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UNIT III: Political Parties, Interest Groups & Mass Media.

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1 UNIT III: Political Parties, Interest Groups & Mass Media

2 Directions: Score each activity below using the guidelines provided. Write your score on the line provided. If you do not have an activity for a day you had an excused absence, write the letter A on the line provided, otherwise write a 0. Then add up your scores. Total Points (TP) _____ Actual Total (AT) _____ (39 pts.*) Notes: Total Points (TP) is the sum of your warm up scores. To determine your TP, add up the scores for all of your warm ups/written activities. Actual Total (AT) is the sum of a perfect score for each warm-up activity. To determine your AT, add up the scores for all of warm ups you were present for (*the true actual total – perfect attendance). TOTAL SCORE _____/10

3 PAC $ to Incumbents, Challengers & Open Seat Candidates Sector Total (in millions) To Incumbents To Challengers To Open Seats Agribusiness$19.991%3%6% Communic/Electronics$21.195%1%3% Construction$14.390%3%7% Defense$10.697%1%2% Energy/Nat Resources$22.192%2%6% Finance/Insur/RealEst$58.591%2%6% Health$39.891%3%6% Lawyers & Lobbyist$14.485%8%7% Transportation$19.593%2%6% Misc Business$29.389%3%8% Labor$59.468%21%12% Ideology/Single-Issue$60.957%24%19% a) Summarize the data presented in the each graph [2 points/1 each] b) Identify two (2) trends/ generalizations that help to understand the data from each graph more clearly. [4 pts] c) Explain the correlation between the data presented in each graph; what conclusions can be drawn. [2] (1) (2) Score: _____ /8

4 In preparation for class discussion, revisit your answers to the following questions in your notes and share responses with your cluster. From Page 1 Do you think public employees should have the right to collective bargain? Explain. Maryland does not have an option for a recall election for voters. Should we? Explain. Do you agree with the theory or pluralism? Explain. Do you think you belong to an interest group? Explain. Have you ever participated in social movement? Explain. From Page 2 What is the dilemma of the free rider and how would you solve it? Why do you think the percentage of unionized laborers has dropped so much since the end of World War Two? Why are public employees so important to the organized labor movement? Look at Table 5.1 (page 148). Why do you think there are so many interest groups all interested in the environment? Why dont you think they would have just one with more members? 5.3 Why do size and resources matter to interest groups? Why do you think most members of interest groups are members in name only and cannot be counted on to do things for the group?

5 In the Woll Reader, read the excerpt from Berrys article, Madisons Dilemma and respond to the Discussion and Multiple Choice Questions in the Woll Reader (Unit 3) reading guide. 1.Is the thinking of the framers relevant to contemporary politics? Does Madison have anything to say that resonates with the dynamics of American politics in the twenty-first century? 2.What is significant about the evolution in academic thought regarding interest group activity that took place between Trumans The Governmental Process and Dahls Who Governs?, and then between the rise of pluralism and the events of the 1960s? 3.With the increasing prevalence, political acumen, and practical effectiveness of narrowly focused single issue interest groups, has the time come for greater control on the behavior of citizens and the activities of interest groups? Should groups, for example, be required to look at more than one issue, or should they be required to explain how their positions and interests would benefit the nation? Are these efforts to regulate groups behavior, and do they infringe on individual or group freedoms?

6 1. According to Jeffrey Berry, what was Madisons dilemma? a) Groups pursue the good of society until governments are formed. b) The invisible hand fails to provide representation for the masses. c) If people pursue their self-interest, government will be too weak. d) If the government does not allow people to pursue their self-interest, it takes away their political freedom. 2. Robert Dahls book, Who Governs?, is associated with which school of thought? a) Laissez-faire. b) Pluralism. c) Incrementalism. d) The New Deal. 1. According to Jeffrey Berry, worries about pluralism led to efforts to: a) Increase participation in the political process. b) Eliminate single-issue citizen groups. c) Sacrifice individual freedom on behalf of the common good. d) none of the above

7 1. According to Jeffrey Berry, what was Madisons dilemma? a) Groups pursue the good of society until governments are formed. b) The invisible hand fails to provide representation for the masses. c) If people pursue their self-interest, government will be too weak. d) If the government does not allow people to pursue their self-interest, it takes away their political freedom. 2. Robert Dahls book, Who Governs?, is associated with which school of thought? a) Laissez-faire. b) Pluralism. c) Incrementalism. d) The New Deal. 1. According to Jeffrey Berry, worries about pluralism led to efforts to: a) Increase participation in the political process. b) Eliminate single-issue citizen groups. c) Sacrifice individual freedom on behalf of the common good. d) none of the above

8 1. According to Jeffrey Berry, what was Madisons dilemma? a) Groups pursue the good of society until governments are formed. b) The invisible hand fails to provide representation for the masses. c) If people pursue their self-interest, government will be too weak. d) If the government does not allow people to pursue their self-interest, it takes away their political freedom. 2. Robert Dahls book, Who Governs?, is associated with which school of thought? a) Laissez-faire. b) Pluralism. c) Incrementalism. d) The New Deal. 1. According to Jeffrey Berry, worries about pluralism led to efforts to: a) Increase participation in the political process. b) Eliminate single-issue citizen groups. c) Sacrifice individual freedom on behalf of the common good. d) none of the above

9 1. According to Jeffrey Berry, what was Madisons dilemma? a) Groups pursue the good of society until governments are formed. b) The invisible hand fails to provide representation for the masses. c) If people pursue their self-interest, government will be too weak. d) If the government does not allow people to pursue their self-interest, it takes away their political freedom. 2. Robert Dahls book, Who Governs?, is associated with which school of thought? a) Laissez-faire. b) Pluralism. c) Incrementalism. d) The New Deal. 1. According to Jeffrey Berry, worries about pluralism led to efforts to: a) Increase participation in the political process. b) Eliminate single-issue citizen groups. c) Sacrifice individual freedom on behalf of the common good. d) none of the above

10 What is a PAC and what does a PAC do? [1] Why is creating or joining a PAC more beneficial than making an individual contribution to a campaign? Explain. [2] Score: _____ /3

11 Colbert What is a PAC?PAC Problem… Problem Super PAC?? Super

12 For each statement, indicate if you agree (A) or disagree (D). 1. Government should be able to punish the Sierra Club if it were to run an ad immediately before a general election, trying to convince voters to disapprove of a Congressman who favors logging in national forests. 2. Government should be able to punish the National Rifle Association if it were to publish a book urging the public to vote for the challenger because the incumbent U.S. Senator supports a handgun ban. 3. Government should be able to punish the American Civil Liberties Union if it creates a website telling the public to vote for a presidential candidate in light of that candidates defense of free speech. 4. The First Amendment protects speech and speaker, and the ideas that flow from each. 5. If the First Amendment has any force, it prohibits Congress from fining or jailing citizens, or associations of citizens, for simply engaging in political speech. 6. When Government seeks to use its full power, including the criminal law, to command where a person may get his or her information or what distrusted source he or she may not hear, it uses censorship to control thought. This is unlawful. The First Amendment confirms the freedom to think for ourselves.

13 2002 McCain-Feingoldshut off soft-money and bar sham issue ads produced by independent groups within 60 days of an election Hillary Documentaryproduced by Citizens United Hillary Documentary 2003McCain-Feingold Laws Upheld 2010Ban lifted on Corporate money; corporations can expressly advocate for or against candidates

14 a) What were the facts of the case in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)? b) How did the Court rule? c) What was the Courts reasoning for its decision? d) In his dissent, Justice Stevens asserted, In the context of election to public office, the distinction between corporate and human speakers is significant. Although they make enormous contributions to our society, corporations are not actually members of it. They cannot vote or run for office. Because they may be managed and controlled by nonresidents, their interests may conflict in fundamental respects with the interests of eligible voters….Like all other natural persons, every shareholder of every corporation remains entirely free…to do however much electioneering she pleases outside of the corporate form. How would you respond to this statement? e) Do you agree with the Courts ruling? What is your constitutional reasoning?

15 a. Describe the following techniques and why an interest groups would choose each technique. Litigation [2 points] Campaign contributions [2] Grassroots lobbying/Mass mobilization [2] b. Select ONE of the following groups and identify the primary technique it uses from the list above. Explain why the group you selected would employ that technique over the other two techniques. [2 points] American Medical Association (AMA) Sierra Club National Rifle Association (NRA) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Score: _____ /8

16 2004 Question 2 (8 Points) Part a: (6 points) 2 points for each description, 1 point each for general description/definition, 1 point for demonstrating why the strategy would be used Litigation --Sponsoring a law suit to bring an issue to the courts for a decision) Lack broad popular support (numbers or public opinion) and lack influence over legislation/policy Civil rights/civil liberties issues involved Successful verdicts can establish precedents/decisions that benefit the groups core mission Campaign Contributions(Donating money to a candidate to support their bid for election/reelection) Financial resources Groups need access to policy makers Rewards candidates for support /loyalty Used when the issue is narrow or focused Grassroots lobbying (not lobbying Congresspersons)/Mass mobilization(Holding a protest, march, meeting, petition campaign that includes large numbers of people) Large membership/popular support but limited funds Popular support signals strength of opinion in the issue Requires less access to government and less money Must explain how this strategy can impact policy makers Part b (2 points) 1 point for correct association of a group with a strategy, 1 point for linkage to other strategies Acceptable associations include: AMA: Campaign contributions SC: Grassroots or litigation NRA: grassroots or Campaign contributions NAACP: litigation or grassroots IF STUDENTS DO NOT CORRECTLY IDENTIRY AN ACCEPTABLE ASSOCIATION THEN THEY CNNONT GET THE SECOND POINT

17 Anticipatory questions: What is a political party? How does a political party differ from an interest group? Can you name some of the parties we have in the United States? As you read, respond to the following questions: Does our system favor a two-party system? Why or why not? Do you think that the process 3rd party candidates have to go through is fair? Is it effective? From what you have learned today, do you think it is possible for a 3rd party candidates campaign to be successful? If so, what do you define as success?

18 Early Nonpartisanship (pre-party system) The framers of the Constitution of the United States made no provision in the governmental structure for the functioning of political parties because they believed that parties were a source of corruption and an impediment to the freedom of people to judge issues on their merits. James Madison argued in his "Federalist Paper #10" against a system in which "factions" (his word for parties) might be able to seize control of the government. George Washington, in accordance with the thinking of his fellow Founding Fathers, included in his cabinet men of diverse political philosophies and policies. Federalist and Democratic-Republican Parties. Within a short time informal parties did develop, even though their adherents still insisted they disapproved of parties as a permanent feature in American politics. One faction, commonly identified with Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton and Vice-President John Adams, became known as the Federalist party. Federalists favored an active federal government, a Treasury that played a vital role in the nation's economic life, and a pro-British foreign policy. It drew especially strong support from merchants, manufacturers, and residents of New England. The other faction, whose central figures were Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and fellow Virginian James Madison, became known as the Republican or Democratic - Republican party (this party should not be confused with the modern Republican party). The Jeffersonian Republicans advocated a limited federal government, little government interference in economic affairs, and a pro-French foreign policy. They were particularly popular with debt-ridden farmers, artisans, and southerners. The structure of government in the U.S. was conducive to the formation of political parties. The carefully elaborated system of checks and balances, established by the Constitution, makes executive and legislative cooperation necessary in the development of policy. Further, the division of legislative powers between the federal and state governments, as provided in the Constitution, makes it necessary for advocates of such policies as the regulation of commerce to seek representation or strength in both the federal and state legislatures. As these ends were too complex and difficult to achieve by impermanent groupings, the formation of permanent political organizations was inevitable. The Jeffersonian Republicans held power for 28 years following the inauguration of President Jefferson in During this period, the Federalist Party became increasingly unpopular. It ceased functioning on the national level after the War of 1812, leaving the Republican Party as the only national political organization.

19 Democratic Republican candidate James Monroe was reelected in the first presidential contest without party competition since Washingtons time. The lack of partisan competition under Monroe in what was called The Era of Good Feelings weakened his party, the Democratic Republicans. Before 1824, the role of parties in gathering the popular vote was relatively unimportant because relatively few people were entitled to vote. But the states began to drop restrictive requirements for voting after With the expansion of suffrage, more states began to allow the voters to choose the presidential electors, rather than Congress. In 1824, the partys nominee was challenged by three other Democratic Republicans, including John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson, who proved to be more popular candidates among the voters in the ensuing election. Although Jackson won a plurality of both the popular vote and the electoral vote in 1824, he did not win the necessary majority in the Electoral College. The House of Representatives had to decide the winner. It chose John Quincy Adams over the voters choice, Jackson. The disagreement among party leaders of the Democratic Republican party became so intense that the party split in two. Followers of Jackson represented the common people in the expanding South and West and its members called themselves Democrats. The label National Republicans applied to John Quincy Adams faction of the former Democratic Republican party. Adamss followers called themselves National Republicans to signify their old Federalist preference for a strong national government, but the symbolism did not appeal to the voters and the National Republicans lost to Jackson in Elected to another term, Jackson began to assert the power of the nation over the states (acting more like a National Republican than a Democrat). His policies drew new opponents. A coalition made up of former National Republicans, and Jackson haters formed the Whig Party in The name referred to the English Whigs who opposed the powers of the British throne; the implication was that Jackson was governing like a king. For the next thirty years Democrats and Whigs alternated in the Presidency. However, the issues of slavery and sectionalism eventually destroyed the Whigs from within. Although the party had won the White House in 1848 and had taken 44 percent of the vote in 1852, the Whigs were unable to field a presidential candidate in the 1856 election.

20 Anticipatory questions: What is a political party? How does a political party differ from an interest group? Can you name some of the parties we have in the United States? As you read, respond to the following questions: Does our system favor a two-party system? Why or why not? Do you think that the process 3rd party candidates have to go through is fair? Is it effective? From what you have learned today, do you think it is possible for a 3rd party candidates campaign to be successful? If so, what do you define as success?

21 Score: _____ /3 [1 point]

22 Political parties play important roles in United States elections and government institutions. Over the past several decades, the influence of political parties in elections has declined while their strength in Congress has increased. a) Describe two important functions of political parties in United States elections. [2 pts] b) Explain how each of the following factors has weakened the influence of political parties over the political process. Direct primaries [1] Candidate-centered campaigns [1] Score: _____ /4

23 Part (a): 2 points One point is earned for each of two correct descriptions of the functions of political parties in elections including: Provide cues for voters Provide a platform of issues Recruit candidates for government office Nominate candidates for government office Raise funds for their candidates campaigns Support for candidates campaigns Mobilize voters and get out the vote

24 Political parties play important roles in United States elections and government institutions. Over the past several decades, the influence of political parties in elections has declined while their strength in Congress has increased. a) Describe two important functions of political parties in United States elections. b) Explain how each of the following factors has weakened the influence of political parties over the political process. Direct primaries Candidate-centered campaigns

25 Part (c): 2 points One point is earned for an explanation of how each of the following factors has weakened the influence of political parties over the political process: Direct primaries: Gives parties less control over the nomination process of candidates; candidates appeal directly to voters and bypass parties; candidates may win who are not favored by the party elite. Candidate-centered campaigns: Candidates appeal directly to voters; candidates can raise money by appealing to voters or PACs directly; candidates choose their own issues to campaign on.

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27 Description/Characteristic Political Party Interest Group PAC 1. A group of people with common political ideas about how government should work. 2. Used to raise money for a candidate 3. Usually have a specific issue they are concerned with 4. Address a broad range of issues 5. Must register contributions with the government 6. Usually support individual candidates instead of a party 7. Works to get candidates elected for office 8. Influence the political process and campaigns 9. Testify before congress 10. Use lobbyists to get their issues heard

28 Special interest groups work together to champion particular causes and policies. Because groups have more resources and present unified voices on particular issues, they have a better chance of being heard by lawmakers…. Large special interest groups can make significant contributions to candidates who support their causes…. The cartoon below gives one view of the influence [this allow] special interest groups. Study the cartoon and answer the questions. Score: _____ /6

29 While interest groups and political parties each play a significant role in the United States political system, they differ in their fundamental goals. [2006] a) Identify the fundamental goal of interest groups in the political process. b) Identify the fundamental goal of major political parties in the political process. c) Describe two different ways by which interest groups support the fundamental goal of political parties in the political process. d) For one of the forms of support you described in (c), explain two different ways in which that form of support helps interest groups to achieve their fundamental goal in the political process. Score: _____ /6

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31 While interest groups and political parties each play a significant role in the United States political system, they differ in their fundamental goals. [2006] a) Identify the fundamental goal of interest groups in the political process. b) Identify the fundamental goal of major political parties in the political process. c) Describe two different ways by which interest groups support the fundamental goal of political parties in the political process. d) For one of the forms of support you described in (c), explain two different ways in which that form of support helps interest groups to achieve their fundamental goal in the political process.

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33 While interest groups and political parties each play a significant role in the United States political system, they differ in their fundamental goals. [2006] a) Identify the fundamental goal of interest groups in the political process. b) Identify the fundamental goal of major political parties in the political process. c) Describe two different ways by which interest groups support the fundamental goal of political parties in the political process. d) For one of the forms of support you described in (c), explain two different ways in which that form of support helps interest groups to achieve their fundamental goal in the political process.

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35 While interest groups and political parties each play a significant role in the United States political system, they differ in their fundamental goals. [2006] a) Identify the fundamental goal of interest groups in the political process. b) Identify the fundamental goal of major political parties in the political process. c) Describe two different ways by which interest groups support the fundamental goal of political parties in the political process. d) For one of the forms of support you described in (c), explain two different ways in which that form of support helps interest groups to achieve their fundamental goal in the political process.

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37 While interest groups and political parties each play a significant role in the United States political system, they differ in their fundamental goals. [2006] a) Identify the fundamental goal of interest groups in the political process. b) Identify the fundamental goal of major political parties in the political process. c) Describe two different ways by which interest groups support the fundamental goal of political parties in the political process. d) For one of the forms of support you described in (c), explain two different ways in which that form of support helps interest groups to achieve their fundamental goal in the political process.

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39 FIGURE 9.1 (p. 300) Partisanship and preferred news source Summarize the data presented in each graph. [2 points] Explain what these figures imply about the practice of selective exposure? [1 pt] According to these patterns, identify what conclusions can be drawn about the survey respondents and what they says about the news sources? [2 pts] FIGURE 9.2 (p. 300) Partisanship and news source credibility Score: _____ /5

40 Journalists tend to be more liberal than conservative. Why do you think journalists identify as Independents in a far greater percentage than policy makers and the public?

41 a)What does the table show? [1 point] b)How does President Obamas use of press conferences compare to his recent predecessors? [1 point] Score: _____ /2


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