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1 Dealing with conflicts. 2 3 LESSON 1 (week-1) Introduction Introduction What is conflict What is conflict What causes conflict What causes conflict.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Dealing with conflicts. 2 3 LESSON 1 (week-1) Introduction Introduction What is conflict What is conflict What causes conflict What causes conflict."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Dealing with conflicts

2 2

3 3 LESSON 1 (week-1) Introduction Introduction What is conflict What is conflict What causes conflict What causes conflict

4 conflicts Why?

5 5 INTRODUCTION In the hospitality industry, we have to interact/deal with other people. In the hospitality industry, we have to interact/deal with other people. Some times interaction works well. Some times interaction works well. Other times things go not as we expect. Other times things go not as we expect. Then, we find ourselves in a conflict situation Then, we find ourselves in a conflict situation

6 Cont. Hospitality industry deals with people, in services. It's an industry with tight deadlines and pressure. Hospitality industry deals with people, in services. It's an industry with tight deadlines and pressure. It's an industry involving lots of people, all with different needs and expectations. It's an industry involving lots of people, all with different needs and expectations. Conflict is part of the industry. Conflict is part of the industry.

7 cont. Customers and colleagues are PEOPLE, with all the variations of characteristics, moods and problems that you could ever expect to encounter. Customers and colleagues are PEOPLE, with all the variations of characteristics, moods and problems that you could ever expect to encounter. This is particularly true in the Hospitality Industry, where customers' expectations are high, types of customers vary, and every interaction with a customer is vital to your business. This is particularly true in the Hospitality Industry, where customers' expectations are high, types of customers vary, and every interaction with a customer is vital to your business. 7

8 Introduction (cont) Occasionally guests complain. Sometimes it is our fault, sometimes it is not but as we are front line staff, the customers will come and express their dissatisfaction Occasionally guests complain. Sometimes it is our fault, sometimes it is not but as we are front line staff, the customers will come and express their dissatisfaction Therefore, we must manage how to respond to it. Therefore, we must manage how to respond to it.

9 Complaints Mechanical complaint Mechanical complaint Most guest complaints relate to hotel equipment malfunctions. ( room furnishing, ice machine, door keys, television, lighting, air conditioning etc) Attitudinal complaint Attitudinal complaint The guest feel insulted by rude or unprofessional staff member of the hotel. The guest feel insulted by rude or unprofessional staff member of the hotel. Service-related complaint Service-related complaint The guest experience a problem with hotel service. ( waiting time for service, lack of assistance with luggage, untidy room, phone difficult) The guest experience a problem with hotel service. ( waiting time for service, lack of assistance with luggage, untidy room, phone difficult)

10 Cont. Unusual complaint Unusual complaint Guest sometime expects the front office staff to resolve or at least listen. Guest sometime expects the front office staff to resolve or at least listen. Hotel generally have little or no control over the circumstances. Hotel generally have little or no control over the circumstances. The example The example Bad weather, Why train are late? No buses running on weekends etc. Bad weather, Why train are late? No buses running on weekends etc.

11 WHY PEOPLE COMPLAIN? From frustration From frustration To impress other people To impress other people For compensation For compensation 11

12 Why do Customers Complain? Why do Customers Complain? Customers complain because their needs and/or expectations have not been met. Customers complain because their needs and/or expectations have not been met. They feel they have been let down by the establishment or the service provider. They feel they have been let down by the establishment or the service provider. There is a gap between what the customer expects and what has been achieved i.e..- a service performance gap. There is a gap between what the customer expects and what has been achieved i.e..- a service performance gap.

13 Definition Definition of conflict: o Conflict exists when two or more parties have differing NEEDS, WANTS, GOALS or VALUES and express those differences. o Any situation that leads to disagreement between two or more individuals.

14 cont. A conflict is 'a state of tension, differing viewpoints A conflict is 'a state of tension, differing viewpoints No two people view the world exactly the same way, disagreement is quite normal. No two people view the world exactly the same way, disagreement is quite normal. In fact, if someone agrees with you all the time, they are probably telling you what you want to hear, not what they actually believe! In fact, if someone agrees with you all the time, they are probably telling you what you want to hear, not what they actually believe!

15 Kinds of conflict kinds of conflicts that happen around your workplace are: kinds of conflicts that happen around your workplace are: Disagreements over who should do Disagreements over who should do Disagreements over policy (how things should be done) Disagreements over policy (how things should be done) Conflicts of personality and style Conflicts of personality and style

16 16 Some more examples of conflict in the workplace o SOURCE o Racism o Violence o Wanting to gain more o Uncertain goals o EXAMPLES o Avoiding working with people from a specific culture o Customers wanting more alcohol and angry when refused o Creating competition with others o Unclear direction, confusing as to outcomes

17 Here are some examples of conflict that you might encounter Staff/team member will argue when one person perceives that another is not doing their fair share of work. Staff/team member will argue when one person perceives that another is not doing their fair share of work. Poor communication within the workplace leaves individuals unsure of what is happening. Poor communication within the workplace leaves individuals unsure of what is happening. Tips not being shared, or unfairly distributed! Tips not being shared, or unfairly distributed! One person feels that favouritism is occurring. One person feels that favouritism is occurring.

18 continued Unequal treatment of employees. Unequal treatment of employees. Cultural misunderstandings. Cultural misunderstandings. Religious misunderstandings or intolerance. Religious misunderstandings or intolerance. Male/female differences or attractions. Male/female differences or attractions. Unfair payment of staff. Unfair payment of staff. Unfair workload distribution. Unfair workload distribution.

19 Signs of potential workplace conflict Team members may start having minor disagreement Team members may start having minor disagreement Individual team members may start arriving late to work Individual team members may start arriving late to work Customers may become agitated while waiting to be served or when talking to staff Customers may become agitated while waiting to be served or when talking to staff 19

20 Signs of conflicts agitated body language - crossed arms, tapping on the counter, hands on hips, restless movements agitated body language - crossed arms, tapping on the counter, hands on hips, restless movements signals of impatience - does not listen to or interrupts explanation, aggressively pulls brochures out of the display, pushes in on other customers signals of impatience - does not listen to or interrupts explanation, aggressively pulls brochures out of the display, pushes in on other customers tone of voice - raised or harsh voice, speaking fast, use of an angry tone tone of voice - raised or harsh voice, speaking fast, use of an angry tone eye contact - staring harshly or scowling eye contact - staring harshly or scowling physical contact - stands too close, leans over counter physical contact - stands too close, leans over counter language - repeats themselves, uses sarcasm, sighs, swears, accuses or blames language - repeats themselves, uses sarcasm, sighs, swears, accuses or blames 20

21 Workplace factors in conflict Some of these factors are: Some of these factors are: Poor workplace layout, lighting or temperature Poor workplace layout, lighting or temperature Lack of equipment to do the job Lack of equipment to do the job Poor maintenance of equipment and workplace Poor maintenance of equipment and workplace Lack of training and skills of team members Lack of training and skills of team members Understaffing Understaffing Inadequate breaks Inadequate breaks 21

22 Why do we need to handle Conflict? Conflict, when handled appropriately, can lead to: Conflict, when handled appropriately, can lead to: –Improve working relationships –Improve customer service –Increase productivity –Increase opportunities for self development –Remember: We can't eliminate conflict, and in some cases we can't even resolve it. We can't eliminate conflict, and in some cases we can't even resolve it. All we can hope to do is to manage it. All we can hope to do is to manage it.

23 Between us and a colleague. Between us and a colleague. Between us and a customer. Between us and a customer. Between organizations Between organizations Between customers. Between customers. cont.

24 24 LESSON 2 (week-2) Introduction Introduction Identifying the workplace conflicts

25 Cont. Conflict Conflict can be between co-workers, department managers, managers and their staff, suppliers and managers and of course between staff and the guest. can be between co-workers, department managers, managers and their staff, suppliers and managers and of course between staff and the guest. What kind of conflicts

26 types of conflict In the workplace, we encounter three broad areas where conflict could exist: In the workplace, we encounter three broad areas where conflict could exist: Conflicts in interpersonal relationships. Conflicts in interpersonal relationships. Conflicts in negotiation between staff and customers, different sections or managers. Conflicts in negotiation between staff and customers, different sections or managers. Conflicts in meetings. Conflicts in meetings. 26

27 Conflicts in interpersonal relationships For Example For Example If someone who is normally friendly towards you suddenly begins avoiding you or being rude, there is usually a reason. If that person has remained cheerful with everyone else except you, chances are that you are dealing with a conflict situation. If someone who is normally friendly towards you suddenly begins avoiding you or being rude, there is usually a reason. If that person has remained cheerful with everyone else except you, chances are that you are dealing with a conflict situation. 27

28 Conflicts in interpersonal relationships, address the problem by using the following steps: Try to determine if there is a problem between you and the other person. Try to determine if there is a problem between you and the other person. If you think there might be a problem, set up a private meeting to discuss the matter. If you think there might be a problem, set up a private meeting to discuss the matter. Ask the person - in a non-confrontational manner - if there is a problem. If the answer is 'No', inform the person that you think there might be a problem and then explain what you think the problem might be. Ask the person - in a non-confrontational manner - if there is a problem. If the answer is 'No', inform the person that you think there might be a problem and then explain what you think the problem might be. 28

29 cont. As you talk, ask them for feedback. Do not 'attack' the other person with accusations. As you talk, ask them for feedback. Do not 'attack' the other person with accusations. Listen with an open mind. Listen with an open mind. Respect each others' opinions. Respect each others' opinions. Try to determine why the other person feels the way they do. Try to determine why the other person feels the way they do. Avoid pointing fingers and blaming. Avoid pointing fingers and blaming. Try to work out a compromise that pleases both parties. Try to work out a compromise that pleases both parties. 29

30 Conflict between us and a Colleague This type of conflict frequently arises in the workplace. This type of conflict frequently arises in the workplace. It may result from any number of issues including: It may result from any number of issues including: –Cultural differences –Personality differences –Differences in values or work ethics

31 Conflict between us and a customer Conflict between us and a customer is likely to arise because of an inability to meet customer expectations. Conflict between us and a customer is likely to arise because of an inability to meet customer expectations. Examples include: Examples include: –Poor service standards –Lack of professionalism –Poor product quality

32 cont. When you are negotiating with your clients, customers, or even your colleagues, it is important to keep in mind the idea that both parties are seeking a 'Win/Win' situation. When you are negotiating with your clients, customers, or even your colleagues, it is important to keep in mind the idea that both parties are seeking a 'Win/Win' situation. No one wants to feel like they are giving away something for nothing! No one wants to feel like they are giving away something for nothing! 32

33 cont. Avoid defend-attack interaction: it's non-productive every time! Avoid defend-attack interaction: it's non-productive every time! Ask a lot of questions! Ask a lot of questions! Make sure that you understand everything. Try to describe to the other person your understanding of the things they have been saying, using other words, and then ask them if they have understood properly. Ask for their feedback. Make sure that you understand everything. Try to describe to the other person your understanding of the things they have been saying, using other words, and then ask them if they have understood properly. Ask for their feedback. Try to understand the other person's perspective: communication is more than just listening; try to see it their way. Try to understand the other person's perspective: communication is more than just listening; try to see it their way. 33

34 Conflict between Organisations One type of conflict between organizations is sometimes referred to as competition (when it is between two similar organizations). Or between departments One type of conflict between organizations is sometimes referred to as competition (when it is between two similar organizations). Or between departments

35 Conflict between customers Conflict sometimes arises between customers. Conflict sometimes arises between customers. This type of conflict must be quickly and diplomatically managed. This type of conflict must be quickly and diplomatically managed.

36 Identify Conflict Situations Achieving total customer satisfaction must always be our main objective. Achieving total customer satisfaction must always be our main objective. Our customers are the reason our organisation exists - without them, who would buy our goods, enjoy our service, and experience our expertise? Identifying conflict with customers can provide you with great opportunities to improve customer satisfaction. Our customers are the reason our organisation exists - without them, who would buy our goods, enjoy our service, and experience our expertise? Identifying conflict with customers can provide you with great opportunities to improve customer satisfaction. 36

37 Identify Conflict Situations - Points to Remember Identify the problem before it escalates. Identify the problem before it escalates. The quicker you identify a potential conflict, the more likely you are to reach a satisfactory resolution. The quicker you identify a potential conflict, the more likely you are to reach a satisfactory resolution. Identifying conflict will maintain, if not improve, quality in the workplace. Identifying conflict will maintain, if not improve, quality in the workplace. Our ultimate objective in dealing with conflict is to provide customer satisfaction. Our ultimate objective in dealing with conflict is to provide customer satisfaction. 37

38 If you have identified potential conflict situations: Do not ignore it Do not ignore it Immediately address the situation Immediately address the situation Remain calm and polite Remain calm and polite If need be, seek assistance If need be, seek assistance Tackle /dig deep and find out the real reason for the conflict. Tackle /dig deep and find out the real reason for the conflict.

39 If you have identified potential conflict situations That Are Cultural: Learn about each other's countries and cultures Learn about each other's countries and cultures Be respectful and open-minded Be respectful and open-minded Celebrate holidays of other cultures Celebrate holidays of other cultures Create cultural awareness factsheets Create cultural awareness factsheets Treat people as individuals Treat people as individuals Identify gaps in your own knowledg e Identify gaps in your own knowledg e

40 If you have identified potential conflict situations That Are Cultural: Strategies for minimising cultural misunderstandings: Strategies for minimising cultural misunderstandings: handle sensitively and courteously handle sensitively and courteously offer apologies where appropriate offer apologies where appropriate dont give reasons or excuses dont give reasons or excuses take the best course of action to resolve as quickly as possible take the best course of action to resolve as quickly as possible learn by ones mistakes learn by ones mistakes seek assistance from supervisor or manager if required seek assistance from supervisor or manager if required

41 If you have identified potential conflict situations That Are Cultural: Preventing cultural misunderstandings: Preventing cultural misunderstandings: provide colleagues and customers with appropriate information provide colleagues and customers with appropriate information provide advise of cultural variations and practices, behaviour and opinions they may find different before they experience them provide advise of cultural variations and practices, behaviour and opinions they may find different before they experience them adapt own actions and behaviour in ways that are culturally appropriate adapt own actions and behaviour in ways that are culturally appropriate provide customers with appropriate tourism and hospitality products and services provide customers with appropriate tourism and hospitality products and services

42 42 LESSON 3 (week-3) Causes of conflicts Stages of conflicts

43 43 What Causes Conflict? In this section we look at the three main causes of conflicts. The role of mistakes and accidents. The role of mistakes and accidents. The effect of misunderstood communication. The effect of misunderstood communication. The impact of judgment that we make about others. The impact of judgment that we make about others.

44 workplace factors in conflicts 44

45 45 What Happens in a Conflict Situation? Every conflict is different and each has a different outcome. However, in most cases, conflicts follow certain stages: The event that act as triggers. The event that act as triggers. The confrontation. The confrontation. The outcome of the conflict (resolution). The outcome of the conflict (resolution).

46 46 Is Conflict Good or Bad? If it is unmanaged it can be destructive If it is unmanaged it can be destructive however arguments between team members can actually be a positive sign. however arguments between team members can actually be a positive sign. It can mean that the staff care about there workplace and feel they have a stake in the issue. It can mean that the staff care about there workplace and feel they have a stake in the issue.

47 47 The Role of Conflict. Conflict is necessary in order to: Conflict is necessary in order to: –Cope with new challenges –Stimulate ideas –Find solutions to problems –Adapt to change –Survive And finally to achieve organisational objectives And finally to achieve organisational objectives

48 48 Positive outcomes of Conflict Provides scope for innovation and creativity Provides scope for innovation and creativity Increases group unity Increases group unity Motivates group to clarify objectives Motivates group to clarify objectives Creates greater information input Creates greater information input Encourages group to protect important values Encourages group to protect important values

49 cont. Group/individuals are forced to become more flexible and adaptable to change, thus increasing organisational/group effectiveness Group/individuals are forced to become more flexible and adaptable to change, thus increasing organisational/group effectiveness Motivates group members, resulting in better, more competitive performance Motivates group members, resulting in better, more competitive performance 49

50 50 Negative outcomes of conflict reaching their goals in a win-lose situation reaching their goals in a win-lose situation Can cause ill-feeling and resentment Can cause ill-feeling and resentment Effective communication can be reduced Effective communication can be reduced Attention can be diverted from performance goals Attention can be diverted from performance goals Can waste time and energy Can waste time and energy Can lead to emotional, psychological and even physical ill-health Can lead to emotional, psychological and even physical ill-health

51 Week (4) Causes of conflicts 51

52 Causes of Conflict Conflict arises for any number of reasons: Conflict arises for any number of reasons: –Different expectations –Communication barriers- MOST COMMON –Motivation –Cultural values/Differences in values –Personality –Safety and security –Organisational structure –Organisational change Fear –people dont get along because they fear each other. Fear –people dont get along because they fear each other. People fear each other because they dont know each other. People fear each other because they dont know each other. They dont know each other because they have not properly communicated with each other They dont know each other because they have not properly communicated with each other –Differences in goals, expectations

53 53 Mistakes and Accidents What happens when we make mistakes at work? Many mistakes and accident can be avoided. Many mistakes and accident can be avoided. Some mistakes cannot be avoided. Some mistakes cannot be avoided. However, a mistake made by one person will affect other people. However, a mistake made by one person will affect other people. The people who are affected by a mistake may become upset and this can lead to a conflict.

54 54 Misunderstood Communication What about situations where one person misunderstand what another person has said? Can this lead to a conflict?

55 Cont. Misunderstanding and Communication barriers are main causes of conflict:- Misunderstanding and Communication barriers are main causes of conflict:- These occur because: These occur because: 1. People do not listen to each other 2. Are not prepared to talk and resolve the situation 3. Do not understand cultural differences and are not prepared to make allowances for them

56 56 Judgments Can the way we feel about another person lead to conflict? Communication can fail when people dont check their interpretation with each other. Communication can also lead to conflict when one person makes a judgment about another persons behaviour.

57 Barriers That Cause Conflict Not paying attention – causing frustration, annoyance – unprofessional/distraction Not paying attention – causing frustration, annoyance – unprofessional/distraction No Eye Contact – results in showing of disinterest but uncomfortable too. No Eye Contact – results in showing of disinterest but uncomfortable too. Interrupting – when someone is trying to talk to you or finishing their sentences for them – Interrupting – when someone is trying to talk to you or finishing their sentences for them –

58 Tone of Voice – arrogant, demanding, anger, whining etc - ensure that you remain objective Tone of Voice – arrogant, demanding, anger, whining etc - ensure that you remain objective Sarcasm – show patience and understanding as sarcasm can only ignite the situation Sarcasm – show patience and understanding as sarcasm can only ignite the situation 58

59 Barriers That Cause Conflict Rudeness – is totally unacceptable in hospitality and there is no excuse for this. Rudeness – is totally unacceptable in hospitality and there is no excuse for this. Cultural Differences – try and familiarise yourself with the culture you are dealing with to avoid conflict as a result of you misunderstanding cultural beliefs, manners & protocols Cultural Differences – try and familiarise yourself with the culture you are dealing with to avoid conflict as a result of you misunderstanding cultural beliefs, manners & protocols

60 Stages of conflict Stage 1: Unease/discomfort Stage 1: Unease/discomfort Stage 2: Episode/incidents Stage 2: Episode/incidents Stage 3: Misunderstandings Stage 3: Misunderstandings Stage 4: Stress/tension Stage 4: Stress/tension Stage 5: Crisis Stage 5: Crisis

61 Conflict usually escalates through five stages: Discomfort (Stage one) Discomfort (Stage one) Things just don't feel right, although maybe nothing has yet been said. Things just don't feel right, although maybe nothing has yet been said. It may be difficult to identify exactly what the problem is. It may be difficult to identify exactly what the problem is. You may feel uncomfortable about the situation, but not quite sure what to do about it. You may feel uncomfortable about the situation, but not quite sure what to do about it.

62 Stages (cont) Incidents Incidents Something may occur between you and a colleague or customer that leaves you upset, irritated or with a result you didn't want. Something may occur between you and a colleague or customer that leaves you upset, irritated or with a result you didn't want. It may be a short, sharp exchange with no lasting ill-effects. It may be a short, sharp exchange with no lasting ill-effects.

63 Stage (three) Misunderstanding Misunderstanding Sometimes motives and facts can be confused or misunderstood. Sometimes motives and facts can be confused or misunderstood. Your thoughts may keep returning frequently to the problem. Your thoughts may keep returning frequently to the problem.

64 Stage (four) Tension Tension Your relationship with your colleague or customer may be weighed down by negative attitudes and opinions. Your relationship with your colleague or customer may be weighed down by negative attitudes and opinions. The way you feel about the other person may have significantly changed for the worse. The way you feel about the other person may have significantly changed for the worse. The relationship could now be a source of constant worry and concern. The relationship could now be a source of constant worry and concern.

65 Stage(five) Crisis Crisis Your behaviour is affected, normal reactions become difficult and you contemplate or execute extreme gestures. Your behaviour is affected, normal reactions become difficult and you contemplate or execute extreme gestures. You could be dealing with a major crisis like a rupture in a relationship or losing the customer. You could be dealing with a major crisis like a rupture in a relationship or losing the customer.

66 Stages of conflict

67 But before dealing with the conflict, make sure you understand the situation and what is happening: identify the real difference that is causing the conflict. But before dealing with the conflict, make sure you understand the situation and what is happening: identify the real difference that is causing the conflict. Is the problem a difference in the facts, goals, methods or values? By understanding the situation and the real cause of the conflict, you will be better equipped to choose from the range of constructive responses suited to conflict resolution Source: Dwyer, J. (1997) The Business Communication Handbook 4 th Ed (p100) Is the problem a difference in the facts, goals, methods or values? By understanding the situation and the real cause of the conflict, you will be better equipped to choose from the range of constructive responses suited to conflict resolution Source: Dwyer, J. (1997) The Business Communication Handbook 4 th Ed (p100)

68 Week (5-6) Resolve conflicts 68

69 introduction If you can identify a conflict situation and stop it as soon as possible, the problem is often solved before it really began. If you can identify a conflict situation and stop it as soon as possible, the problem is often solved before it really began. However, sometimes you will be unable to avoid a conflict. Conflict is unpleasant However, sometimes you will be unable to avoid a conflict. Conflict is unpleasant 69

70 Cont. To leave conflict situations unresolved may lead to bigger problems further down the track. To leave conflict situations unresolved may lead to bigger problems further down the track. Resolving a conflict situation gives you greater personal job satisfaction, a higher level of customer satisfaction and means a more successful business. Resolving a conflict situation gives you greater personal job satisfaction, a higher level of customer satisfaction and means a more successful business. So resolving conflict and avoiding unpleasant situations definitely boosts your personal morale and those around you - both customers and colleagues. So resolving conflict and avoiding unpleasant situations definitely boosts your personal morale and those around you - both customers and colleagues. 70

71 The biggest and most complicated task when dealing with conflict situations is to find a resolution that will be WIN/WIN for all parties concerned. The biggest and most complicated task when dealing with conflict situations is to find a resolution that will be WIN/WIN for all parties concerned. 71

72 Resolve conflicts (cont) To resolve conflict situations ( WIN/WIN for two parties), we need to grasp a number of different points of view and opinions. These may include: To resolve conflict situations ( WIN/WIN for two parties), we need to grasp a number of different points of view and opinions. These may include: Each party's view and perceptions of the situation. Each party's view and perceptions of the situation. Are the parties involved aware of the extent of the situation, and of their contribution to the situation? Are the parties involved aware of the extent of the situation, and of their contribution to the situation? Is there a personal history as to why the situation has developed? Is there a personal history as to why the situation has developed? 72

73 Cont. What is the motivation behind each party's stance? What is the motivation behind each party's stance? Are there 'outside' forces contributing to, or responsible for the situation? Are there 'outside' forces contributing to, or responsible for the situation? What does each party want to achieve from this situation? What does each party want to achieve from this situation? 73

74 Resolve Conflict Situations The beginning of resolving conflict with customers Part of the challenge of working in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries is learning how to address the needs of all the different customers we encounter at the same time. Part of the challenge of working in the Hospitality and Tourism Industries is learning how to address the needs of all the different customers we encounter at the same time. Whether you are dealing with customers in a general sense, or resolving situations, always bear in mind the following tips: Whether you are dealing with customers in a general sense, or resolving situations, always bear in mind the following tips: 74

75 The customer is not dependent on us, we are dependent on them. The customer is not dependent on us, we are dependent on them. The customer is not an interruption to our work, they are the purpose of it. The customer is not an interruption to our work, they are the purpose of it. The customer does us a favour when they contact us, we are not doing them a favour by serving them. The customer does us a favour when they contact us, we are not doing them a favour by serving them. 75

76 The customer is part of our business, not an outsider. The customer is part of our business, not an outsider. The customer is not a cold statistic, but human like us, with feelings and emotions. The customer is not a cold statistic, but human like us, with feelings and emotions. The customer is not someone to argue or match wits with. The customer is not someone to argue or match wits with. 76

77 The customer brings us their needs and wants. It is our job to try and satisfy those needs and wants. The customer brings us their needs and wants. It is our job to try and satisfy those needs and wants. The customer deserves the most courteous and attentive treatment that we can give them. The customer deserves the most courteous and attentive treatment that we can give them. The customer is the livelihood of our business. The customer is the livelihood of our business. 77

78 conflict can develop (and perhaps escalate) from some of the underlying reasons PERSONAL REASONS PERSONAL REASONS Expectations of the job are not met. Expectations of the job are not met. Limited opportunities in the workplace. Limited opportunities in the workplace. Personal reasons. Personal reasons. Personality clashes with a colleague(s). Personality clashes with a colleague(s). Lack of peer co-operation. Lack of peer co-operation. Lack of professional support. Lack of professional support. Poor induction into the workplace after initial employment. Poor induction into the workplace after initial employment. 78

79 PROFESSIONAL REASONS Restructuring in the workplace Restructuring in the workplace Changes to workplace conditions Changes to workplace conditions Changes and improvements in technology Changes and improvements in technology Occupational Health and Safety Issues Occupational Health and Safety Issues Morale Morale Cultural and gender diversity in the workplace Cultural and gender diversity in the workplace Management style and accountability Management style and accountability Poor recruitment Poor recruitment 79

80 Steps for resolving Conflict situations Steps for resolving Conflict situations

81 Customer complaints are an opportunity for the organisation in two ways. Customer complaints are an opportunity for the organisation in two ways. It can highlight errors we have in our organisation's systems and processes. It can highlight errors we have in our organisation's systems and processes. It gives us the opportunity to demonstrate our organisation's focus on customer service. It gives us the opportunity to demonstrate our organisation's focus on customer service.

82 HOW CONFLICT CAN MAKE US FEEL Any of the stages of conflict give make us feel: Any of the stages of conflict give make us feel: –Uncomfortable and upset –Angry –Frustrated –Stressed

83 CONFLICT OUTCOMES Lose–lose Lose–lose Win–lose Win–lose Win–win Win–win

84 CONFLICT RESOLUTION TECHNIQUES

85 To resolve conflict situations, there are several techniques we can use. Not all techniques lead to win-win. To resolve conflict situations, there are several techniques we can use. Not all techniques lead to win-win. –Compromising. –Accommodating. –Competing. –Avoiding. –Collaborating.

86 COMPROMISING This technique attempts to find a middle ground between the conflicting parties. This technique attempts to find a middle ground between the conflicting parties. It requires each party to give up something they value to resolve the conflict. It requires each party to give up something they value to resolve the conflict. It involves splitting the difference to arrive at a solution partially acceptable for both parties. It involves splitting the difference to arrive at a solution partially acceptable for both parties. Compromising is quick but it can leave neither party not fully satisfied. Compromising is quick but it can leave neither party not fully satisfied. It may also be short term. It may also be short term. Sometimes it is the best alternative. Sometimes it is the best alternative.

87 ACCOMMODATING/SMOOTHING This technique involves playing down the real issues at hand and plays up the similarities between the parties in the hope of smoothing things over. This technique involves playing down the real issues at hand and plays up the similarities between the parties in the hope of smoothing things over. When relationships are more important than the issue or when your stake in the conflict or issue isnt high, this is the best option When relationships are more important than the issue or when your stake in the conflict or issue isnt high, this is the best option Accommodating is cooperative. Accommodating is cooperative. It can be passive/submissive It can be passive/submissive

88 COMPETING This technique frequently leads to a clear winner and a loser. This technique frequently leads to a clear winner and a loser. It is often used through force, domination or superior skill. It is often used through force, domination or superior skill. It is being uncooperative and aggressive. It is being uncooperative and aggressive. Power is used in this style Power is used in this style This works when urgency is required in decision making. This works when urgency is required in decision making. Remember to be assertive and not aggressive Remember to be assertive and not aggressive Power relationships work only if you never have to see or work with the bastards again Peter Drucker(1999)Power relationships work only if you never have to see or work with the bastards again Peter Drucker(1999)

89 AVOIDING This technique usually results in a lose-lose situation. This technique usually results in a lose-lose situation. It means that all parties ignore the conflict issues in the hope that they will go away. They wont. It means that all parties ignore the conflict issues in the hope that they will go away. They wont. Avoiding is uncooperative Avoiding is uncooperative It can be seen as side stepping or postponing for a latter time. It can be seen as side stepping or postponing for a latter time.

90 COLLABORATING This technique is the most effective and direct approach for achieving win-win. This technique is the most effective and direct approach for achieving win-win. This technique uses problem-solving techniques to meet the expectations of each party to the conflict. This technique uses problem-solving techniques to meet the expectations of each party to the conflict. This is a cooperative style. This is a cooperative style. It means attempting to work things out – seeking to make things work It means attempting to work things out – seeking to make things work Can take time. Can take time. Best used when all parties are committed to the solution and when you need a creative solution. Best used when all parties are committed to the solution and when you need a creative solution.

91 Techniques Adopted in Reaching a Win/Win Solution to Conflict Choose the right strategy Choose the right strategy Take responsibility for dealing with the conflict and participating in the resolution Take responsibility for dealing with the conflict and participating in the resolution Use positive and appropriate body language Use positive and appropriate body language Be assertive in your communication, make your point clear and respond clearly but not aggressively to the other person's statements Be assertive in your communication, make your point clear and respond clearly but not aggressively to the other person's statements 91

92 Use active listening techniques of questioning, summarising and paraphrasing Use active listening techniques of questioning, summarising and paraphrasing Be empathetic i.e. show concern for the other party and try to understand their point of view Be empathetic i.e. show concern for the other party and try to understand their point of view Manage your emotions and keep your anger under control Manage your emotions and keep your anger under control Be as impartial as possible and gain all the facts Be as impartial as possible and gain all the facts Choose the right time and location to attempt a resolution to the conflict Choose the right time and location to attempt a resolution to the conflict 92

93 Week (7-8) Responding To Customer Complaints 93

94 Whatever your role in the Hospitality and/or Tourism Industries, it is vital that you learn the skills to manage, deal with and respond to customer complaints. The longer you work, the more refined your skills will become. Whatever your role in the Hospitality and/or Tourism Industries, it is vital that you learn the skills to manage, deal with and respond to customer complaints. The longer you work, the more refined your skills will become. 94

95 Negative Complaints can bring to mind many of the following feelings: Complaints can bring to mind many of the following feelings: you were in the wrong place at the wrong time. you were in the wrong place at the wrong time. Some customers are 'professional complainers'. Some customers are 'professional complainers'. Some customers have unrealistic expectations. Some customers have unrealistic expectations. Some customers are just seeking attention. Some customers are just seeking attention. Some customers want everything for nothing. Some customers want everything for nothing. 95

96 positive Positive things about customer complaints are: They provide valuable feedback on the quality of products and services. Positive things about customer complaints are: They provide valuable feedback on the quality of products and services. They give customers the opportunity to improve the business if staff listen to what customers actually want! They give customers the opportunity to improve the business if staff listen to what customers actually want! Customers can have good suggestions, and listening to them may improve customer loyalty. Customers can have good suggestions, and listening to them may improve customer loyalty. If a complaint has been addressed and rectified, the customer may return, thus generating repeat business. If a complaint has been addressed and rectified, the customer may return, thus generating repeat business. 96

97 If complaints have decreased, businesses can use this as an indication that quality and/or service has improved. If complaints have decreased, businesses can use this as an indication that quality and/or service has improved. Given that the majority of customers don't complain (they just never return), does the complaint that's being made show what the majority of customers think? Given that the majority of customers don't complain (they just never return), does the complaint that's being made show what the majority of customers think? 97

98 Respond to customer complaints A typical dissatisfied customer will tell ten people when they are unhappy... Those ten people will in turn tell five others (on average)... A typical dissatisfied customer will tell ten people when they are unhappy... Those ten people will in turn tell five others (on average)... This creates a negative word-of-mouth chain.... This creates a negative word-of-mouth chain.... So, people = 61 people who are told about a dissatisfied customer. So, people = 61 people who are told about a dissatisfied customer. 98

99 A typical business only hears from: 4% of dissatisfied customers. The other 96% go quietly away. And 91% never come back to the business. A typical business only hears from: 4% of dissatisfied customers. The other 96% go quietly away. And 91% never come back to the business. 99

100 Remember... It takes 12 positive service incidents to make up for one negative incident. It takes 12 positive service incidents to make up for one negative incident. But whatever you do, and no matter how good your service may be, people will sometimes complain... But whatever you do, and no matter how good your service may be, people will sometimes complain... Research shows that 7 out of 10 complaining customers will do business with you again if their problem is resolved satisfactorily. Research shows that 7 out of 10 complaining customers will do business with you again if their problem is resolved satisfactorily. It takes a lot of motivation for people to complain. As the figures above show, most people do not complain at all, which does even more damage to the business than the original cause for complaint. It takes a lot of motivation for people to complain. As the figures above show, most people do not complain at all, which does even more damage to the business than the original cause for complaint. 100

101 Although we can't always anticipate or prevent customer complaints, we can put in place the strategies, procedures, knowledge and skills required to resolve them so that we do not fall victim to a negative word-of- mouth chain. Complaints are also an opportunity to address the problem, impress the customer with your satisfactory resolution of it, and build customer loyalty. Although we can't always anticipate or prevent customer complaints, we can put in place the strategies, procedures, knowledge and skills required to resolve them so that we do not fall victim to a negative word-of- mouth chain. Complaints are also an opportunity to address the problem, impress the customer with your satisfactory resolution of it, and build customer loyalty. 101

102 Responding to client complaints This is similar to the collaborative approach conflict problem solving. 1. Listen to the customer 2. Summarise the problem 3. Offer solutions 4. Follow through and then

103 Customer complaint handling. Some valuable points to remember… Dont take their comments, or their anger towards you personally, and never respond in an angry way! Dont take their comments, or their anger towards you personally, and never respond in an angry way! Make sure that the customer feels that you have an interest in their complaint, and you take it seriously! Make sure that the customer feels that you have an interest in their complaint, and you take it seriously! Customers with a high level of emotion may take a little longer to calm down – be patient with them. Customers with a high level of emotion may take a little longer to calm down – be patient with them. Offer options that are within your authority! And are fair to both the customer and the organisation! Offer options that are within your authority! And are fair to both the customer and the organisation! Never blame others! This can be difficult when you are not at fault! Never blame others! This can be difficult when you are not at fault!

104 Respond to customer complaints (cont) Do's and don'ts for dealing with complaints 1 Listen with understanding and put yourself in customers shoes. Listen with understanding and put yourself in customers shoes. Take responsibility and take action Take responsibility and take action Tell them what you can fix the problem, not what you cant do. Tell them what you can fix the problem, not what you cant do. Listen carefully, and clarify the problem Listen carefully, and clarify the problem Show concern Show concern Thank the customer Thank the customer Follow up with your action Follow up with your action 104

105 Dont Become defensive Become defensive Interrupt Interrupt Argue Argue Make excuses (or) tell them it is not your job Make excuses (or) tell them it is not your job Hope that someone else will handle it Hope that someone else will handle it Put up barriers to communicate Put up barriers to communicate Take insults personally Take insults personally 105

106 A few final points to keep in mind when handling a complaint: Remember that within any organisation, procedures that you may be instructed to work by are guidelines, not law. Remember that within any organisation, procedures that you may be instructed to work by are guidelines, not law. There may be room to 'bend the rules' a little in order to make the customer happy. There may be room to 'bend the rules' a little in order to make the customer happy. It is important that you understand how far you can go with this, and you may need to ask a superior before you take action. It is important that you understand how far you can go with this, and you may need to ask a superior before you take action. 106

107 Try to be flexible in order to make a customer happy or resolve their complaint. Try to be flexible in order to make a customer happy or resolve their complaint. Think beyond the boundaries - think about how you could WOW them in order to gain an even more loyal customer. Think beyond the boundaries - think about how you could WOW them in order to gain an even more loyal customer. 107

108 Don't ever forget those extra rules of courteous service! Don't ever forget those extra rules of courteous service! –Smile and use positive body language –Address the customer by name –Use appropriate language 108

109 Points to note when dealing with customers Points to note when dealing with customers It is essential that you show: It is essential that you show: Empathy Empathy An understanding of their position An understanding of their position A recognition of their needs A recognition of their needs A feeling of comfort and a perception that they are special. A feeling of comfort and a perception that they are special. 109


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