Identifying Breakdowns in Team Situational Awareness
Key Goal of US Army React quickly, efficiently, and effectively Develop new information technology Develop new roles Develop new organizational configurations
34 Fires and Effects Coordination Cell (FECC) Targeting Collect, Assess, Disseminate Intelligence Coordinate RSTA Coordinate with Brigade Combat Team Force Prot Coordinate with DIV Intel Proactive and Responsive CF Non-Lethal Effects Assess Intelligence Plan Offensive Non - Lethal Operations Coordinate w/ RSTA Monitor Non - Lethal Attacks Coordinate with other Elements Lethal Effects Perform Tactical Fire Control Establish Sensor- Weapons Pairing Process Fire Orders Coordinate Fires Process BDA Coordinate with DIV ECC Disseminate Guidance Process Info to Display Assess Situation Manage control measures MISSION: Plan, coordinate and execute full spectrum (lethal and non-lethal) effects.
COA Simulation Situational Awareness Planning Planning and Decision Aids Collaborative Features Common Operating Picture Productivity Tools Electronic White Board Chat Rooms E-Mail Messaging Web Pages Reconfigurable Workstations Overlay and Desktop Library Split Panel Displays Dual or Split Screen Monitor Light Pen Interface Voice or Video Teleconferencing Future Fires Decision Support System (F2DSS)
14 Research Issues 2. What are the roles and functions of the future fires organizations (organizational transformation)? 1. What battle staff processes must be re- engineered to accomplish effects-based fires? 4. What collaborative tools are needed to support information processing, interaction, and decision making? 3. What is the impact of the prototype information technology on planning and decision-making? Human Performance Measures
Challenges to Data Collection Separating the effectiveness of the collaborative system (F2DSS) from the effects of new organization (FECC), new tasks, and the testing environment. Thinking Outside of The Box
Research of SA Measures China Lake Situational Awareness (CLSA) SA Subjective Workload Dominance Technique (SA-SWORD) SA Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) Crew SA Snapshots SA Probes
Breakdown Analysis A system is usable only if the user can work on tasks while remaining unaware of the system. A systems usability can be evaluated through an examination of the breakdowns experienced while a user attempts to use the system (Scrivener, Urquijo, & Palmen, 1993).
Breakdown Analysis Process 1.Note and classify breakdown by transaction type (user- tool; user-task; user-user; user-environment) 2.Determine probable cause for the breakdown (diagnosis) through examination of the content of the conversation. 3.Propose a corrective action (remedy).
Figure 2. Interaction between three organizational subsystems during FCS experimentation. FECC Multiple TasksTool (F2DSS) Multiple Users CBT BN Multiple TasksTool (F2DSS) Multiple Users Fires Multiple TasksTool (F2DSS) Multiple Users Sub-system A Sub-system B Sub-system C Figure 1. Interaction between two human-computer subsystems (Scrivener, Urquijo, & Palmen, 1993) Environment A Environment B Task ATool A User A Task BTool B User B Sub-system A Sub-system B Breakdown Analysis
Breakdown Data During F2C2 CEP 2 1.1 User does not understand task 1.2 User does not have necessary knowledge to accomplish task 2.1 Tool failure 2.2 User does not understand tool 2.3 Tool is inadequate for job 3.1 User becomes aware of environment 4.1 Insufficient information 4.2 Message unclear 4.3 Message not received
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