3 IRF IRF (Initiation- Response- Feedback). The teacher initiates an exchange (usually in the form of a question).One of the students answers(or responds).The teacher gives feedback(i.e. assessment, correction, comment), initiates the next question, and so on.
4 Types of Language Interaction TT- Teacher very active, students only receptiveT- Teacher active, students mainly receptiveTS- Teacher and students fairly equally activeS- Students active, teacher mainly receptiveSS- Students very active, teacher only receptive.
6 Group Work Methodology * PROS – Why are groups good?* CONS – Why shouldn’t we use groups?Group work generates interactive languageGroup work offers an embracing affective climateGroup work promotes learner responsibility and autonomyGroup work is a step toward individualizing instruction.The teacher is no longer in control of the class.students will use their native languageStudents’ errors will be reinforced in small groups.Teacher cannot monitor all groups at once.Some learners prefer to work alone.
7 The steps in conducting group work 1 Introduce the technique2 Justify the use of small groups for the technique3 Give explicit detailed instructions4 Divide the class into groups5 Check for clarification6 Set the task in motion:a Do not sit at your desk and grade papersb Do not leave the room and take a breakc Do not spend an undue amount of time with one group at the expense of othersd Do not correct students’ errors unless asked toe Do not assume a dominating or disruptive role while monitoring groups
8 Classroom Climate- How to create a favorable classroom environment 1. Classroom is clean, well-lighted, comfortable, and full of ‘realia’2. No praising indiscriminately3. Everyone knows each other4. Activities at appropriate level5. Allow students a measure of choice6. Choose activities that help establish relationships between students7. Limit group size. No more than 5 or 6 in a group8. Set a clear time limit. [Use an egg timer to be a neutral timekeeper]
9 Types of tasks Games Role-play and simulations Drama Projects InterviewBrainstormingInformation gapJigsawProblem-solving and decision-makingOpinion exchange.
11 Lesson 1As each bird flaps its wings, it creates uplift for others behind him. There is 71% more flying range in V-formation, than flying alone.Lesson: People who share a common direction and sense of common purpose can get there quicker.
12 Lesson 2Whenever a goose flies out of formation, it quickly feels the drag and tries to get back into position.Lesson: It’s harder to do something alone than together.
13 Lesson 3When the lead goose gets tired, it rotates back into formation and another goose flies at the head.Lesson: Shared leadership and interdependence gives us each a chance to lead as well as opportunities to rest.
14 Lesson 4The geese in formation honk from behind to encourage those up front to keep up their speed.Lesson: We need to make sure our honking is encouraging and not discouraging.
15 Lesson 5When a goose gets sick or wounded and falls, two geese fall out and stay with it until it revives or dies. Then they catch up or join another flock.Lesson: Stand by your colleagues in difficult times as well as in good.