Presentation on theme: "Current status of R&D on MSR fuel salt reprocessing"— Presentation transcript:
1Current status of R&D on MSR fuel salt reprocessing byJan UhlířAER working group F2 meeting,Liblice, Czech Republic, March 25-27, 2008
2Historical background MSRE and MSBR programs in ORNL in 1960s and 1970sReactor chemistry was intensively studied in ORNL, liquid (molten salt) fuels were prepared and studies of MSR fuel “on-line” reprocessing were launched, although the reprocessing was newer realized neither in pilot scale.However, chemistry of fluoride molten salts of uranium, protactinium, thorium and rare elements was deeply investigated.Huge amount of physical – chemical data of possible MSR fuel salts was measured. (In addition to LiF – BeF2 also the salts containing fluorides of Zr, Na, K, and U, Th, Pu, Pa and some others.)
3Fuel cycle of MSRE a MSBR Gas extraction from molten salt medium(He bubbling method)Fused salt fluoride volatilization technique(U separation)Molten salt / liquid metal reductive extraction(Metal transfer process)
4MSRE: Gas extraction from molten salt Separation of Kr, Xe na d some noble metals (Nb, Mo, Ru, Sb, Te) from fuel circuit of MSREHe or Ar sparging (bubbling) in the fuel pump (impeller). Gases were cleaned-up in the charcoal trap
5MSRE: Uranium separation (Fused salt volatilization technique) In 1968, the original fissile material - 235U was changed for 233U.Uranium was extracted in the form of uranium hexafluoride by sparging the salt with fluorine gasUF4 + F2 UF6Continuous fluorination reactor with frozen walls was designed and manufactured
10Molten salt / liquid metal reductive extraction Rare earth (lanthanides) separation
11Conceptual flow-sheet of MSBR fuel processing (ORNL)
12Current status in R&D of MSR fuel reprocessing technology Original separation techniques studied proposed by ORNL have been replenished by electrochemical separation methods.Gas extraction method (He – bubbling) – no experimental activityFused salt volatilization – no direct experimental activity, but the Fluoride Volatility Method is under development in NRI Řež plcMolten salt / Liquid metal extraction (Metal transfer process) – active development of the process in CEA Marcoule, but the choice of carrier salts and studied actinides has no direct link to MSR (no FLIBE, no Pa no Th)Electrochemical separation methods – main present-day studied pyrochemical methods in several institutions, but the main activities are focused to chloride molten salts. Study of fluoride systems is limited to CNRS, CEA, EDF and NRI in EU and RRC-KI in Russia, beryllium containing salts are studied only in NRI and RRC-KIFlow-sheeting research – CNRS and EDF for TMSR and AMSTER, NRI for SPHINX and RRC-KI for MOSART
13MSR carrier molten salt for fuel circuit and for use during the MSR fuel reprocessing: 7LiF-BeF2 eutectic (FLIBE) – a reference fuel salt carrier (MSRE, MSBR)7LiF-BeF2 with addition of NaF proposed for MSR – An-burners7LiF-ThF4 (salt proposed for TMSR)Alternative proposals:Fluoride salts containing ZrF4 and/or RbFCarriers proposed for use during electrochemical reprocessing (not used in MSR fuel circuit):LiF-NaF-KF eutectic (FLINAK), LiF-NaF, LiF-CaF2Chloride salts (containing LiCl, LiCl-NaCl etc.) Chlorides are sometimes proposed for MSR system working in fast spectrum.
14Present day and planned national activities in MSR fuel salt reprocessing FranceCNRS – main nowadays activities:Electrochemical studies in LiF-CaF2 using active electrodesStudies of gas extraction processElectrochemical studies LiF-ThF4 system- main future plans:Electrochemical studies with active electrodesExtraction of fission products by oxide precipitation in chloride mediaExtraction of actinides and lanthanides by electrolysis using inert or liquid electrodes and LiF-ThF4 and LiF-CaF2-ThF4 systemsEDF – main nowadays activities and future plans:Corrosion studies in molten fluoride systems LiF-NaF, LiF-CaF2, LiF-AlF3Fuel cycle simulation
15CEA – main nowadays activities: Present day and planned national activities in MSR fuel salt reprocessing – cont.1FranceCEA – main nowadays activities:Optimization studies of the salt treatment process schemeBibliographic and thermodynamic evaluation of the MSBR salt treatment processDevelopment of a reprocessing code coupled to the neutron codeSimulation of MSR reprocessing unit- main future plans:Coupling of the neutron code and a reprocessing codeModeling of the reprocessing unitModeling of the reactor core behaviorItalyENEA – main nowadays activities and future plans:Development of electrochemical facility PYREL for electrolysis in chloride and fluoride systemsSystem studies in the area of MSR waste management technology
16NRI – main nowadays activities and future plans: Present day and planned national activities in MSR fuel salt reprocessing – cont.2Czech RepublicNRI – main nowadays activities and future plans:Electrochemical separation studies in LiF-BeF2, LiF-NaF-BeF2, LiF-NaF-KF and LiF-CaF2 systemsDesign and calculation of MSR An-burner and MSR Th-breeder fuel reprocessing flow-sheetsSlovakiaVÚJE – main nowadays activities and future plans:Physical-chemical studies of fluoride, oxofluorides and oxides of lanthanides in molten fluoride systems (the studies are performed in the collaboration between VUJE and the Slovak Technical University in Bratislava)
17JRC-ITU – main nowadays activities and future plans: Present day and planned national activities in MSR fuel salt reprocessing – cont.3EC-EURATOMJRC-ITU – main nowadays activities and future plans:There is no present activity in MSR fuel cycle technology development, but there are future plans to build “fluoride laboratory” for R&D of actinide / fission product electrochemical separation studiesRussian FederationRRC-KI in collaboration with other Russian institution- main nowadays activities and future plans:There were broad activity of RRC-KI and other Russian institutions in the frame of ISTC 1606 project. Now a new project (ISTC 3749) enabling continuation of this activity was approved and is ready to be launched.The ISTC 1606 project covered as R&D of MSR (MOSART) fuel salt clean-up technology including the theoretical as experimental studies of molten salt / liquid metal extraction, electrochemical separation, material corrosion studies etc.
18Present-day activities in flow-sheeting SPHINXTMSRMOSART