Presentation on theme: "Why do we process certain Information when other stimuli passes us by."— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to Memory C:\Documents and Settings\fac6l170\My Documents\My Videos Why do we process certainInformation when other stimulipasses us by.We will be looking atShort term memoryLong term memory
2The difference between STM and LTM CapacityDurationEncodingForgettingSTMVery limited(7 items)Mainly acoustic(By sound)MainlyDisplacementLTMUnlimited(A lifetime)Mainly semantic(By meaning)Interference
3Neuropsychological Evidence Brain Damage: Shows some people lose theability of one type of memory but not theother. (Milner, 1966 and Warrington 1970)Alzheimer disease: Shows thatwhen a certain neurotransmitteris blocked LTM is affected.Squire 1992: Found theHippocampus is active inLTM while the Pre-frontalcortex works for STM
5Check your Capacity in STM Write down 8 strings of numbers first with three No then add one for each following string 265, 2768, and so on.In pairs : One person read out your no’s while your partner writes them down immediately after hearing them.Now swap roles. Note down your scores
6Results of your STM1: What is your score ( this is the longest strip of numbers you recalled )2: The class mean =3: How did you try to remember the numbers.4: How might you increase your STM span
7Measuring the Capacity in STM Digit span technique: Jacobs (1887) A number of digits are presented and participants must recall in the correct orderGeorge Miller (1957) devised“The Magical Number Seven”7 +/- 2 digitsMiller believed it was the numberof chunks of information and notjust number of digits
8Miller’S Chunking C B T U O D S A G I L E P N G CBT UOD SAG ILE PNG CAT SUN LEG DOT PIGShowing that memory scan can increase by chunking
9Measuring the Capacity in STM Simon (1974): arguedThat it depended on the sizeof the chunks. Small chunksMore capacity, larger chunkssmaller capacity.capacity.Cowan: More recent studieshave argued that both visualand auditory capacity isaround 4 chunks.
10Factors that affect STM Rehearsal and storage in LTM: This will increase the capacity for STMReading digits allowed:Strengthens memorytracePronunciation time:Lower capacity forArabic than English asit is quicker to pronounceEnglish.
11Test (pages 4 – 12)1) Outline how information is transferred from sensory memory to short-term memory in the multi-store model. (2 marks)2) Outline two characteristics of short-term memory (2 marks)3) What is the evidence for a distinction between STM and LTM. (2marks)
13Retention in STM Peterson and Peterson: Discovered that we can only hold information for a fewseconds.They found that memoryDeteriorated by 90% after18 secondsWhen rehearsal was preventedinformation decayed ordisappeared very quickly
14Serial Position Stimulus lists Distant CottageStable BargainCabbage FingerMattress LandscapeUncle FutureMinstrelQuestion
15This time after you have looked at the words This time after you have looked at the words. You need to count back in 3’s from 100Velvet VillageStomach CarpetFlower FavourGossip LawfulChamber StartedSandalWarehouse
16Studies in Duration Peterson and Peterson (1959) found that when participantswere given a 3-second intervalthey could remember 90% of data.However, when there was an18- second interval retentionreduced.This suggest that when rehearsalis prevented STM last about 20seconds at most
17Methodological Issues Laboratory study usingrepeated measures.Trigrams are artificial = low validityMay have been capacity rather durationPossible proactive interference(different items were used in each trial)
18Factors Affecting Duration in STM Rehearsal: increases duration.Intention to recall: When we areunder pressure to remember. SebrechtsRelevance of information:Murdock showed the numberof chunks was more importantthan the number of individual items.
19Retention in LTM It is generally accepted that LTM lasts a lifetime. Bahrick et al (1975)tested memory andfound that after 34 yearsmemory was good, butafter 47 years there wasa decided dip.
20Factors affecting duration in LTM Experimental techniques: Cues help recall, example recognition tasks were higher than recall tasks.Depth of learning: The more time spent learning, the longer information stays.Pattern of learning: Spaced out learning hold longer than intensive learningNature of Material to be learned: Statistics was seen to be particularly well retained. It was a skill rather than just remembering facts
21As stimuli reaches memory it is in it’s raw form. i. e As stimuli reaches memory it is in it’s raw form. i.e. a visual picture or a sound It is believed that STM and LTM have different methods of encoding informationEncoding
223 Main Types of Encoding Acoustic: The sound of the stimulus Visual: The physicalappearance of the stimulusSemantic: Themeaning of the stimulus
23Acoustic Coding in STM B G C T D V Conrad ran a number of tests. Write these letters down in the correct serial orderAcoustically similarB G C T D V
24Second Condition. F J X M S R Acoustically dissimilar Now write these letters down in the correct serial orderF J X M S R
25Conclusion Conclusion: Conrad believed that we must convert information FLOWERthat is visual into acousticto store it in STMTherefore, participants were confused when faced with lettershat sounded the sameMethodology: A little low in validity, not everyday chore tolearn strings of letters.
26Semantic coding in LTM Braddeley ran a similar test using words and found that STM used acoustic codingHe ran tests 4 times with participants to see how they faired in LTM = Semantic codingHe found that words thatwere similar in meaningwere poorly recalled.
27Encoding in STM List A AS: Mad, map, mad, mat, cad, cap, cat. List B AD: pen, cow, pit, sup, day , wet, ranList C SS: tall, high, broad, wide, big, large, fatList B SD: foul, thin, late, safe, strong, back, look
29List A: cad, mad, cab, map, can, man, cad, cap List B: cow, sup, hot, bun, bar, day, rig, few, fit, pen
30Evidence for different Encoding Conrad (1964) foundthat STM used acousticcoding.Baddeley (1966) foundthat LTM used semanticcodingPeterson and Peterson (1959) found that information decayed quickly in STM
31Sensory MemoryThis is where stimulus enters the brain and is sorted. Information is retained for only a fraction of a second. There are three separate storesIconic store:for visual inputEchoic store:for auditory inputHaptic store:for tactile input
32Sensory Memory Iconic store: Helps us see the world in one smooth motion.Evaluation: What information requires our attention, thus moving into STM, and what stimuli should be discarded?
33Evidence for Sensory memory Sperling (1960): Used achart containing threerows of letters. Showedfor 50 millisecondsHe found that we canonly focus on a fewpieces of information at once, as information fades quickly.This shows that memory has different components which are linear in nature.
34Multi Story ModelAtkinson and Shiffrin (1968) created The information-processing system to help explain how memory works
35What is a Model ? Psychologists have used flow charts to try and explainhow memory worksInformation-processingsystems are similar to theworkings of acomputer.There is a temporarystore, a STM and LTM store. Temporary store = buffer on a computer
36The Multi Store Model S memory STS LTS Stimulus input Attention RehearsalS memory STS LTSVisual, auditory Acoustic coding semantic codingHaptic coding limited capacity Unlimited capacityLimited capacity brief duration Unlimited durationVery brief durationRehearsal Loop
37Evidence for a distinction between STM and LTM Glanzer and Cunitz (1966): When participants were distracted they lost the regency effect but not the primary wordsLong term memory:The Primary effect( beginning of a word list)Short term memory:Recency effect( the end of a word list)Their work showed thatthere was a differencebetween STM store and LTM store
38Methodology and Ethics Laboratory studies:Most research in memory has been done in a laboratory where variables are easy to control = high reliability.Validity: However,these experimentsare something wewould not normallyDo in everyday life,= low validitymemory loss - Google Video
39Weaknesses Different types of information: Some data is a lot more excitingand therefore easier to remember.It’s not always about how much!Repetition vs Semantic:Craik and Lockhart found thatinformation is remembered betterif it is processed with meaningrather than simple rehearsal.
40Weaknesses Flashbulb memory: This supports Semantic inputting Kulik and Brownargue that shocking eventsare imputed without rehearsal.Linear: Ruchkin (1999)Information in LTM helpsto improve recall from STM.(words with meaning vs wordswithout)
41Weaknesses Brain Damage: It has been shown that people with damaged STM do not necessarily haveimpairment to their LTM.Artificial Experiments: Laboratoryexperiments do not necessarilyshow us how we behave in thereal world.
42The Working Memory Model Baddeley and Hitch believe that memory is much more complex than the Multi-story model suggests
43The Working Memory Model Baddeley and Hitch believed thatthere was more than one componentto STM.One for information that we hearOne for information that we see.Therefore we can do two tasksat once, i.e. driving a car andhaving a conversation at the same timeattention test - Google Video
45The Working Memory Model There are three different componentsThe Central Executive: Responsible for all the processing and attention tasks.The Phonological Loop: The temporary storage system for verbal information.The Visuo-spatial sketchpad: The temporary storage system for visual information
47This part of the loop holds Phonological store:This part of the loop holdsthe words you hear, likean inner ear.Articulatory control system:This is where words are silentlyrepeated or rehearsed, like aninner voice.
48Evidence for Working Memory Baddeley et al ran numerousexperiments and found evidenceto support the existence of the Phonological loop, the Visuo-spatial sketchpad and the Central Executive
49Evidence for the Visuo-Spatial Baddeley et al (1973) showed two tasksF H L Task one: identify the angles on a letterTask two: Follow a spotlightThey could not do both tasks together.They could do one visual task andone auditory task.This shows that there is a differencebetween the phonological loop and the visual-spatial sketchpad
50Evidence for the Phonological loop Braddeley et al (1975): presented lists of wordsWith one syllable: Harm, Wit, TwiceWith multi syllables: Organisation, UniversityIt takes longer to say multi syllable word, therefore participant remembered more single syllable wordsThis shows that we remember information by listening to the word in our heads. Shorter words take shorter time to rehearse
51Strength and Weaknesses of Working memory. This model is generally accepted throughout the psychological world. It has a much more in-depth and logical interpretation of STM
52Evidence for the Central Executive Some evidence from Neurological investigation shows that brain activity is increased when doing two tasks that require attention and rehearsal.It is difficult to test the existence of a central executive.There has been limited evidence given and this is one of the weaknesses of this theory
53Lesson ObjectivesUnderstand the concept that eyewitness testimony is not always reliable.Know the procedures of experimental research into eyewitness testimonyUnderstand Reconstructive Memory
54How accurate do we recall details of events witnessed. Eye Witness TestimonyHow accurate do we recall details of events witnessed.
56Misleading Information Loftus discovered that a problem we have in recalling events often comes from stimuli experienced after the event.Participants wereShown aVideo clip of acar accident.misleadinginformationCaused errorsin recall
57Loftus’ Experiments Experiment 1: After watching the car .Experiment 1: After watching the carCrash Participants were askedhow fast the car was going.Some questionnaires said how fastWas the car going when it hit othersothers used the word smashed orContacted instead or hit.Experiment 2: Students were shown aVideo of a multiple car crash. One weekLater they were brought back and askedWas there any broken glass? Again usingThe various verbs; hit, smashed, or contacted
58The Results of Both Experiments .VERBMEAN ESTIMATE OF SPEED (mph)Smashed40.8Collided39.3Bumped38.1Hit34.0Contacted31.8Results – Experiment 1How fast was the car going?Results – Experiment 2Did you see any broken glass?ResponseSmashedHitControlYes1676No344344
59Discussion Response Bias: critical words bias a person’s response. Memory is altered: The criticalword changes a person’s memory.Reconstructive memoryInformation processing for an event:1: The person’s own perception, during the event2: Information supplied after the event
60Demand Characteristics Participants might have guessed the aim of the experiment and changed their behaviourTo reduce demandcharacteristics Loftusoffered money toparticipants who gotThe recall correct.Despite this incentiveover 70% still gotthe recall details wrong.Black et al
61Methodology and Ethics Laboratory experiments are high in reliability.Although films of real eventswere shown participants wouldhave experienced thingsdifferently if they had beenpresent at the car crash.Lack of validity/ emotionalresponseEthics: Participants weredeceived therefore debriefingwould be necessary afterwards
63Schemas Schema: Is our Preconceived ideas about certain experiences. i.e. eating in a restaurantTuckey and Brewer (2003)did an experiment on ourideas about bank robbersParticipants recalled moredetails if they were in line with their schema of such events.
64Anxiety Loftus and Burns (1982) found that high levels of anxiety negatively effectmemory.When people witnessed aMan with a knife coveredin blood leaving a roomIdentification was poor.To busy looking at theknife.Christianson and Hubinette discovered that in real life experiences of anxiety often heighten recall. Witness bank robbery > Being threatened by robbers.
65Age of ParticipantChildren seem to accept what others tell them as part of their own memories (Poole and Lindsay 2001 = incorporate stories into real events)Flin et al (1992) foundthat children forget detailsmuch quicker than adults.Elderly people: Recall ofevents is less accurate
66Methodology and Ethics There is difficulties in eliminatingextraneous variable with childrenThere are also ethical issues whenusing children. Need informedconsent from parent.In the real world when events happenwe are not expecting them therefore notprepared to try and remember everydetail . + demand Characteristics.
68Method of Questioning Fisher (1987) discovered If misleading informationhas an affect of EWT thenit is important that the policeare careful not to misdirectwitnesses.Fisher (1987) discoveredthat police asked closedquestions which seems toconflict with the witnessestestimony. They alsofrequently interruptedbreaking concentration.
69The Cognitive Interview Instructions to witnessContextreinstatementRecall what you were thinking, feeling and the scene beforehandReport everythingReport everything, even triviaRecall from changedPerspectiveRecall it from another’s point of view.Recall in reverse orderReport from different ways moving backwards and forwards in time
70Evidence for the Cognitive Interview Geiselman et al (1985) found that the cognitive interview was better than the original method and hypnosis. More correctdetails were recalledBut there was alsomore mistakesFisher et al (1990)discovered that policein Miami wereimpressed with results.
71Evidence for the Cognitive Interview Police have expressed a concern, with the increase incorrect detail, when using CI.They believe that the context reinstatement and reporting everything are more useful than the other two categoriesThis has been backed up by psychologists Milne and Bull (2002)
72Improving Memory Teaching strategies for memory improvement is a useful tool for future exams
73Mnemonics based on Visual Imagery The Peg Word SystemOne is bunTwo is ShoeThree is treeFour is a doorFive is a hiveSix are SticksSeven is HeavenEight is a GateNine is a LineTen is Hen
74One is bunTwo is ShoeThree is treeFour is a doorFive is a hiveSix are SticksSeven is HeavenEight is a GateNine is a LineTen is Hen
75Mnemonics based on Visual Imagery The Peg Word SystemEggsBreadBiscuitsTomatoesPotatoesCheeseJamPastaJuiceCornflakes
76Six are SticksOne is bunSeven is HeavenTwo is ShoeThree is treeEight is a GateFour is a doorNine is a LineFive is a hiveTen is Hen
77Mnemonics based on Visual Imagery The Peg-word system: Where you thing of one word and then peg another on to help recallThe Method of Loci: Thing of things you see on your route to college. Then attach a list of item to each of the things on your route
78Visual ImageryPaivio (1965): found that people could remember words that were easy to put pictures to – concrete V abstract nounsBeni and Moe (2003):Present words + images together,rather than words + wordsor images + images
81Organisation and Understanding Bransford and Johnson gave a passage to participant.One with a title to the pieceOne with no title (Content was not clear)People remembered the title and that coupled with their schema helped recall.
82Organisation in memory Bransford and Johnson (1972) found that participants who were given a title to a passage of information found it easier to recall than those not given a title, as participants applied already stored knowledge on the topic to their understanding of the passage. This enhanced their recall later.
83ChunkingAs already noted, chunking increases the amount we can recall and also reduces the load on memory. A difficult task can be reduced to a simpler task for STM.
84Encoding and retrieval strategies We recall things better if we try and retrieve the information in the same context or situation as when we learnt it.(Geiselman and Glenny (1977)
85Active processingWe are more likely to remember material that we have actively processed. Simple rehearsal is not enough to lay down long-lasting memories.Craik (1977) investigated recall of a word list under different conditions e.g. Is a word written in capital letters, does the word rhyme with another word, is it the name of a living thing.They found that group 3 remembered more than groups 1 and 2 because they had to think about the meaning of the word rather than just look at its structure.
86Attention and practice If we don’t pay attention to material we cannot remember it (as looked at in EWT).Practice is also important in order to remember large amounts of information for an exam, for example. Ericsson and Chase (1981) studied SF who could memorise up to 80 digits in one go – he had to practice for an hour a day over a two year period to do this!However, you need to be aware of your own memory and what works best for you!