Presentation on theme: "Bridging the Gap Between Qualitative and Quantitative with Grid methodology."— Presentation transcript:
Bridging the Gap Between Qualitative and Quantitative with Grid methodology
Quantitative vs. Qualitative representative nomothetic reliable, valid idiographic creative numbers, math data mining meaning making confirmation exploration words, story explanation understanding objective subjective useful Please take a side. Which of the two presented ones do you prefer? Which side is more powerful? Which side would you choose? Which side do you belong to? resistance to change proponents of change hard soft
REFRAMING THE PROBLEM We could see the qual-quan problem in two ways: 1.We can discus the nature of these approaches: advantages and disantvatages, about representativness, level of significance, reliability and other internal and external metric characteristics, about usefulness, predictive power... 2.We can also view this data (words, story, narrative) as information about how quantitative and qualitative researchers see their world. LETS TRY AND WATCH WHAT HAPPENED!!! It would be unfortunate if we would have to settle upon one approach to the exclusion of the other. The "dichotomy is not a true one; at least not a true one in the way it is usually expressed
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCHER QUALITATIVE RESERCHER MANAGING DIRECTOR CLIENT Any similarity to "real" world events is purely coincidental and unintentional. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCHER QUALITATIVE RESERCHER MANAGING DIRECTOR CLIENT " I know what is reliable, valid measure. What she could tell me? Nothing. It is a bunch of nonsense. He knows the value of my methods. He wants representativeness and also sample with less then 500 respondents?! Numbers always are so strange to me. What does it all means? I am a creative person. I am discovering the meaning. I bring the ideas. We should try and see. I can't tell him nothing before. I hope he is reasonable. He always asks me to be more precise and more creative?! There are some strange inconsistencies in your data!!! Please clean the base. Force the data. I will finally come to know where we are. But, what than? What should I do? Nobody tells me. I need a new idea. Something totally different. She said she is capable for that. But is she? I don't know if I should accept that proposal. Everything is to much expensive for my budget A STORY …ONCE UPON A TIME THERE WAS A STORY, A DEBATE THERE WAS A DEBATE PERCEIVER (PERSPECTIVE, VIEW) ELEMENTS He thinks I don't know that he can do this faster, with less money. I am a little suspicious. We should do it that way, because it was the clients demand and we could sell it. We are the best marketing research agency in the country. Let the client pay!!! It's look like a never ending story. He always wants more, and he never pays on time!!! PEG (PERCEIVER – ELEMENT GRID) Harry Procter AN EXAMPLE OF QUALITATIVE GRID: BEYOND QUAL- QUANT DEBATE
When I say Professor Lindzey s left shoe is an introvert, everyone looks to his shoe as if this were something his shoe was responsible for. Or if I say that Professor Catell s head is discursive, everyone looks over at him, as if the proposition had popped out of his head instead of mine. Dont look at his head! Dont look at his shoe! Look at me; Im the one who is responsible for the statement. (Kelly, 1969). BEYOND WORDS PEOPLE SAY – BASIC ASUMPTION OF OUR APROACH
"constructive alternativism" - this is to say that reality is subject to many alternative constructions, some of which may prove to be more fruitful than others generalizing the psychology of scientific behavior to all human behavior - science is itself a form of human behavior, every man is a scientist personal constructs are abstractions of human behavior assessing the personal construct includes relational paradigm and participative epistemology metaperspective: observing the perspective of an observer exploring the process of meaning constructions - the nature and form of individual and shared meaning systems BEYOND CONSTRUCTIVIST APROACH – METATHEORETICAL POSITION. " " (.... " " (... The meaning of a word is the action it produces. What does this all mean?
Meanings of word CONSTRUCT A way in which two or more things are alike and thereby different from a third or more things. It is how a person makes sense of his or her world. Lived discriminations chanelising an individual's actions and perceptions, which may or may not be represented adequately in symbolic speech. Each construct involves two poles, one at each end of its dichotomy. It tell us what to expect and they help us see it when it happens. No construct ever stands entirely alone; it makes sense only as it appears in the network.
CONSTRUCT contrast, opposite other (another's) construct PYRAMIDING - DOWNWARD LADDERING (Lanfeild,1971) superordinate (core) constructs subordinate (peripheral) constructs LADDERING (Hinkle,1965) SALMON LINE (Philida Salmon, 1980) TSCHUDI'S ABC (Fin Tschudi, 1977) DONWARD ARROW SELF-CARACTERISATION Elaboratingthe construct system TIME ARROW (changes and consistencies in construing) Formal system characteristics: superordinate - subordinate core - peripheral permeable - impermeable tight - loose preemptive – propositional dilation - constriction why he/she prefers to be "X instead of "Y " How we can know? What different things does someone which is " X " do from other which is " Y " ?
In an attempt to stand in others shoes, to see their world as they see it we bridge the gap between opposites, we are going beyond dichotomies and from meta-perspective we observe the observing. We bridge the gap between qualitative and quantitative. with REPERTORY GRID METHODOLOGY
What is Repertory Grid? 1.Grid is a set of representations of the relationship between the set of things a person construes (the elements) and the set of ways that person construes them (the constructs). Thus a grid datum expresses a relationship between an element and a construct. (Bell,2004.) 2.Any method of interviewing may be described as a grid technique if it can be used to obtain enough data from one informant to complete a grid and to provide all the data needed to locate the elements and the constructs in the space under observation. 3.Grid gains quantitative heuristic for qualitative work 4.Any form of sorting task which allows for the assessment of relationship between constructs, and which yields these primary data in matrix form. 5.An instrument for eliciting personal constructs.
Grid is an open and dynamic empirical technique for eliciting qualitatively information about users experiences, whilst at the same time allowing the data to be subjected to contemporary methods of statistical analysis. Some surveys done by Repertory Grid: Quality control Design making Decision – making Decision rules Strategies and evaluative criteria Satisfaction with the product Core beliefs Consumer satisfaction Brand position Brand characterization Brand relationship APPLICATION IN MARKETING RESEARCH There are many creative adaptation of the technique, this is a technique which is only limited by the user` s lack of imagination (Fransella and Bannister, 1977).
A modified form of Kellys (1955) original Repertory Grid technique was used to measure car owners views of automotive industry brands. Laddering, pyramiding and other methods for construct elicitation such as Kellys standard dyad and triad elicitation form were applied. AN EXAMPLE
CONSTRUCT ELICITATION *** PROCEDURES 1. Dyadic Difference Method Please could you tell me some way in which they are alike or different? 2. Triadic Difference Method Please could you tell me some important way in which two of the three cars are alike and thereby different from the third? *** ELICITED VERSUS SUPLIED unpretentious powerful womanishly masculine Any word or phrase will have many contrasts in our language, and we ought not to be surprised at the ingenuity of those completing grids in providing new and fascinating examples of the way language can be used.
AN EXAMPLE OF A FULLFILED GRID The multivariate analysis of grids has been done to clarify the meanings attributed by male and female car owners. Due to the quantitative nature of the collected data a multivariate technique could be used to compare these meanings.
He drives an Alfa Romeo He drives a BMW He drives an Audi 80 He drives a Yugo 55 Every Grid is a story, a meaning beyond numbers and words The grids can be stacked one above the other and a common factor extracted, as if they all constituted one grid. common factor extracted, as if they all constituted one grid. If one wishes to extract a group stereotype figure, he may arrange the grids horizontally and extract a factorialized figure. (Kelly, 1955) a factorialized figure. (Kelly, 1955)
The consensus configuration, represented by the centroids of the individual points in the semantic space, emphasises the differences and similarities between car images. THE FACTORIALIZED FIGURES Predictively unclear For the average grid to be a meaningful representation of the data we would expect a significant construct by element interaction (which there is) but relatively small mean squares for element or construct by grid.
Common Space Analysis Three-mode principal components (Grids x Elements x Constructs) & Cluster analyses
Element clustering by Complete linkage Dendogram Construct clustering by Complete linkage Dendogram
2 14 3 5 6 7 9 8 10 11 12 13 14 15 18 16 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 32 31 30 33 34 35 36 37 ZASTAVA TOYOTA OPEL CITROEN VW FEMALE RENAULT YUGO ŠKODA MAZDA BMW ALFA ROMEO PEUGEOT ZASTAVA YUGO SUZUKI TOYOTA AUDI MALE CITROEN OPEL FIAT MAZDA It is possible to see to what extent each person's grid is matched by the group scanning pattern. This essentially provides a measure of the functional similarity between an individual's outlook and the common outlook of his group
SUMMARY Eliciting constructs and understanding their mathematical relationship helps us understand and uncover the meanings consumers share. Grid is a method that we use to elicit consumer language and clarify meanings behind consumer terminology. We get beyond the words, we are going beyond the numbers. Grid method is a flexible method useful for explaining how people think about the world of different car types and many parallel worlds of different brands. It helps us in defining goals for marketing campaigns. It gives us creative ideas for media planning and says how to make effective advertising and overcome negative meanings.
Grid Research Who for? Advertising agencies Media agencies Brand managers Brand owners Business development executives Marketing executives Media suppliers PR executives...
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Institute for market and media research Omladinskih brigada 86 11070 Novi Beograd, Serbia firstname.lastname@example.org www,mediana.co.yu tel. & fax: +381 11 22 74 104, 22 74 323 The one who knows how to ask – to him the best knowledge belong