Presentation on theme: "The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires"— Presentation transcript:
1The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires By: Daniella Jurado
2Ottoman Empire Geography The Ottomans reigned land from North Africa, Eastern Europe, and Arabia. However they began on land given to them by the Seljuk Turks. They started on the Anatolian Peninsula in Turkey. The Ottomans ruled Constantinople and then renamed it Istanbul. They also conquered the Byzantine Empire. The Ottoman Empire went from the Black Sea to the Red Sea to the Strait of Gibraltar.
3Ottoman Empire Religion The Ottomans were Sunni Muslims. They were tolerant of non-Muslims. Non-Muslims had to pay a tax but they were allowed to practice their religion or to convert to Islam. Most people in Europe areas of the empire remained Christian. However the large numbers converted to the Islamic faith.
4Ottoman Empire Achievements The Ottomans had a lot of achievements. They conquered Constantinople(Istanbul) in Suleiman’s long reign was marked by a sequence of triumphs giving the Ottoman Empire control of much of Egypt and much of the Balkans land including Bulgaria, Hungary, Moldava, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia. Suleiman settled a justice technique that lasted until the fall of the empire. It was also during his time in power that the great Ottoman tradition of amazing art, architecture, and literature began its rise. Suleiman had some of the world's most spectacular buildings and paintings made.
5Ottoman Empire Political Janissaries were a military guard from Christians converted to Islam. Then they were trained as foot soldiers or administrators to the sultan. Selim I took over Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Arabia, including Jerusalem, Mecca, and Medina. He took the title of caliph, defender of the faith. Pashas, selected government officials, collected taxes and maintained law. They reported to the sultan in Constantinople(Istanbul). Suleiman I or Suleiman the Magnificent ruled in He extended Ottoman law into Europe. Suleiman ruled for 46 years. He was a great military commander. He was also known for his legislation as well. He organized Ottoman law while also keeping Islamic faith and Christian residents. He addressed taxes and he also built more schools.
6Ottoman Empire Political Suleiman I did a great job at running an empire however his personal life was different. He married a harem girl from Poland ,Roxelana, and had 5 children with her. He killed his oldest son, Mustafa, because Roxelana said he was planning to kill Suleiman and take power. Their other son Selim took power when Suleiman died in 1566.
7Ottoman Empire Economy Istanbul was an intersection of trade between the East and West. The Ottomans received the Seljuk caravan stops which were about 25 miles apart on the main trade routes of the empire to guard the caravan trade. Taxes were not applied regularly throughout the empire but once they were they were usually between 10-20%. In 1600, the Ottoman empire was an important market for people from Europe. However by the 1900s it was less important. Internal trade became more important than international trade.
8Ottoman Empire Society Judges and other people who helped the sultan with legal and military troubles were part of the ruling class. People who didn’t fit these requests made up the other class. Christians and Jews formed religious communities, or millets, within the empire. Each millet had its own leaders and religious laws. Many of them were Christians or Jews from lands the Ottomans had conquered. People in the ruling class had to be trustworthy to the sultan, practice Islam, and understand Ottoman customs. Christians and Jews formed religious communities/millets within the empire. Each millet had its own leaders and religious laws. Women in the ruling class of the Ottoman society had to live separated from men in a house called a harem. Wealthy women could own property and businesses.
9Ottoman Empire Society Some women used their money to build schools, mosques, and hospitals. The sultan made all decisions in the empire. Most Ottoman law was based on Islamic Law.
10Safavid Empire Geography The Safavid Empire went from Azerbaijan on the Caspian Sea east to India along the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea north to the southern border of Russia. They ruled one of the highest Persian empires. From 1501 to 1722 they ruled modern Iran, Azerbaijan and Armenia. They also ruled most of Iraq, Georgia, Afghanistan, and the Caucasus, as well as parts of Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Turkey.
11Safavid Empire Religion The religion in the Safavid Empire ,Islam, split into 2 groups in the mid-600s. The two groups are the Shia and the Sunni. Shia were Muslims who thought that only members of Muhammad's family could become caliphs. Sunni were Muslims that didn’t think caliphs had to be related to Muhammad to become caliph as long as they were good Muslims and strong leaders. Esma'il made Shiism(beliefs of the Shia) the official religion of the Empire. Esma'il wanted to conquer other Muslim territories and convert all Muslims to Shiism. He fought the Uzbeks to the north but fell with a devastating defeat by the Ottomans who were Sunni.
12Safavid Empire Achievements Safavids defeated the Uzbeks and recovered land that was lost to the Ottomans. Built mosques in their capital, Esfahan. Esfahan was considered one of the most magnificent cities in the 1600s. Riza-i-Abbasi is the most famous artist of this time. He made beautiful paintings about simple subjects such as oxen plowing and hunters. The Safavids used light colors and a flowing type of movement in painting.
13Safavid Empire Political A leader named Esma'il began the Safavid empire in He conquered Persia and took the title of shah/king. The fact that Esma’il made Shiism the official religion of the empire worried Esma'il's advisors because most people in the empire were Sunnis. Esma'il died in In 1588 'Abbas, greatest Safavid leader, became shah. 'Abbas reinforced the military and gave the soldiers up-to-date gun powder weapons. Like the Ottomans 'Abbas trained foreign slave boys to be soldiers.
14Safavid Empire Economy 'Abbas boosted the making of traditional products. Pretty soon hand woven carpets became great trade. The Safavids were well-liked for their skills in making ceramics and metal things especially things that were made out of steel. Merchants went all the way from Europe just to trade. This trade brought fortune to the Safavid Empire and helped create a major Islamic society. This lasted until the mid-1700s.
15Safavid Empire Society “Regular” marriages were usually and most likely of the term "arranged" marriages. These marriages were usually done by an attorney between people of a similar personality and comparable social status. Lifelong celibacy was unacceptable it was almost unnatural. Men were encouraged to experience intimate relationships at the earliest appropriate age however girls were carefully protected until their wedding nights. Divorce was available to both the male and the female. Remarriage was easy. If a husband filed for divorce he was forced to return her goods, money, etc. but if it was the wife who sued for divorce she forfeited it.
16Mughal Empire Geography Babur ”Tiger” united the Hindu and Muslim kingdoms of India. The Mughal Empire spread from the Hindu Kush Mountains east to the Bay of Bengal from present Afghanistan south to the near southern point of India. The Moguls under Babur and Akbar were categorized by religious tolerance, toleration of political management, and military dominance.
17Mughal Empire Religion The Mughals were Turkish Muslims that were from Central Asia. In a way they were tolerant for non-Muslims however when Akbar died they became non tolerant to non-Muslims.
18Mughal Empire Achievements During Akbar's rule the Persian language and clothing designs were very popular however during the same time Akbar encouraged people to write in Indian languages such as Hindi and Urdu. Many buildings of the Mughal Empire mixed Persian, Islamic, and Hindu styles. The Taj Mahal was an amazing achievement. The Taj Mahal was a tomb that was built between 1631 and 1647 by Akbar's grandson Shah Jahan for his wife. He brought workers and materials from all over India and Central Asia to help build it. The Taj Mahal has a main gateway and a mosque. A lot of the monuments that the Mughals built have become symbols of India today.
19Mughal Empire Politics The founder of the Mughal Empire was Babur "tiger“. Babur tried to start an empire in Central Asia but he didn’t get ahead. He then went to northern India and started the Mughal Empire in The empire flourished in the mid-1500s when the emperor Akbar ruled. Akbar cleared of the tax on non-Muslims and requested the Hindus to be a part of the Mughal government. In the late 1600s a new emperor altered the religious rules. He ordered people to follow stern religious rules and ruined Hindu temples in all of India. He also victimized non-Muslims and made them pay a tax. One mistreated group was the Sikhs. They were a religious group that had been started from Hinduism after some of its leaders disallowed some Hindu beliefs.
20Mughal Empire Politics When people protested Akbar would send war elephants to crush them. With all the violence the Mughal Empire soon crumbled.
21Mughal Empire EconomyThe economy in Mughal Empire was reliant on agriculture, trade and other businesses. Agriculture continued to be an important part of the economy, but the crops and methods still remained majorly unaffected. Irrigation was largely inattentive although in some places there was access to canals and water works. A diversity of food and cash crops were grown. The fabric business was thriving and later there was an incredible demand for cotton and silk. Cotton and silk were very important cash crops. Tobacco was introduced sometime in 1604 and also became an important cash crop. India had successful trade relationships with many parts of the world because of the foreign trade and it being an important part of the Indian economy. The main Indian imports were raw silks, gold, ivory, valuable stones, perfumes, horses, and slaves.
23Mughal Empire SocietyWomen in the Mogul Empire had very intricate lives. They had taken part in the Mogul family society. For example they were warriors and advisors in political matters. Women could own land and do business. However they also had limits of Islamic law. Separation of women was practiced in upper class Hindu families. In the Mughal Empire there were 3 classes. There was rich, middle, and poor. The rich class consisted of the king followed by his nobles. They lived with amazing luxuries and plentiful resources. Their food and clothes were very expensive however because they were so into spending the money they forgot and lacked the ruling of the Mughal Empire. The middle class consisted of merchants, industrialists, and other professionals. The middle class had comfortable lives and treated in some luxuries. The last class, the poor class, was extremely poor. They did not have adequate clothing and sometimes they didn’t even have food. They had low paying jobs and worked long hours.
24Mughal Empire SocietyIn a way you could say that they were like voluntary slaves and they were usually pressured by officers of the king who extracted money out of them by pressing false charges against them.