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Presentation on theme: "1 MPC101 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ABSTRACTION OF A RESEARCH PAPER Dr. K. SIVAKUMAR Department of Chemistry SCSVMV University M.Phil (Physics."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 MPC101 – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ABSTRACTION OF A RESEARCH PAPER Dr. K. SIVAKUMAR Department of Chemistry SCSVMV University M.Phil (Physics & Chemistry) Unit - I Understanding A Research Abstract

2 2 Objectives Know components of an abstract Able to read and understand the abstract Able to apply the knowledge to write the abstract of your teams research project

3 3 Research and Research Abstract ResearchResearch The systematic and objective analysis and recording of controlled observations that may lead to the development of generalisation, principles, or theories, resulting in prediction and possibly control of events (Best and Kahn, 1993:20)

4 4 Research Report Chapter 1: Introduction/Background of the study Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature Chapter 3: Methodology or Procedure Chapter 4: Results of Data Analysis Chapter 5: Discussion and Recommendations Abstract

5 5 An abstract What is it? - A summary of the whole research report - Succinctly summarise the main points without copying the language of the original Where is it? - In the beginning of the research, articles, or essays

6 6 Components of the abstract Academic writing It has a standard form. Represented by an hour glass

7 7 An hourglass and a research abstract 1. Introduction or Background 2. Objective(s)/Purpose(s) 3. Methods 4. Data Analysis 5. Results/Findings 6.Recommendations 7. Conclusions

8 8 1. Introduction or Background include a few sentences about what is already known as your background or introduction for your reader. WHY? All research elaborates on something that is already known, expand upon it, challenge it, or apply it in a different way.

9 9 2. Objectives / Purposes State the objectives of your study clearly but briefly what is the issue of your research and why does it deserve further attention? What does your experiment or research seek to do? What is the purpose of your experiment? Does it seek to replicate or challenge findings, or is it an essential investigation?

10 10 3. Method Write about your method of study How did you go about your research? It should be a specific process or technique or a certain order of investigation that you did in your research study.

11 11 4. Data Analysis Tell your readers how you analyzed your data or get your findings such as by yourself, with a computer, a chemical process, arithmetic means, percentage (%), etc.

12 12 5. Results/Findings Summarize your research findings briefly in a few sentences for example, X showed a combination of A and B, or X was found to be the most effective method, or X did not yield a result as favourable.

13 13 6. Suggestions or Interpretations Write your suggestions or interpretations based on your findings Example: It is recommended that the MBA students should perform independent learning to improve their English.

14 14 7. Conclusions / Expansions When possible, write a few sentences to conclude your study or to show how you can expand the view stated in Step 1.

15 15 Common problems Too long Too much detail Too short Failure to include important information

16 16 Characteristics of abstracts Communicate contents or reports; summarise the entire report and give readers an overview of the facts in the paper Include all parts Highlights essential points

17 17 Qualities of a Good Abstract Use one or more well developed paragraphs: unified, coherent, concise and stand alone Use introduction, body, conclusion structure Follow strictly chronology of the paper Provide logical connections or transitions between information included

18 18 Qualities of a Good Abstract Add no new information, only summarise the report Is understandable to a wide audience Use passive verbs sometimes to emphasise the information Example: The data were analysed by SPSS…

19 19 Sample Abstracts Effects of Marine Engine Exhaust Water on Algae Mary E. Jones Hometown High School, Hometown, PA This project in its present form is the result of bioassay experimentation on the effects of two-cycle marine engine exhaust water on certain green algae. The initial idea was to determine the toxicity of outboard engine lubricant. Some success with lubricants eventually led to the formulation of "synthetic" exhaust water which, in turn, led to the use of actual two-cycle engine exhaust water as the test substance. Toxicity was determined by means of the standard bottle or "batch" bioassay technique. Scenedesmus quadricauda and Ankistrodesmus sp. were used as the test organisms. Toxicity was measured in terms of a decrease in the maximum standing crop. The effective concentration - 50% (EC 50) for Scenedesmus quadricauda was found to be 3.75% exhaust water; for Ankistrodesmus sp. 3.1% exhaust water using the bottle technique. Anomalies in growth curves raised the suspicion that evaporation was affecting the results; therefore, a flow-through system was improvised utilizing the characteristics of a device called a Biomonitor. Use of the Biomonitor lessened the influence of evaporation, and the EC 50 was found to be 1.4% exhaust water using Ankistrodesmus sp. as the test organism. Mixed populations of various algae gave an EC 50 of 1.28% exhaust water. The contributions of this project are twofold. First, the toxicity of two-cycle marine engine exhaust was found to be considerably greater than reported in the literature (1.4% vs. 4.2%). Secondly, the benefits of a flow-through bioassay technique utilizing the Biomonitor was demonstrated. Purpose Methods Data Observations Conclusions Applications

20 20 Sample Abstracts

21 21 Sample Abstracts

22 22 Sample Abstracts

23 23 Good Luck! Dr. K. SIVAKUMAR Department of Chemistry SCSVMV University The End

24 24 ?

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