Presentation on theme: "THE CONCEPT OF SKILL AND SKILLED PERFORMANCE"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE CONCEPT OF SKILL AND SKILLED PERFORMANCE Skills and TechniquesKEY CONCEPT 1THE CONCEPT OF SKILL AND SKILLED PERFORMANCEIn this KEY CONCEPT you examine in detail what a skill is,what makes a skilled performance,how skills are performedusing an information processing model, classification of skillsAnd how a MODEL performer can be used to enhance andDevelop performanceDemonstrator Please!
2 What is a the difference between a SKILL and a TECHNIQUE? A skill is a movement with a purpose, for example -Shooting, passing,dribbling,tackling etc.A technique is HOW you perform a skill, for exampleSet shot, jump shot, lay-up, hook shot, slam dunkSkills and techniques vary in difficulty according to theirRequirements, your level of ability and your previousExperience
3 Classification of SKILLS Skills are classified in 3 main ways these are -Open < > ClosedSimple < > ComplexDiscrete < > Continuous
4 OPEN ----------CLOSED Skills are classed as OPEN if they are performed inUNPREDICTABLE situationsFor example dribbling past opponents in basketballSkills are classed as CLOSED if they are performed inCONTROLLED situationsFor example performing a ‘Free throw’ in basketballMost skills have both open and closed elements and occurAt different points along the CONTINUUM
5 SIMPLE --------COMPLEX Skills can also be classified on the CONTINUUM asEither simpleOr complexSimple skills haveComplex skills have* Little decision making*Much decision making* Little information to be processed*Much information toBe processed* Few subroutines* Many subroutines
6 DISCRETE CONTINUOUS Skills can be placed along the CONTINUUM betweenDiscrete and continuousDiscrete skills have a clear beginning and end – for exampleThrowing a javelin or a long jumpContinuous skills are ongoing in nature – do not have a clearBeginning and end and are repetitive or cyclical movementPatterns – for instance a long distance runner.
7 What makes a skilled performer? A skilled performer can carry out linked movements withThe maximum efficiencyMovements are carried out in a fluent, controlledand accurate wayMinimum time and effort are requiredCorrect options are selectedSkills and techniques are selected which reflect the performersAbility and experience
8 Questions1. Describe the difference between a simple skill/technique and aComplex skill/technique2. Describe the qualities that you would see in a skilled performance.3. Provide an example and explanation of an activity which containsBoth open and closed skills
9 Information processing model Understanding of how you learn and perform SKILLS can beIncreased by studying the information processing modelThe information processing model contains 4 parts, (Page 59)InputFeedbackDecision makingOutput
10 Input The first part of the loop is INPUT. This is the Information which you receive from your sensesSight – what you see – where the ball is, where theOpposition is, where your team mates are, where theBasket is etc.Sound – team mates shouting for a pass,giving youInformation etc.Feel – the strength of the wind, the underfootConditions etc.
11 Decision MakingYou then have to make decisions about your performance basedOn the information you received from your senses – input.You have to separate important information from the lessImportant informationFor instance - you see a defender approaching you but you knowThat you have enough time to shoot the basketball before theDefender arrives – therefore you can ignore the defender, concentrateOn the shot and perform it successfullyA less skilled performer may see the defender, rush the shot andBe unsuccessful
12 Output The third part of the loop is OUTPUT This is the way in which you move and how you perform theSkill depending on the decisions you have made
13 FeedbackAfter you have performed your chosen skill or movement you thenReceive information about your performanceInformation about your performance is called FEEDBACKWith this information you can evaluate your performance andAdapt it to help you be more successful in the future.For example – was the pass you made successful – if not why not?This then leads you into the INPUT part of the loop again
14 QuestionsDescribe in detail the Information Processing Model and discussIt’s relevance to performing and learning skills
15 KEY CONCEPT 2 Skill and Technique improvement by using Mechanical analysisMovement analysisConsideration of QualityIn this KEY CONCEPT you examine in detail how you can collectRELEVANT and DETAILED information about your performanceOf a skill or techniqueYou can then use the information gained to create a detailed plan toImprove your performanceYou can also use this process to review and monitor anyImprovement in your performance
16 Mechanical analysisMechanical analysis is looking at your performance of a skill orTechnique in a MECHANICAL way.MECHANICS is about FORCE, FRICTION, LEVERAGE,PLANES OF MOVEMENT, ETC.Mechanical analysis is often used in activities where the SKILLS areHighly Technical and are often CLOSED skillsIn our course we rarely use MECHANICAL analysis,but you shouldKnow it exists and understand the basic principles of it
17 Movement analysisThe method of analysing a skill which we use most often isMovement analysisIn Movement analysis we break the skill down into 3 partsActionPreparationRecoveryPreparation is the movements you make BEFOREyou perform the SKILLAction is the movements you make AS you perform the SKILLRecovery is the movements you make AFTER you perform the SKILL
18 MOVEMENT ANALYSISThis is a useful way to examine your performance of a skill orTechnique in many different activitiesBy analysing skills in this way it is possible to discover which partsOf the skill/technique require improvementIt is then possible to design an improvement programme toImprove the aspects of the skill/technique which have beenIdentified as weak
19 Movement analysis The method of ANALYSING SKILLS which we use most Often is MOVEMENT ANALYSIS.See handout
20 Question Higher Past Paper 2004 Mechanical analysis, movement analysis and consideration ofQuality are regarded as being useful methods when analysingPerformance in the area of skills and techniquesChoose an activity. Describe , in detail, the methodOf analysis you used to gather information about yourPerformance of ONE selected skill or technique (4)
21 Key Concept 3 The development of SKILL & The refinement of TECHNIQUE In this KEY CONCEPT you examine in detailThe different STAGES of skill learningPrinciples of EFFECTIVE practiceMETHODS of practiceMotivation, concentration and feedback
22 Stages of Skill Learning There are 3 important stages when learning and developing skillsThese arePreparation stagePractice stageAutomatic stage
23 Preparation (Cognitive) stage During the preparation stage you find out WHAT the skill involvesYou find out what the parts of the skill are - SUBROUTINESandYou make your first attempts at learning/performing each partAt this stage errors are likely to be common and so you willNeed advice, encouragement, and perhaps support to avoidInjuries. Positive feedback will help you to improve andRemain motivated
24 Practice(Associative) Stage During the practice stage you link together all the requiredSUB – ROUTINES of the skillYour ability, experience and the difficulty of the skill you areLearning will determine the amount of practice time requiredSimple skills will require less practice and consolidation thanComplex skillGradually appropriate practice will reduce the number of mistakesMade during performanceThe METHOD of practice you will use will differ according to theskill being practiced
25 Automatic (Autonomous) stage By this stage most sub – routines have become automaticAs a result you do not need to think about themYou can now concentrate on other aspects of your performanceOther than the skill which you can now performAUTOMATICALLYYou can now think about other things like – where your team matesAre, what the best option is etc.At the AUTOMATIC stage errors are less likely and you canConcentrate on more detailed aspects of your performance
26 Question Describe, in detail, the three stages of skill learning and Explain how you went through this process in the learning ofONE skill from an activity of your choice.
27 Methods of PracticeWhen developing SKILLS and TECHNIQUES you can use a numberOf different METHODS OF PRACTICEThe most regularly used METHODS of PRACTICE are1.Solo/shadow/partner/group2.Opposed/Unopposed3. Gradual build up4. Repetition/drills5. Whole - Part - Whole6. Conditioned/Small sided/Coached games7. Massed(Continuous) / Distributed(Spaced)
28 Solo/shadow/partner/group Practices can be done in different sized groupingsYou can perform practicesOn your own – SOLO eg. Movement practice in BadmintonMirroring or copying another person – SHADOWING eg.Copying the movement patterns of a MODEL performerWork with another person – PARTNEReg. One person feeds the other performs the skillWork with more than one other person – GROUPEg. Group of 5 practicing passing in a circleIncreasing the number of people in the practice session may beA useful way of increasing the difficulty of the practice- PROGRESSION
29 Opposed/unopposed - PROGRESSION NO opposition PASSIVE opposition Varying the degree of opposition in a practice is a useful way ofMaking a practice meaningful and avoiding practice which isinappropriateIt can also be used to increase the level of difficulty of a practice- PROGRESSIONPractices can often be performed withNO oppositionPASSIVE oppositionACTIVE oppositionPerforming a practice with NO opposition may be suited to the earlyStages of learning a SKILL – PREPARATION STAGEPracticing with PASSIVE opposition may be suited to the middleStages of learning a SKILL – PRACTICE STAGEPracticing with ACTIVE opposition may be suited to the finalStage of learning a SKILL – AUTOMATIC STAGEIt is important that your partner knows which level of oppositionThey are expected to provide
30 Gradual build up Gradual build up is a useful method for learning COMPLEX skills- amount of information to be processed- number of decisions to be made- number of subroutines to be learned- amount of co-ordination required- environment in which skill is to be performed- accuracy and speed of decision making etc.It is also a useful method of learning skills which have an elementOf RISKBy using GRADUAL BUILD UP you can learn a skill in stagesBIT BY BITBy doing this you can make the practice more demanding in smallStages. If these small stages are realistic and achievable then thismethod of learning skills can produce a high level ofCONFIDENCE
31 Repetition / drillsDuring practice it can be productive to repeat an action many timesYou may practice the whole skill or smaller partsof the skill over and overThe intention is to GROOVE the technique so that all the parts of theSkill ( sub routines) work well togetherThis type of practice works best with fairly CLOSED, COMPLEXskillsDrills are routines or sequences of movements that are designed to giveYou the opportunity to repeat a skill or techniqueEg. Set shot > rebound > pass.Drills can also be made more game–like and therefore more demandingAnd pressurised - PROGRESSION (See P. 71)
32 Whole / part / wholeThis method of practicing skills is often used when you already haveSome experience of the activityYou need to be able to perform a version of the whole skill alreadyYou can then use whole-part-whole to refine parts of the skillWhich need improved before attempting the whole skill againAfter analysing the skill usingMovement analysisYou identify which PARTS OF THE SKILL are weak and youCan then practice these parts in isolation before putting themBack into the full skillSkills which allow parts of the performance to be SEPERATEDAre most suited to this method of learning eg. Lay- up inBasketball.Whole-part-whole works less well with continuous skills as it isDifficult to isolate parts of these skills eg. Handspring in gymnastics
33 Conditioned /small sided/coached games When you are learning and developing OPEN skills using a‘Games like ’situation can be a useful method to useThis can allow you to refine and develop skills in a moreDemanding and realistic situation
34 Conditioned gamesConditioned games can take many forms. Often Conditioned gamesAre used to provide one side with an advantageThis makes achieving tasks or successfully performing skills easierFor example if you play 5v3 in Basketball the attacking side has aNumerical advantage and will therefore have more attacking options,More passes available, and more shooting opportunities.5v3 could also be used to make defensive duties more difficult andcould be used to put extra pressure on defensive skills like closingdown attackers, blocking shots, and winning reboundsYou can also change the formal rules of the game to emphasise throughThe game particular skills or techniques that you have been working onFor example if you had been practicing Drop shots in Badminton youCould encourage the use of the Drop shot in the game by awardingExtra points for any rally which is won by successfully performingA Drop shot
35 Small sided gamesReducing the number of players in a team can be a useful way ofFor improving performanceReducing the number of players in a team gives each player MOREOpportunities to practice skills and techniques in a realistic,Games like situationThe MORE times you practice skills and techniques in a demandingGames like situation the better your performance will be when you areRequired to perform these skills in a real game under real pressure toPerform successfully
36 Coached gamesWhile playing a real game the coach/teacher may wish to interruptThe game to emphasise a particular pointOften this interruption or ‘Coaching’ will be to highlight somethingIn the game which the coach/teacher considers necessary toImprove performanceFor instance the coach may interrupt your game of BadmintonTo emphasise improvements to your shot placement, performanceOf a technique etc.This ‘Coaching’ can only be done in certain circumstancesOpportunities to coach in ‘Real’ games are limited by rulesEg. Time outs in Basketball, Technical area in Football etc
37 Massed / DistributedThe demands of different skills and activities influence whetherPractice is best done on a Massed – continuous basisorDistributed – spaced basisMassed practice may be most suited toContinuous skillsWhere the performer has a high level of MOTIVATIONWhere practicing until TIRED or FATIGUED would be beneficialContinuous / massed practice can be useful as it can reproduceThe situation where it is necessary to perform skills when fatiguedsuch as may occur in the later stages of a physically demanding game
38 Massed / DistributedDistributed or ‘spaced’ practice would be best suited to a complex,Closed, discrete skill or techniqueEg. A Backflip in GymnasticsIn techniques such as this there is a danger of injury or failureIf you become too tiredTherefore few practice attempts interspersed with longer Rest orRecovery periods would ensure the best progress
39 Questions1. Give an example of a method of practice which would be suitedto the development of a complex skill. Give a detailed descriptionOf how you developed a complex skill in your course using thismethod of practice2. Discuss how the activities in your course could be adapted toImprove certain skills within each activity
40 Principles of EFFECTIVE practice There are 3 main principles of EFFECTIVE practice1. Clear Objectives ( Targets)2. Work to Rest Ratio3. Progression
41 Clear ObjectivesFor your practice to be effective you should set clear objectives(Targets)This will take into consideration your presentSTRENGTHS and WEAKNESSESWhat aspects of your performance you are trying to improveYour present level of performance compared to a MODELperformerThe targets should bePROGRESSIVEACHIEVABLEREALISTIC
42 Work To Rest RatioIn all practices you need to calculate the RATIO of WORK to RESTWorking out this RATIO is one of the KEY issues in making the skillTraining SPECIFIC to your NEEDSThe RATIO depends onYour previous EXPERIENCE in the activityYour level of ABILITYThe COMPLEXITY of the SKILLThe PHYSICAL DEMANDS of the ACTIVITYGet the WORK to REST RATIO wrong then you could become eitherTIREDorBOREDWhen you are TIRED or BORED then your SKILL LEVEL will DROPThis is exactly the OPPOSITE to the desired outcome
43 ProgressionTo ensure that your practices are meaningful to your current levelOf performance you must make your practicesHarderAs your level of PERFORMANCE improvesThis is known as - PROGRESSIONYou must make sure your practices are suitably demanding at all timesApply the PRINCPLE OF PROGRESSION to all your practicesHIGH QUALITY PRACTICE for a SHORT time is better thanRepetitive, low quality practice for a longer period of time
44 QuestionWhen designing a training programme to improve your skill levelIn an activity you must take into consideration principles of effectivePractice.State what you understand to be principles of effective practiceAnd give details of how you used these principles when practicing aSkill from an activity in your course.
45 Motivation Motivation is your level of DESIRE to SUCCEED YOU need to be MOTIVATED in order to IMPROVEYour PEFORMANCEThere are 2 types of MOTIVATIONINTERNAL MOTIVATIONEXTERNAL MOTIVATON
46 Internal Motivation This is your own level of desire to succeed. If you are interested in the activity then you are far more likelyTo improve and make progress in your performanceIt would be impossible to achieve a high level of performance ifYou did not have a high level ofINTERNAL MOTIVATION
47 External motivationExternal motivation is when your desire to improve yourLevel of performance is for reasons apart from your internalDesire to succeedExamples of external motivation areMONEYMEDALS/TROPHIESFAMEIt is rare to have only external motivationMore often it is a combination of INTERNAL and EXTERNALmotivation
48 Optimum level of Motivation Every one has an OPTIMUM level of MOTIVATIONTop performers are used to, and can DEVELOP their ability toMOTIVATE themselves to the OPTIMUM level for a ‘SPECIAL’performanceIf your level of MOTIVATION is too LOWThen your level of PERFORMANCE will also be LOWIf your level of MOTIVATION is too HIGHThen your PERFORMANCE can also be AFFECTED
49 Concentration A high level of performer is able to pay full attention, To CONCENTRATE fully on the most IMPORTANTparts of the INPUTA weak performer finds it difficult to decide between IMPORTANTParts of the INPUT and less important inputThis is known as - SELECTIVE CONCENTRATION.
50 Feedback Feedback is INFORMATION you receive about your PERFORMANCE There are two main types of feedbackINTERNALEXTERNALInternal feedback is concerned with awareness of MOVEMENTThis is the FEELING of different parts of the actionIt is also known as KINAESTHETIC FEEDBACKEXTERNAL feedback comes in a variety of formsVISUALVERBALWRITTEN
51 Visual feedback Visual feedback is when you can SEE your performance Video cameras make this possible
52 Verbal feedbackVerbal feedback is what you are TOLD about your performanceThis VERBAL feedback could be given to you from yourTeacher/coach, team mate, classmate etc.
53 Written feedbackWritten feedback can take many forms, observation schedules,Checklists, match analysis sheets,statistics, match reports,Scouting reports etc.
54 Feedback Positive feedback is more EFFECTIVE than negative feedback POSITIVE feedback concentrates on what you did well and offersSuggestions as to how you could IMPROVE your PERFORMANCEEven furtherNEGATIVE feedback is not so EFFECTIVE because it fails toExplain HOW improvements can be madeFor EXTERNAL feedback to be EFFECTIVE it needs to bePRECISE, ACCURATE, POSITIVE and given as SOON asPossible after the PERFORMANCE
55 Feedback and Motivation Feedback and Motivation are linked.You are likely to be MOTIVATED to do well in an activity ifYou receive POSITIVE FEEDBACK about your performance
56 Question 7- 2001 sample answer (a) (a) The steps which I took to identify the features of my skills and Techniques which need improvingwere firstly I chose an opponent to play against who was about the same standard as myself. This madeSure that I would be tested and that I would have to produce my best PERFORMANCE to beat.Then during a ‘real’ game I had my performance Video taped. This meant that I could look back on myPerformance at any time in the future and I could use all of the facilities of the Video like Pause,Replayand Slow motion to let me analyse any part of my performance in detail.Then I watched the Video and completed a GENERAL observation Schedule which looked at all thedifferent strokes in the game. From this General Observation schedule I could tell what my strengthsand weaknesses were.I then did a more FOCUSED observation schedule on my weakest skill. This allowed me toFocus more closely on a skill which I was not performing well. I used a MOVEMENT ANALYSISsheet for this. The MOVEMENT ANALYSIS sheet breaks the skill down into 3 parts –PREPARATION,ACTION and RECOVERY.The sheet had ESSENTIAL FEATURES of performance that you would see from aMODEL PERFORMER. From this sheet I was able to compare my performance in a skill against thatof a model performerBy doing all of the above things I was able to identify in detail which features of my performance neededImproving.
57 2001 q.7 sample answer (b)(b) The first method of practice I used was GRADUAL BUILD UP. I started by watchingA model performer and trying to copy the movements/sub routines of the skill as heperformed them. I tried to learn the skill BIT by BIT.First I attempted the footwork required to perform the skill on its own. I practiced moving from theCentre of the court to the back of the court using small, quick steps and making sure that I wasGetting side on to the shuttle as I moved.I then added in sighting the shuttle with my ‘Free’ hand and raising the racket above my head.Once I could do this I added trying to hit the shuttle over the net and once I could do this I thenAdded moving back to the ’base’ position on the court.At this stage I was now performing the complete skill.The next method of practice I used was REPETITION/DRILLS. Now that I could perform aVersion of the skill I set up a drill which allowed me to practice the skill over and over and in a‘Games like’ setting. By practicing the skill repeatedly I was trying to ‘Groove’ the skill and byUsing a drill I could simulate some of the conditions of a ‘Real’ game.My partner and I set up a DRILL where he served to me using a high serve and I had to returnusing my overhead clear,he then played a drop shot which I returned using anunderarm clear and my partner retuned using an overhead clear. We tried to repeat thisSequence over and over again which gave me lots of chances to play overhead clears . I had to playmy Clear to different parts of the court and my partner could vary where he played to on my court.Because I didn’t know where the shuttle was going to arrive I had to watch the shuttle carefully and reactquickly to move to get into position to play the shot, similar to what happens in a game. Playing the shuttle todifferent targets on the court also meant that I had to adapt my technique slightly for every shot
58 2001 sample answer (c)(c) GRADUAL BUILD UP was an appropriate method for me to use because it is suitable forLearning the early stages of a complex skill. Because I had to identify and learn all thesub – routines of the skill I could do this and learn to link them all together BIT by BIT.I was able to learn the skill by setting small realistic targets. When I managed to achieve theseTargets I got a lot of confidence and this made me more motivated to continue to learnREPETITION/DRILLS was suitable because it allowed me to repeat the skill over and over againWhich meant that I could GROOVE the skill. I could also adapt the DRILL to make it moreDemanding so that as my skill level improved I could make the drill harder and so I was constantlyChallenged. I could also make the DRILL more games like and this would put the skill underMore pressure
59 2001 sample answer (d)It is important to vary your practice routines so that you ENJOY practicing.This will keep your INTEREST level high and your CONCENTRATION high.If you vary your practice it will prevent you feeling BORED and therefore TIRED.You can also vary your practice routines to make your training PROGRESSIVE in order toContinually challenge you to improve your level of performance.