Basketball, Technical area in Football etc

37 Massed / Distributed The demands of different skills and activities influence whether Practice is best done on a Massed – continuous basis or Distributed – spaced basis Massed practice may be most suited to Continuous skills Where the performer has a high level of MOTIVATION Where practicing until TIRED or FATIGUED would be beneficial Continuous / massed practice can be useful as it can reproduce The situation where it is necessary to perform skills when fatigued such as may occur in the later stages of a physically demanding game

38 Massed / Distributed Distributed or spaced practice would be best suited to a complex, Closed, discrete skill or technique Eg. A Backflip in Gymnastics In techniques such as this there is a danger of injury or failure If you become too tired Therefore few practice attempts interspersed with longer Rest or Recovery periods would ensure the best progress

39 Questions 1. Give an example of a method of practice which would be suited to the development of a complex skill. Give a detailed description Of how you developed a complex skill in your course using this method of practice 2. Discuss how the activities in your course could be adapted to Improve certain skills within each activity

40 Principles of EFFECTIVE practice There are 3 main principles of EFFECTIVE practice 1. Clear Objectives ( Targets) 2. Work to Rest Ratio 3. Progression

41 Clear Objectives For your practice to be effective you should set clear objectives (Targets) This will take into consideration your present STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES What aspects of your performance you are trying to improve Your present level of performance compared to a MODEL performer The targets should be PROGRESSIVE ACHIEVABLE REALISTIC

42 Work To Rest Ratio In all practices you need to calculate the RATIO of WORK to REST Working out this RATIO is one of the KEY issues in making the skill Training SPECIFIC to your NEEDS The RATIO depends on Your previous EXPERIENCE in the activity Your level of ABILITY The COMPLEXITY of the SKILL The PHYSICAL DEMANDS of the ACTIVITY Get the WORK to REST RATIO wrong then you could become either TIREDorBORED When you are TIRED or BORED then your SKILL LEVEL will DROP This is exactly the OPPOSITE to the desired outcome

43 Progression To ensure that your practices are meaningful to your current level Of performance you must make your practices Harder As your level of PERFORMANCE improves This is known as - PROGRESSION You must make sure your practices are suitably demanding at all times Apply the PRINCPLE OF PROGRESSION to all your practices HIGH QUALITY PRACTICE for a SHORT time is better than Repetitive, low quality practice for a longer period of time

44 Question When designing a training programme to improve your skill level In an activity you must take into consideration principles of effective Practice. State what you understand to be principles of effective practice And give details of how you used these principles when practicing a Skill from an activity in your course.

45 Motivation Motivation is your level of DESIRE to SUCCEED YOU need to be MOTIVATED in order to IMPROVE Your PEFORMANCE There are 2 types of MOTIVATION INTERNAL MOTIVATION EXTERNAL MOTIVATON

46 Internal Motivation This is your own level of desire to succeed. If you are interested in the activity then you are far more likely To improve and make progress in your performance It would be impossible to achieve a high level of performance if You did not have a high level of INTERNAL MOTIVATION

47 External motivation External motivation is when your desire to improve your Level of performance is for reasons apart from your internal Desire to succeed Examples of external motivation are MONEY MEDALS/TROPHIES FAME It is rare to have only external motivation More often it is a combination of INTERNAL and EXTERNAL motivation

48 Optimum level of Motivation Every one has an OPTIMUM level of MOTIVATION Top performers are used to, and can DEVELOP their ability to MOTIVATE themselves to the OPTIMUM level for a SPECIAL performance If your level of MOTIVATION is too LOW Then your level of PERFORMANCE will also be LOW If your level of MOTIVATION is too HIGH Then your PERFORMANCE can also be AFFECTED

49 Concentration A high level of performer is able to pay full attention, To CONCENTRATE fully on the most IMPORTANT parts of the INPUT A weak performer finds it difficult to decide between IMPORTANT Parts of the INPUT and less important input This is known as - SELECTIVE CONCENTRATION.

50 Feedback Feedback is INFORMATION you receive about your PERFORMANCE There are two main types of feedback INTERNALEXTERNAL Internal feedback is concerned with awareness of MOVEMENT This is the FEELING of different parts of the action EXTERNAL feedback comes in a variety of forms VISUALVERBALWRITTEN It is also known as KINAESTHETIC FEEDBACK

51 Visual feedback Visual feedback is when you can SEE your performance Video cameras make this possible

52 Verbal feedback Verbal feedback is what you are TOLD about your performance This VERBAL feedback could be given to you from your Teacher/coach, team mate, classmate etc.

53 Written feedback Written feedback can take many forms, observation schedules, Checklists, match analysis sheets,statistics, match reports, Scouting reports etc.

54 Feedback Positive feedback is more EFFECTIVE than negative feedback POSITIVE feedback concentrates on what you did well and offers Suggestions as to how you could IMPROVE your PERFORMANCE Even further NEGATIVE feedback is not so EFFECTIVE because it fails to Explain HOW improvements can be made For EXTERNAL feedback to be EFFECTIVE it needs to be PRECISE, ACCURATE, POSITIVE and given as SOON as Possible after the PERFORMANCE

55 Feedback and Motivation Feedback and Motivation are linked. You are likely to be MOTIVATED to do well in an activity if You receive POSITIVE FEEDBACK about your performance

56 Question sample answer (a) ( a) The steps which I took to identify the features of my skills and Techniques which need improving were firstly I chose an opponent to play against who was about the same standard as myself. This made Sure that I would be tested and that I would have to produce my best PERFORMANCE to beat. Then during a real game I had my performance Video taped. This meant that I could look back on my Performance at any time in the future and I could use all of the facilities of the Video like Pause,Replay and Slow motion to let me analyse any part of my performance in detail. Then I watched the Video and completed a GENERAL observation Schedule which looked at all the different strokes in the game. From this General Observation schedule I could tell what my strengths and weaknesses were. I then did a more FOCUSED observation schedule on my weakest skill. This allowed me to Focus more closely on a skill which I was not performing well. I used a MOVEMENT ANALYSIS sheet for this. The MOVEMENT ANALYSIS sheet breaks the skill down into 3 parts – PREPARATION,ACTION and RECOVERY. The sheet had ESSENTIAL FEATURES of performance that you would see from a MODEL PERFORMER. From this sheet I was able to compare my performance in a skill against that of a model performer By doing all of the above things I was able to identify in detail which features of my performance needed Improving.

57 2001 q.7 sample answer (b) (b) The first method of practice I used was GRADUAL BUILD UP. I started by watching A model performer and trying to copy the movements/sub routines of the skill as he performed them. I tried to learn the skill BIT by BIT. First I attempted the footwork required to perform the skill on its own. I practiced moving from the Centre of the court to the back of the court using small, quick steps and making sure that I was Getting side on to the shuttle as I moved. I then added in sighting the shuttle with my Free hand and raising the racket above my head. Once I could do this I added trying to hit the shuttle over the net and once I could do this I then Added moving back to the base position on the court. At this stage I was now performing the complete skill. The next method of practice I used was REPETITION/DRILLS. Now that I could perform a Version of the skill I set up a drill which allowed me to practice the skill over and over and in a Games like setting. By practicing the skill repeatedly I was trying to Groove the skill and by Using a drill I could simulate some of the conditions of a Real game. My partner and I set up a DRILL where he served to me using a high serve and I had to return using my overhead clear,he then played a drop shot which I returned using an underarm clear and my partner retuned using an overhead clear. We tried to repeat this Sequence over and over again which gave me lots of chances to play overhead clears. I had to play my Clear to different parts of the court and my partner could vary where he played to on my court. Because I didnt know where the shuttle was going to arrive I had to watch the shuttle carefully and react quickly to move to get into position to play the shot, similar to what happens in a game. Playing the shuttle to different targets on the court also meant that I had to adapt my technique slightly for every shot

58 2001 sample answer (c) ( c) GRADUAL BUILD UP was an appropriate method for me to use because it is suitable for Learning the early stages of a complex skill. Because I had to identify and learn all the sub – routines of the skill I could do this and learn to link them all together BIT by BIT. I was able to learn the skill by setting small realistic targets. When I managed to achieve these Targets I got a lot of confidence and this made me more motivated to continue to learn REPETITION/DRILLS was suitable because it allowed me to repeat the skill over and over again Which meant that I could GROOVE the skill. I could also adapt the DRILL to make it more Demanding so that as my skill level improved I could make the drill harder and so I was constantly Challenged. I could also make the DRILL more games like and this would put the skill under More pressure

59 2001 sample answer (d) (d)It is important to vary your practice routines so that you ENJOY practicing. This will keep your INTEREST level high and your CONCENTRATION high. If you vary your practice it will prevent you feeling BORED and therefore TIRED. You can also vary your practice routines to make your training PROGRESSIVE in order to Continually challenge you to improve your level of performance.


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