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Chapter 8 Knives and Hand Tools in the Professional Kitchen.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Knives and Hand Tools in the Professional Kitchen."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 8 Knives and Hand Tools in the Professional Kitchen

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Explain the elements of knife construction and how they relate to quality

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives The knife is the chefs most important tool The cutting task seems almost effortless with a sharp, well-constructed knife An aspiring chef should invest in a good quality chef knife

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Choosing a Knife Factors to consider –Type of metal used for the blade –Length of tang –Handle material and weight –Bolster

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Choosing a Knife Metals used for knife blades –Carbon steelCarbon steel Benefit–easy to sharpen Drawbacks–discolors quickly; rusts if left wet; may transfer metallic flavor to foods

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Choosing a Knife Metals used for knife blades (continued) –Stainless steelStainless steel Benefits–does not pit, rust, or discolor; no affect on flavor of foods Drawback–more difficult to sharpen and keep sharp –High-carbon stainless steelHigh-carbon stainless steel Benefits–easier to sharpen and maintain; does not rust or discolor

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Choosing a Knife Length of the tangtang –Full tang: one continuous piece of metal that extends to the end of the handle –Rattail tang: thin piece of metal that extends into the handle of the knife

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Choosing a Knife Handle –Handles can be made from hardwoods, plastic, rubber, or composite materials –The weight of the handle should be balanced with the weight of the blade

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Choosing a Knife Bolster –More expensive knives are constructed with a bolster that strengthens the blade at a stress point where knife blades often crack or chip bolster

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Boards Cutting boards can be made from synthetic composite or hardwoods Synthetic boards may be color-coded to specify their use Cutting boards must be cleaned and sanitized after each use to avoid cross- contamination

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Recognize various knives and hand tools used in the professional kitchen

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Their Uses Chef Knife –Used for chopping, slicing, and most other cutting tasks –Lengths vary between 8 and 14 inches Slicers –Use a light sawing motion to cut cooked meat, poultry, and other foods into thin, even slices

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Their Uses Utility Knife –5 to 7 inch blades –Blade is more flexible but not wide enough for chopping tasks Serrated Slicer –Useful for cutting breads and pastries

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Their Uses Boning and Filet Knives –Blade is approximately 6 inches long and narrower than a chef or utility knife –Boning knives are used for separating muscle from bone on meat or poultry –Filet knives are often used for filleting and portioning fish

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Their Uses Paring Knives –Designed to cut away skin or peel, also useful for cutting intricate garnishes and other detail work Tourné Knife –Used for cutting vegetables into tournés

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Their Uses Scimitar –Excellent for cutting steaks from large cuts of meat –Sometimes called a butchers knife Cleavers –Used for chopping –Heavier cleavers can chop through bones

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Their Uses Oyster Knife –Blade is not sharp, but the pointed tip is used to pry apart the top and bottom shells of oysters Clam Knife –Blade tapers to an edge, but is not honed sharp –Blade is wedged between the top and bottom shells of the clam to pry it open

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Their Uses Palette Knives and Spreaders –Come in various lengths and widths –Have flexible blades, but are not sharp –Designed to spread coatings on foods and also used to turn food

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Apply techniques to sharpen and maintain a good edge on a knife using a steel and whetstone

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sharpening Knives Knowing how to keep a knife sharp is very important The tools used to sharpen knives are the steel and the whetstone steelwhetstone

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Using the Steel The steel is designed to remove very small, rough metal irregularities on the edge of the blade When using the steel, –hold the blade at the proper angle to the steel –use only moderate force when stroking the steel

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Using a Steel Method One 1.Hold the steel in front of you parallel to your body. Place the heel of the blade at the top end of the steel with the knife at a 20- degree angle to the steel.

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Using a Steel Method One (continued) 2.Rotate the wrist of your knife hand downward and gently draw the length of the blade across the steel, ending with the tip.

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Using a Steel Method One (continued) 3.Repeat the process several times on each side of the blade until the edge has a fine finish.

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Using a Steel Method Two 1.Place the tip of the steel on the cutting board and grasp the handle so the steel is vertical, butt side up.

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Using a Steel Method Two (continued) 2.Place the heel of the blade at the top of the steel keeping the edge of the knife at a 20-degree angle to the steel.

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Using a Steel Method Two (continued) 3.With even pressure draw the blade across the steel to the tip maintaining the 20-degree angle.

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Using a Steel Method Two (continued) 4.Repeat the process several times on each side of the blade until the edge has a fine finish.

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Whetstone Whetstones can be made from a variety of abrasive mineral materials that act to grind and hone a knife to a sharp edge Most stones have a rough side, used first to grind an edge on the blade, and a fine side, used to hone it

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lubricants Lubricating a stone makes sharpening easier and helps remove the filings of metal created during sharpening Water or mineral oil is commonly used

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Using a Whetstone 1.Place sharpening stone on a wet towel or rubber mat to prevent it from slipping. Begin with the coarsest side of the stone.

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Using a Whetstone 2.If using a lubricant, saturate the surface of the stone with an even layer of water or mineral oil.

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Using a Whetstone 3.Hold knife at a 20- degree angle to the surface of the stone. 4.Maintain 20-degree angle as you begin with the heel of the blade in the upper left-hand corner of the stone.

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Using a Whetstone 5.Draw knife down and across the stone until the tip of the knife is on the lower right-hand corner of the stone. Maintain even pressure on all parts of the blade.

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Using a Whetstone 6.Repeat process on other side of the blade. Begin with the heel in the upper- right corner of the stone and finish with the tip in the lower-left corner. 7.Repeat the process 5 to 10 times depending on the dullness of the blade. Apply equal pressure to all parts of the blade and an equal number of strokes to each side of the blade.

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Technique: Using a Whetstone 8.Turn stone to its finer side, lubricate it, and repeat steps three through six. 9.To finish the edge, hone it on the steel.

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Recognize various knives and hand tools used in the professional kitchen

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Tools Peelers –Used to remove the skin of fruits and vegetables –Stationary peeler has a slit blade that does not move –Blade on a swivel peeler swivels or rocks

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Tools Whips and Whisks –Used to incorporate air into a mixture or blend ingredients –Wires may be flexible for incorporating more air into a thinner substance, or rigid for mixing thicker substances

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Tools Meat Fork –Used to turn large pieces of meat during cooking and test for doneness Tongs –Act as an extension of the hand for handling food items

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Tools Parisienne Scoops –Used to scoop a variety of foods into small balls –Available in a variety of sizes Spiders –Used to strain items or lift them out of liquid –Mesh disc at the end of the handle resembles a spiders web

43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Tools Skimmer –Designed to remove impurities that form scum on the surface of simmering liquids –Can also be used to perform the same tasks as a spider

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Tools Ladles –Used for portioning liquid products; come in a wide range of sizes –Volume capacity is usually imprinted on the handle

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Tools Kitchen Spoons –Sturdy stainless steel spoons can be solid, slotted, or perforated –Slotted and perforated spoons are used for draining wet products

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Tools Offset Spatulas –Used to lift, turn, and carry food items –Available in a variety of sizes and thicknesses –Some models are perforated to allow for draining a food product

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Tools Spatulas –A flexible rubber or plastic blade on a long handle –Used to remove food product from containers –Heat-tempered spatulas are also used for cooking in nonstick pans to avoid scratching their finish

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Tools Scrapers –A plain plastic blade without a handle used by bakers and pastry chefs –Particularly useful for scraping down large mixing bowls

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Tools Zester –Designed to remove fine strips of the outer rind of citrus fruits Channel Knife –Cuts a decorative groove in the surface of fruits and vegetables

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Hand Tools Garnishing Knives –V- or U-shaped chisels used to carve decorations from fruits and vegetables

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Explain factors to consider when choosing a knife –Metal used for blade: carbon steel, stainless steel, high-carbon stainless steel –Tang size: full, rattail –Handle materials: hardwoods, plastic, rubber, or composite materials –Bolster

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Name and describe the two tools used to sharpen knives –Steel: a rod designed to remove very small, rough metal irregularities on the edge of the blade and to realign it –Whetstone: used to sharpen the edge of a blade that has become dull

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification Palette knivesTongs

54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification Parisienne scoopUtility knife

55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification Boning knifeMeat fork

56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification ScraperSlicer

57 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification Tourné knifeSkimmer

58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification WhiskOyster knife

59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification ScimitarSerrated slicer

60 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification SpatulaParing knife

61 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification Filet knifeCleaver

62 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification LadlesClam knife

63 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification Garnishing knivesChef knife

64 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification Channel knifePeelers

65 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification Offset spatulaZester

66 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Knives and Hand Tools Identification SpoonsSpider

67 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary bolster. A thick, metal collar running from the heel of the blade to the handle that strengthens the blade. carbon steel. The material used to make knife blades that is the easiest to sharpen to a finely honed edge.

68 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary high-carbon stainless steel. An improved combination metal used to make knife blades that is easier to sharpen and maintain, and does not rust or discolor.

69 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary Parisienne scoop. A utensil that is available in a variety of sizes and forms foods into appealing ball-shaped garnishes, also known as a melon baller. spider. A long-handled utensil with a mesh disc at one end used to strain items or lift them out of liquid.

70 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary stainless steel. A material used to make knife blades that does not pit, rust, or discolor, and does not affect the flavor of foods. These blades are difficult to sharpen because this material is so hard. steel. A rod used to keep the knife blade sharp as you work.

71 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Glossary tang. The portion of the knife blade that extends into the handle of the knife. whetstone. A flat, abrasive stone used to sharpen a knife once its edge is dull and worn.


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