2 EMC-AnalyzerIt is a comprehensive and powerful software tool for solving of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems in a cost-effective way:in various local board and ground systems (groupings, objectives, complexes, etc.),on intrasystem level taking into account various types of on- board spurious couplings,at various phases of the system life cycle - from initial development to maintenance and modification of an existing board or ground systemRemember: the earlier you start to think about EMC/EMI, the less expensive and more efficient solutions you will get !
3 EMC-Analyzer offers you a number of functions and possibilities: Survey of different ground or board system’s equipment for incompatibilities,Substantiation of necessary changes (adjustments) in system during its development to achieve intrasystem EMC,Automotive system specification generation for many kinds of equipment,Detection and Identification of linear and nonlinear interference sources,Comprehensive nonlinear behavior simulation in severe electromagnetic environment (up to input signals),Easy integration of measurement results into EMC analysis and design,EMC education and training
4 EMC-Analyzer Main advantages: Application of models and procedures used in the well-known “Intrasystem Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Program” (IEMCAP), USAPinpoint accuracy of spectra representation,Compatibility with MIL-STD 461 and 462 requirements,Special editors for a system block diagram, bundle structure and board or ground system geometry,User-friendly graphic interface,PC-media under Windows NT/2000/XP/Vista,Developed Discrete Nonlinear EMC Analysis using Radio Receiver Behavior Simulation TechniqueTrade-off EMC analysis
5 EMC-Analyzer Advantages in comparison with main analogues [1,2]: Pinpoint accuracy of spectra representation (up to frequency samples),High accuracy of radio receiver nonlinearity representation using high order polynomial models (up to th order) coupled with high-accuracy simulation/modeling of nonlinear interference (intermodulation, cross-modulation, signal blocking, etc.),Development for expanded series of system formats (board system, box-body system, local ground system, local ground area),РС application under Windows NT/2000/XP/Vista“Intrasystem Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Program” (IEMCAP), Parts 1,2, Final Technical Report, USA, 1977A.Drozd, T.Blocher, A.Pesta, D.Weiner, P.Varshney, I.Demirkiran. Predicting EMI Rejection requirements using expert system based modeling & simulating techniques, Proc. XV Inter. Wroclaw Symp. on EMC, Poland, Wroclaw, 2000
6 Systems under Analysis: EMC-AnalyzerSystems under Analysis:AircraftSatelliteMissileHelicopterBox-BodyShipEtc.Radio CommunicationRadarRadio NavigationPower supplyControlComputerEtc.Board SystemMobile and FixedRadio CommunicationRadar & GuardRadio NavigationBroadcastingTVEtc.Local GroundSystemAreaGround System
7 EMC-Analyzer Board System modeling include the following steps: Description of Board System geometry and structure (including subsystem definition)On-board allocation of equipment (transmitters, receivers, transceivers, antennas, power supply and control equipment, bundles, etc.)Definition of on-board equipment parameters and characteristicsDefinition of on-board equipment connections and spurious couplings
8 EMC-AnalyzerBoard System structure:SubsystemBoard System
11 EMC-Analyzer Ship system geometry: Antennas placement Bundles placementApertures placement
12 EMC-Analyzer Ground System modeling include the following steps: Creation and design of Ground System Spatial model (building, tower or bounded area)Allocation of equipment (transmitters, receivers, transceivers, antennas)Definition of ground system equipment parameters and characteristicsDefinition of ground system equipment connections and spurious couplingsEMC analysis, generating the system specification
13 EMC-Analyzer Local Ground System geometry types: Antennas placement Tower (Mast)Building
17 EMC-Analyzer Local Board Systems: Spurious Coupling types : Antenna to antennaField to antennaAntenna to wireWire to wireField to wireEquipment case to equipment caseField to equipment caseGround loop
18 EMC-Analyzer Main procedures: Baseline EMC Analysis Emitter AdjustmentsReceptor AdjustmentsSpecification GeneratingNonlinear Radio Receiver Analysis
19 EMC-Analyzer Emitter Adjustments: Emitter spectrum Receptor susceptibilityRequired emitter spectrum (having been adjusted to fit receptor susceptibility to achieve EMC)
20 EMC-Analyzer Receptor Adjustments: Emitter spectrum Receptor susceptibilityRequired receptor susceptibility (having been adjusted to fit emitter spectrum to achieve EMC)
21 EMC-Analyzer Specification Generating: Main idea: Simultaneous Emitter and Receptor Adjustments to achieve EMC(EMC Synthesis and Design)Specification Generating Results are displayed in the report window (as the adjustment results)
22 EMC-AnalyzerNonlinear Radio Receiver Behavior Simulation in severe electromagnetic environmentAnalyzable nonlinear effects in radio receivers:IntermodulationCross modulationDesensitization (signal blocking)Local oscillator noise and harmonics conversionAM-AM and AM-PM conversionMain advantages:Original discrete nonlinear EMC analysis technologyHigh accuracy of radio receiver nonlinearity representation using high order polynomial models (up to 25-th order)Reproduction of all nonlinear effects in a uniform work cycle with the use of uniform nonlinearity mathematical modelFast solutions in electromagnetic environment of any complexityNonlinear Interference Source identification
23 EMC-Analyzer Nonlinear Radio Receiver Structure The nonlinear receiver model can include the following elements:Input circuit (IC)RF Amplifier (Radio frequency amplifier, RFA)Mixer (M)Local oscillator (LO)IF amplifier (Intermediate frequency amplifier, IFA)IF filter (Intermediate Frequency Filter, IFF)Filter (F)Decoupler (Dec)Attenuator (At)Noise Source (NS)
24 EMC-AnalyzerNonlinear Radio Receiver Structure Editor:
26 EMC-Analyzer EMC criterion: the Integrated Interference Margin (IIM) IIM summarizes (integrates) the interference in the whole frequency band of analysis:where P(fi) – emitter spectrum at the receptor inputh(f) – susceptibility characteristic of the receptorN – number of frequency samplesIIM >1 means that the emitter creates interference to the receptorThe Total IIM (TIIM) summarizes interference to the receptor from all the sources and paths:TIIM >1 means that there is interference to the receptor (no EMC)
27 EMC-Analyzer Place on EMC Market Level 1: Spurious Couplings modeling (including modeling of EMF spatial/surface distribution, calculation of antenna-to-antenna isolation, cable-to-cable electromagnetic coupling, etc.)A lot of well-known tools:REMCOM Solutions (XFDTD), ZELAND Solutions (IE3D Full-Wave EM Design System), SEMCAD Software, FEKO Solutions, WIPL-D Software, GEMS Solutions, ANSOFT Solutions (HFSS), etc.But they are not the tools for full EMC Analysis and Design of on-board systemsa) taking into account all possible paths of interference – via antenna input, via signal and control ports, via power supply ports, via different types of spurious couplings,b) taking into account system-level EMC criteria which sum interference risks from different interference paths,c) taking into account results of spurious couplings and interference measurements and simulation using different specialized softwareLevel 2: Full Intrasystem EMC Analysis and Design of local on-board/ ground-based systems taking into account a),b),c)Only EMC-Analyzer !!!
28 EMC-Analyzer Application History Since 1998 EMC-Analyzer has been delivered to more than 20 companies in 10 countries of four continents (Europe, Asia, America, Africa)During these years various versions of EMC-Analyzer software have been used by a number of customers for system design, EMC analysis & simulation, frequency assignment, EMC education & training with reference to radio systems deployed at various sites (aircraft, helicopters, satellites, ships, box-bodies, building roofs, antenna towers, airports, etc.)EMC-Analyzer developers contributed significant efforts to cater for high-grade testing of its new versions to achieve its high-quality functioning. Recently the EMC-Analyzer top quality has been recognized and acknowledged. Since 2000 there have been no claims against its quality.
29 The errors of the IEMCAP models The “antenna–to–antenna” couplingExamination of the models on the board of B-52 aircraft:190 out of 230 cases (or 82,6%) were correctly predicted.17,4% of the cases included errors.38 (16,5%) - the errors of the first type,2 (0,9%) - the errors of the second type.
30 The errors of the IEMCAP models The “antenna–to–antenna” couplingThe examination was carried out onthe board of F-15.Out of 51 cases, 42 were correctly predicted, and 9 cases contained incorrect predications.Out of 42 positive predictions, 35 did not contain the interference, and 17 did.All 9 incorrect predictions were the errors of the first type. There were no errors of the second type.It is an evidence of the fact that the models give the upper estimation of theinterference level.
31 The errors of the IEMCAP models The “field–to–wire” and “antenna–to–wire” couplingsIEMCAP predictions are accurate enough for low frequencies (f 10 MHz) (more accurate, than these of many other programs).The error is less than 10 dB for these frequencies. However, the error can reach 50 dB (near the resonance peaks caused by the fuselage and other metallic parts) for the frequencies f > 10 MHz.The analysis for the F15 board :116 out of 121 cases were correctly predicted.All 5 incorrect predictions were the errors of the first type.Errors of the second type were absent!
32 The errors of the IEMCAP models The “wire–to–wire” couplingThe accuracy of IEMCAP models (defined as the ratio of the exact value to theapproximate value) is 10 dB for L<0.1, where L - wire length, - wavelength.181 couplings were modeled.152 correct predictions were made.All 29 negative predictions were theerrors of the first type.The models give the upper estimation ofthe interference level, as showed in figure.The increase in the quantity of errors forL>0.1 is caused by several reasons.First, the standing waves appear at thesufficiently high frequencies (they arecaused by reflections from theheterogeneities), and they are not takeninto account.Second, the interaction has resonance character at sufficiently high frequencies and capacitive and inductive couplings cannot be separated.
34 BSUIR, EMC R&D Laboratory Main research and development (R&D) trends and activities:Technologies, software products and specialized expert systems for analysis and synthesis of EMC in local board and ground radio systems (groupings of radio equipment)Technologies and software products for analysis and synthesis of intrasystem and intersystem EMC, spectrum management in space-scattered (territorial, regional, etc.) groupings of radio equipment with the use of digital area maps, GIS technologies and frequency allocation databasesApproaches, technologies and software products for discrete nonlinear modeling & behavior simulation of radio systems, devices and elements (radio networks, systems, receivers, transmitters, amplifiers, mixers, etc.)Methods, technologies and software products for optimal frequency planning of radio networks (mobile and fixed radio communication, digital TV, etc.) with arbitrary spatial topologyMethods, technologies and software products for measurement and control of EMC characteristics of radio elements, devices and systemsStatistical theory of EMC in space-scattered radio systems and networksSystem ecology of cellular radio networks
35 EMC Technologies LLP Main research and promotion activities: Development and promotion to the world market of technologies and software in the field of radio system design and electromagnetic compatibility analysis & design, includingdevelopment and modification of codes and procedures in the “EMC-Analyzer” software for the intrasystem EMC analysis and design, furtherimprovement and promotion of this software to the world marketdevelopment and promotion to the world market of software of the“Microwave Radio Network Planning Tools” (MRNPT) series - “HOP-Designer”, “Network Frequency Planning”, “Network Frequency Allocation”,etc. for radio system EMC design and analysis using GIS-technologiesdevelopment of software for nonlinear EMC analysis and radio receiverbehavior simulation in complicated electromagnetic environment (EME)based on instantaneous quadrature technique
36 EMC-Analyzer, related papers (1): Baldwin T.E.Jr. and Capraro G.T. Intrasystem Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Program (IEMCAP), IEEE Trans. on EMC, v.22, pp , Nov. 1980V.I. Mordachev, Express-analysis of electromagnetic compatibility of radioelectronic equipment with the use of the discrete models of interference and Fast Fourier Transform, Proc. of IX-th Intern. Wroclaw Symp. On EMC, Poland, Wroclaw, 1988, Part 2, ppS. L. Loyka and V. I. Mordachev, Identification of nonlinear interference sources with the use of the discrete technique, Proc. of IEEE Intern. Symp. on EMC, Denver, Colorado, 1998, pp. 882–887S.L. Loyka and J.R. Mosig, New behavioral-level simulation technique for RF/microwave applications. Part I: Basic concepts, Int. J. RF Microwave Computer-Aided Eng., 10(4) (2000), pp.221–237V.I.Mordachev Automated Double-Frequency Testing Technique for Mapping Receive Interference Responses, IEEE Trans. on EMC,Vol.42, No.2, May 2000V.Mordachev, P.Litvinko. Expert System for EMC Analysis Taking Into Account Nonlinear Interference, Proc. of 16th Intern. Wroclaw Symp. on EMC, Poland, Wroclaw, June 25-28, 2002, ppV.Mordachev, P.Litvinko. Nonlinear sensor method for EMC/EMI analysis in severe electromagnetic environment using EMC-Analyzer expert system, Proc. of 17th Intern. Wroclaw Symp. on EMC, Poland, Wroclaw, June 29-July 1, 2004
37 EMC-Analyzer, related papers (2): V.I. Mordachev, Discrete nonlinear EMC analysis of radiosystems, Doklady BSUIR, No.2, 2004 (in Russian).V.Mordachev, Discrete Nonlinear EMC Analysis: principles, capabilities and application restrictions, Proceedings VI International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility and Electromagnetic Ecology, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, June 21 – 24, 2005, ppV.Mordachev, E.Sinkevich, EMC Analysis of co-site RF/Microwave systems: simulation of signal demodulation, Proceedings of International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility “EMC Europe 2006”, Spain, Barcelona, Sept. 4-8, 2006, pV.I.Mordachev, P.A.Litvinko, Advanced options of expert system “EMC-Analyzer”, Proceedings of International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility “EMC Europe 2006”, Spain, Barcelona, Sept. 4-8, 2006, pE.V.Sinkevich, Validation of the Hammerstein-type behavioral model for the diode envelope demodulator, Proceedings of the VII-th International symposium on electromagnetic compatibility and electromagnetic ecology, Saint-Petersburg, June 26-29, 2007, pp
38 EMC-Analyzer, related papers (3): E.V.Sinkevich, Discrete nonlinear simulation of radio receivers for electromagnetic compatibility analysis and design: estimation of the signal-to-interference ratio, Proc. VII-th Int. Symp. on EMC and electromagnetic ecology, Saint-Petersburg, June 26-29, 2007, ppV.I.Mordachev, E.V.Sinkevich, Discrete technology of electromagnetic compatibility analysis at the system level: features and applications overview, Proceedings of the International conference on metrology and measurement “ICMM 2007”, Vol.1, Beijing, September 5-7, 2007, ppV.I.Mordachev, E.V.Sinkevich, “EMC-Analyzer” expert system: improvement of IEMCAP models, Proc. of the 19th International Wroclaw Symposium and Exhibition on EMC, Poland, Wroclaw, June 11-13, 2008, ppE.V.Sinkevich, Estimation of signal-to-interference ratio for discrete nonlinear simulation of radio receivers operating in severe electromagnetic environment, Doklady BSUIR, 2008, No.4, pp (in Russian).E.V.Sinkevich, AM-PM conversion simulation technique for discrete nonlinear analysis of electromagnetic compatibility, Proc. VIII-th Int. Symp. on EMC and electromagnetic ecology, Saint-Petersburg, June 16-19, 2009, pp