5 INTRODUCTIONIn the hospitality industry, we have to interact/deal with other people.Some times interaction works well.Other times things go not as we expect.Then, we find ourselves in a conflict situation
6 Conflict is part of the industry. Cont.Hospitality industry deals with people, in services. It's an industry with tight deadlines and pressure.It's an industry involving lots of people, all with different needs and expectations.Conflict is part of the industry.
7 cont.Customers and colleagues are PEOPLE, with all the variations of characteristics, moods and problems that you could ever expect to encounter.This is particularly true in the Hospitality Industry, where customers' expectations are high, types of customers vary, and every interaction with a customer is vital to your business.
8 Therefore, we must manage how to respond to it. Introduction (cont)Occasionally guests complain. Sometimes it is our fault, sometimes it is not but as we are front line staff, the customers will come and express their dissatisfactionTherefore, we must manage how to respond to it.
9 Complaints Mechanical complaint Most guest complaints relate to hotel equipment malfunctions. ( room furnishing, ice machine, door keys, television, lighting, air conditioning etc)Attitudinal complaintThe guest feel insulted by rude or unprofessional staff member of the hotel.Service-related complaintThe guest experience a problem with hotel service. ( waiting time for service, lack of assistance with luggage, untidy room, phone difficult)
10 Hotel generally have little or no control over the circumstances. Unusual complaintGuest sometime expects the front office staff to resolve or at least listen.Hotel generally have little or no control over the circumstances.The exampleBad weather, Why train are late? No buses running on weekends etc.
11 WHY PEOPLE COMPLAIN? From frustration To impress other people For compensation
12 Why do Customers Complain? Customers complain because their needs and/or expectations have not been met.They feel they have been let down by the establishment or the service provider.There is a gap between what the customer expects and what has been achieved i.e..- a service performance gap.
13 Definition of conflict: Conflict exists when two or more parties have differing NEEDS, WANTS, GOALS or VALUES and express those differences.Any situation that leads to disagreement between two or more individuals.
14 cont. A conflict is 'a state of tension , differing viewpoints No two people view the world exactly the same way, disagreement is quite normal.In fact, if someone agrees with you all the time, they are probably telling you what you want to hear, not what they actually believe!
15 Kinds of conflictkinds of conflicts that happen around your workplace are:Disagreements over who should doDisagreements over policy (how things should be done)Conflicts of personality and style
16 Some more examples of conflict in the workplace SOURCERacismViolenceWanting to gain moreUncertain goalsEXAMPLESAvoiding working with people from a specific cultureCustomers wanting more alcohol and angry when refusedCreating competition with othersUnclear direction, confusing as to outcomes
17 Here are some examples of conflict that you might encounter Staff/team member will argue when one person perceives that another is not doing their fair share of work.Poor communication within the workplace leaves individuals unsure of what is happening.Tips not being shared, or unfairly distributed!One person feels that favouritism is occurring.
18 Unequal treatment of employees. Cultural misunderstandings. continuedUnequal treatment of employees.Cultural misunderstandings.Religious misunderstandings or intolerance.Male/female differences or attractions.Unfair payment of staff.Unfair workload distribution.
19 Signs of potential workplace conflict Team members may start having minor disagreementIndividual team members may start arriving late to workCustomers may become agitated while waiting to be served or when talking to staff
20 Signs of conflictsagitated body language - crossed arms, tapping on the counter, hands on hips, restless movementssignals of impatience - does not listen to or interrupts explanation, aggressively pulls brochures out of the display, pushes in on other customerstone of voice - raised or harsh voice, speaking fast, use of an angry toneeye contact - staring harshly or scowlingphysical contact - stands too close, leans over counterlanguage - repeats themselves, uses sarcasm, sighs, swears, accuses or blames
21 Workplace factors in conflict Some of these factors are:Poor workplace layout, lighting or temperatureLack of equipment to do the jobPoor maintenance of equipment and workplaceLack of training and skills of team membersUnderstaffingInadequate breaks
22 Why do we need to handle Conflict? Conflict, when handled appropriately, can lead to:Improve working relationshipsImprove customer serviceIncrease productivityIncrease opportunities for self developmentRemember:We can't eliminate conflict, and in some cases we can't even resolve it.All we can hope to do is to manage it.Refer to page 208
23 cont. Between us and a colleague. Between us and a customer . Between organizationsBetween customers.Refer to page 208
24 Identifying the workplace conflicts LESSON 2 (week-2)IntroductionIdentifying the workplace conflicts
25 What kind of conflicts Conflict Cont.What kind of conflictsConflictcan be between co-workers, department managers, managers and their staff, suppliers and managers and of course between staff and the guest.
26 types of conflictIn the workplace, we encounter three broad areas where conflict could exist:Conflicts in interpersonal relationships.Conflicts in negotiation between staff and customers, different sections or managers.Conflicts in meetings.
27 Conflicts in interpersonal relationships For ExampleIf someone who is normally friendly towards you suddenly begins avoiding you or being rude, there is usually a reason. If that person has remained cheerful with everyone else except you, chances are that you are dealing with a conflict situation.
28 Conflicts in interpersonal relationships, address the problem by using the following steps: Try to determine if there is a problem between you and the other person.If you think there might be a problem, set up a private meeting to discuss the matter.Ask the person - in a non-confrontational manner - if there is a problem. If the answer is 'No', inform the person that you think there might be a problem and then explain what you think the problem might be.
29 cont.As you talk, ask them for feedback. Do not 'attack' the other person with accusations.Listen with an open mind.Respect each others' opinions.Try to determine why the other person feels the way they do.Avoid pointing fingers and blaming.Try to work out a compromise that pleases both parties.
30 Conflict between us and a Colleague This type of conflict frequently arises in the workplace.It may result from any number of issues including:Cultural differencesPersonality differencesDifferences in values or work ethicsRefer to page 208
31 Conflict between us and a customer Conflict between us and a customer is likely to arise because of an inability to meet customer expectations.Examples include:Poor service standardsLack of professionalismPoor product quality
32 cont.When you are negotiating with your clients, customers, or even your colleagues, it is important to keep in mind the idea that both parties are seeking a 'Win/Win' situation.No one wants to feel like they are giving away something for nothing!
33 cont. Avoid defend-attack interaction: it's non-productive every time! Ask a lot of questions!Make sure that you understand everything. Try to describe to the other person your understanding of the things they have been saying, using other words, and then ask them if they have understood properly. Ask for their feedback.Try to understand the other person's perspective: communication is more than just listening; try to see it their way.
34 Conflict between Organisations One type of conflict between organizations is sometimes referred to as competition (when it is between two similar organizations). Or between departmentsRefer to page 209
35 Conflict between customers Conflict sometimes arises between customers.This type of conflict must be quickly and diplomatically managed.Refer to page 209
36 Identify Conflict Situations Achieving total customer satisfaction must always be our main objective.Our customers are the reason our organisation exists - without them, who would buy our goods, enjoy our service, and experience our expertise? Identifying conflict with customers can provide you with great opportunities to improve customer satisfaction.
37 Identify Conflict Situations - Points to Remember Identify the problem before it escalates. The quicker you identify a potential conflict, the more likely you are to reach a satisfactory resolution. Identifying conflict will maintain, if not improve, quality in the workplace. Our ultimate objective in dealing with conflict is to provide customer satisfaction.
38 If you have identified potential conflict situations: Do not ignore itImmediately address the situationRemain calm and politeIf need be, seek assistanceTackle /dig deep and find out the ‘real reason’ for the conflict.
39 Learn about each other's countries and cultures If you have identified potential conflict situations That Are Cultural:Learn about each other's countries and culturesBe respectful and open-mindedCelebrate holidays of other culturesCreate cultural awareness factsheetsTreat people as individualsIdentify gaps in your own knowledge
40 If you have identified potential conflict situations That Are Cultural: Strategies for minimising cultural misunderstandings: handle sensitively and courteouslyoffer apologies where appropriatedon’t give reasons or excusestake the best course of action to resolve as quickly as possiblelearn by ones mistakesseek assistance from supervisor or manager if required
41 If you have identified potential conflict situations That Are Cultural: Preventing cultural misunderstandings:provide colleagues and customers with appropriate informationprovide advise of cultural variations and practices, behaviour and opinions they may find different before they experience themadapt own actions and behaviour in ways that are culturally appropriateprovide customers with appropriate tourism and hospitality products and services
42 LESSON 3 (week-3)Causes of conflictsStages of conflicts
43 In this section we look at the three main causes of conflicts. What Causes Conflict?In this section we look at the three main causes of conflicts.The role of mistakes and accidents.The effect of misunderstood communication.The impact of judgment that we make about others.
45 What Happens in a Conflict Situation? Every conflict is different and each has a different outcome. However, in most cases, conflicts follow certain stages:The event that act as triggers.The confrontation.The outcome of the conflict (resolution).
46 Is Conflict Good or Bad? If it is unmanaged it can be destructive however arguments between team members can actually be a positive sign.It can mean that the staff care about there workplace and feel they have a stake in the issue.
47 The Role of Conflict. Conflict is necessary in order to: Cope with new challengesStimulate ideasFind solutions to problemsAdapt to changeSurviveAnd finally to achieve organisational objectives
48 Positive outcomes of Conflict Provides scope for innovation and creativityIncreases group unityMotivates group to clarify objectivesCreates greater information inputEncourages group to protect important values
49 cont.Group/individuals are forced to become more flexible and adaptable to change, thus increasing organisational/group effectivenessMotivates group members, resulting in better, more competitive performance
50 Negative outcomes of conflict reaching their goals in a win-lose situationCan cause ill-feeling and resentmentEffective communication can be reducedAttention can be diverted from performance goalsCan waste time and energyCan lead to emotional, psychological and even physical ill-health
52 Causes of Conflict Conflict arises for any number of reasons: Different expectationsCommunication barriers- MOST COMMONMotivationCultural values/Differences in valuesPersonalitySafety and securityOrganisational structureOrganisational changeFear –people don’t get along because they fear each other.People fear each other because they don’t know each other.They don’t know each other because they have not properly communicated with each otherDifferences in goals, expectationsRefer to page 209
53 Mistakes and Accidents What happens when we make mistakes at work?Many mistakes and accident can be avoided.Some mistakes cannot be avoided.However, a mistake made by one person will affect other people.The people who are affected by a mistake may become upset and this can lead to a conflict.
54 Misunderstood Communication What about situations where one person misunderstand what another person has said? Can this lead to a conflict?
55 Cont.Misunderstanding and Communication barriers are main causes of conflict:-These occur because:People do not listen to each otherAre not prepared to talk and resolve the situationDo not understand cultural differences and are not prepared to make allowances for themRefer to page 207
56 Judgments Can the way we feel about another person lead to conflict? Communication can fail when people don’t check their interpretation with each other.Communication can also lead to conflict when one person makes a judgment about another person’s behaviour.
57 Barriers That Cause Conflict Not paying attention – causing frustration, annoyance – unprofessional/distractionNo Eye Contact – results in showing of disinterest but uncomfortable too.Interrupting – when someone is trying to talk to you or finishing their sentences for them –Refer to page 211
58 Tone of Voice – arrogant, demanding, anger, whining etc - ensure that you remain objective Sarcasm – show patience and understanding as sarcasm can only ignite the situation
59 Barriers That Cause Conflict Rudeness – is totally unacceptable in hospitality and there is no excuse for this.Cultural Differences – try and familiarise yourself with the culture you are dealing with to avoid conflict as a result of you ‘misunderstanding cultural beliefs, manners & protocols’Refer to page 211
60 Stages of conflict Stage 1: Unease/discomfort Stage 2: Episode/incidentsStage 3: MisunderstandingsStage 4: Stress/tensionStage 5: CrisisRefer to page 213
61 Conflict usually escalates through five stages: Discomfort (Stage one)Things just don't feel right, although maybe nothing has yet been said.It may be difficult to identify exactly what the problem is.You may feel uncomfortable about the situation, but not quite sure what to do about it.
62 Stages (cont)IncidentsSomething may occur between you and a colleague or customer that leaves you upset, irritated or with a result you didn't want.It may be a short, sharp exchange with no lasting ill-effects.
63 Stage (three) Misunderstanding Sometimes motives and facts can be confused or misunderstood.Your thoughts may keep returning frequently to the problem.
64 Stage (four)TensionYour relationship with your colleague or customer may be weighed down by negative attitudes and opinions.The way you feel about the other person may have significantly changed for the worse.The relationship could now be a source of constant worry and concern.
65 Stage(five)CrisisYour behaviour is affected, normal reactions become difficult and you contemplate or execute extreme gestures.You could be dealing with a major crisis like a rupture in a relationship or losing the customer.
67 But before dealing with the conflict, make sure you understand the situation and what is happening: identify the real difference that is causing the conflict.Is the problem a difference in the facts, goals, methods or values? By understanding the situation and the real cause of the conflict, you will be better equipped to choose from the range of constructive responses suited to conflict resolution’ Source: Dwyer, J. (1997) The Business Communication Handbook 4th Ed (p100)
69 introductionIf you can identify a conflict situation and stop it as soon as possible, the problem is often solved before it really began.However, sometimes you will be unable to avoid a conflict. Conflict is unpleasant
70 Cont.To leave conflict situations unresolved may lead to bigger problems further down the track.Resolving a conflict situation gives you greater personal job satisfaction, a higher level of customer satisfaction and means a more successful business.So resolving conflict and avoiding unpleasant situations definitely boosts your personal morale and those around you - both customers and colleagues.
71 The biggest and most complicated task when dealing with conflict situations is to find a resolution that will be WIN/WIN for all parties concerned.
72 Resolve conflicts (cont) To resolve conflict situations ( WIN/WIN for two parties), we need to grasp a number of different points of view and opinions. These may include:Each party's view and perceptions of the situation .Are the parties involved aware of the extent of the situation, and of their contribution to the situation?Is there a personal history as to why the situation has developed?
73 Cont. What is the motivation behind each party's stance? Are there 'outside' forces contributing to, or responsible for the situation?What does each party want to achieve from this situation?
74 Resolve Conflict Situations The beginning of resolving conflict with customers Part of the challenge of working in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries is learning how to address the needs of all the different customers we encounter at the same time.Whether you are dealing with customers in a general sense, or resolving situations, always bear in mind the following tips:
75 The customer is not dependent on us, we are dependent on them. The customer is not an interruption to our work, they are the purpose of it.The customer does us a favour when they contact us, we are not doing them a favour by serving them.
76 The customer is part of our business, not an outsider. The customer is not a cold statistic, but human like us, with feelings and emotions.The customer is not someone to argue or match wits with.
77 The customer brings us their needs and wants The customer brings us their needs and wants. It is our job to try and satisfy those needs and wants.The customer deserves the most courteous and attentive treatment that we can give them.The customer is the livelihood of our business.
78 conflict can develop (and perhaps escalate) from some of the underlying reasons PERSONAL REASONSExpectations of the job are not met.Limited opportunities in the workplace.Personal reasons.Personality clashes with a colleague(s).Lack of peer co-operation.Lack of professional support.Poor induction into the workplace after initial employment.
79 PROFESSIONAL REASONS Restructuring in the workplace Changes to workplace conditionsChanges and improvements in technologyOccupational Health and Safety IssuesMoraleCultural and gender diversity in the workplaceManagement style and accountabilityPoor recruitment
80 Steps for resolving Conflict situations Refer to page 207
81 Customer complaints are an opportunity for the organisation in two ways. It can highlight errors we have in our organisation's systems and processes.It gives us the opportunity to demonstrate our organisation's focus on customer service.
82 HOW CONFLICT CAN MAKE US FEEL Any of the stages of conflict give make us feel:Uncomfortable and upsetAngryFrustratedStressedRefer to page 213
83 CONFLICT OUTCOMESLose–loseWin–loseWin–winRefer to page 215
84 CONFLICT RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES Refer to page 217
85 CONFLICT RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES To resolve conflict situations, there are several techniques we can use. Not all techniques lead to win-win.Compromising.Accommodating.Competing.Avoiding.Collaborating.Refer to page 217
86 COMPROMISINGThis technique attempts to find a middle ground between the conflicting parties.It requires each party to give up something they value to resolve the conflict.It involves splitting the difference to arrive at a solution partially acceptable for both parties.Compromising is quick but it can leave neither party not fully satisfied.It may also be short term.Sometimes it is the best alternative.Refer to page 217
87 ACCOMMODATING/SMOOTHING This technique involves playing down the real issues at hand and plays up the similarities between the parties in the hope of smoothing things over.When relationships are more important than the ‘issue’ or when your ‘stake’ in the conflict or issue isn’t high, this is the best optionAccommodating is cooperative.It can be passive/submissiveRefer to page 217
88 This technique frequently leads to a clear winner and a loser. COMPETINGThis technique frequently leads to a clear winner and a loser.It is often used through force, domination or superior skill.It is being uncooperative and aggressive.Power is used in this styleThis works when urgency is required in decision making.Remember to be assertive and not aggressive‘Power relationships work only if you never have to see or work with the bastards again’ Peter Drucker(1999)Refer to page 217
89 AVOIDING This technique usually results in a lose-lose situation. It means that all parties ignore the conflict issues in the hope that they will go away. They won’t.Avoiding is ‘uncooperative’It can be seen as side stepping or postponing for a latter time.Refer to page 218
90 COLLABORATINGThis technique is the most effective and direct approach for achieving win-win.This technique uses problem-solving techniques to meet the expectations of each party to the conflict.This is a cooperative style.It means attempting to work things out – seeking to make things workCan take time.Best used when all parties are committed to the solution and when you need a creative solution.Refer to page 218
91 Techniques Adopted in Reaching a Win/Win Solution to Conflict Choose the right strategyTake responsibility for dealing with the conflict and participating in the resolutionUse positive and appropriate body languageBe assertive in your communication, make your point clear and respond clearly but not aggressively to the other person's statements
92 Use active listening techniques of questioning, summarising and paraphrasing Be empathetic i.e. show concern for the other party and try to understand their point of viewManage your emotions and keep your anger under controlBe as impartial as possible and gain all the factsChoose the right time and location to attempt a resolution to the conflict
93 Responding To Customer Complaints Week (7-8)Responding To Customer Complaints
94 Whatever your role in the Hospitality and/or Tourism Industries, it is vital that you learn the skills to manage, deal with and respond to customer complaints. The longer you work, the more refined your skills will become.
95 Negative Complaints can bring to mind many of the following feelings: you were in the wrong place at the wrong time.Some customers are 'professional complainers'.Some customers have unrealistic expectations.Some customers are just seeking attention.Some customers want everything for nothing.
96 positivePositive things about customer complaints are: They provide valuable feedback on the quality of products and services.They give customers the opportunity to improve the business if staff listen to what customers actually want!Customers can have good suggestions, and listening to them may improve customer loyalty.If a complaint has been addressed and rectified, the customer may return, thus generating repeat business.
97 If complaints have decreased, businesses can use this as an indication that quality and/or service has improved.Given that the majority of customers don't complain (they just never return), does the complaint that's being made show what the majority of customers think?
98 Respond to customer complaints A typical dissatisfied customer will tell ten people when they are unhappy... Those ten people will in turn tell five others (on average)...This creates a negative word-of-mouth chain....So, people = 61 people who are told about a dissatisfied customer.
99 A typical business only hears from: 4% of dissatisfied customers A typical business only hears from: 4% of dissatisfied customers. The other 96% go quietly away. And 91% never come back to the business.
100 Remember...It takes 12 positive service incidents to make up for one negative incident.But whatever you do, and no matter how good your service may be, people will sometimes complain...Research shows that 7 out of 10 complaining customers will do business with you again if their problem is resolved satisfactorily.It takes a lot of motivation for people to complain. As the figures above show, most people do not complain at all, which does even more damage to the business than the original cause for complaint.
101 Although we can't always anticipate or prevent customer complaints, we can put in place the strategies, procedures, knowledge and skills required to resolve them so that we do not fall victim to a negative word-of-mouth chain. Complaints are also an opportunity to address the problem, impress the customer with your satisfactory resolution of it, and build customer loyalty.
102 Responding to client complaints This is similar to the collaborative approach conflict problem solving.Listen to the customerSummarise the problemOffer solutionsFollow through and then
103 Customer complaint handling. Some valuable points to remember… Don’t take their comments, or their anger towards you personally, and never respond in an angry way!Make sure that the customer feels that you have an interest in their complaint, and you take it seriously!Customers with a high level of emotion may take a little longer to calm down – be patient with them.Offer options that are within your authority! And are fair to both the customer and the organisation!Never blame others! This can be difficult when you are not at fault!
104 Respond to customer complaints (cont) Do's and don'ts for dealing with complaints 1 Listen with understanding and put yourself in customer’s shoes.Take responsibility and take actionTell them what you can fix the problem, not what you can’t do.Listen carefully, and clarify the problemShow concernThank the customerFollow up with your action
105 Don’t Become defensive Interrupt Argue Make excuses (or) tell them it is not your jobHope that someone else will handle itPut up barriers to communicateTake insults personally
106 A few final points to keep in mind when handling a complaint: Remember that within any organisation, procedures that you may be instructed to work by are guidelines, not law.There may be room to 'bend the rules' a little in order to make the customer happy.It is important that you understand how far you can go with this, and you may need to ask a superior before you take action.
107 Try to be flexible in order to make a customer happy or resolve their complaint. Think beyond the boundaries - think about how you could WOW them in order to gain an even more loyal customer.
108 Don't ever forget those extra rules of courteous service! Smile and use positive body languageAddress the customer by nameUse appropriate language
109 Points to note when dealing with customers It is essential that you show:EmpathyAn understanding of their positionA recognition of their needsA feeling of comfort and a perception that they are special.