3Programme 9:00 Introduction on proces mapping 9:30 Make the map of the strategy development process of yesterday11:00 Group presentations11:30 Conducting Interviews11:45 Managing change, conflict and resistance12:30 Lunch
5What we will cover about process mapping What is itHow to do itPlan, do, reviewElements of a brown paper Process MapAppendixWhat to includePractical hintsSample materialRelate to your experience with brown papers, when you did use them, what processes did you map…2
6What is a Process Map?TitleAs-Is Process Map• xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx• xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxTaskRed FlagsHighlightingKey OpportunitiesSummaryofStrengthsSign-inSheetStrength(TypicallyGreen)LiveDocumentsDecisionClarification(Typically Yellow)Opportunity(Typically Pink)Link to AnotherProcessSummaryofOpportunitiesA collaborative process map is a representation of a process As-Is (as it is today) using a low tech – highly visible method.The Brown Paper Process Map It is a living tool which you build collaboratively with clients representatives and that you use to mobilise the client teams about what needs to be improved in the process – this builds the case for change.A hi-touch, low-tech representation of an entire business process flow, detailing the actual steps taken, applicable interfaces, decision points and information flows
7The process map helps identify and gain support for opportunities Describes the process as it works today from start to endMay be used to describe the process as it should beShows the big pictureIs high touch, low-techIdentifies strengths and opportunitiesCaptures the complexity and disconnects of operational issuesQuantifies elements of timing, volume, resource requirementDevelops enthusiasm and ownership of issuesBuilds project momentumIs self-explanatoryThe point is to describe the process as it really is happening – not the way it is supposed to happen.You can develop a Process Map into a great level of detail – and it can become an very content rich document. The focus is on identifying strengths and opportunities, so you need to develop a Process Map to the appropriate level of detail to see them.
8We use brown papers for other purposes Horse-blanketTitleIntroductionSlides/panelsCultureSkillsProcessesTechnologyCompetitorsCustomersToFromMay Jun Jul Aug Sep OctTeam 1Team 2Team 3Team 4Team 5Team 6Team 7ProjectWe used to call Collaborative Process Mapping 'Brown Paper', but this is confusing since we actually use brown paper for many other things.The process to build these other 'brown paper' can be similar (typically very collaborative – done with clients) but the objectives are different.We will cover Transformation Map and Project Plan this week. There are more creative ways to use brown paper s too…Transformation MapProject PlanAny information presented on brown paper for the purpose of validation and socialization
9It is a tool that benefits both client and consultants For the consultant...…and the clientBecause he/she. . .. . . often has limited time to gather information. . . understands the “generic process”, but not the process specific to the client. . . has hypotheses of potential opportunities – based on limited data and past experience, which need to be tested. . . needs to surface the politics and emotions involved in the current situationThe Brown Paper map . . .. . . describes the process as they use it today and identifying who gets involved, how, and where. . . identifies strengths and opportunities as they see them. . . provides the basis for further data gathering / studies. . . helps to mobilise the client and allows them to focus on the opportunities without blameCollaborative Process Mapping is a very quick and efficient way for CGE&Y to gather information and to mobilise the client.The technique is superb at breaking down hierarchical boundaries and developing broad client ownership7
10Process mapping includes more than the actual mapping of the process flow PLANDOREVIEWPREPARELOGISTICSBUILDREVIEWANALYSEAs in many things consultants do, collaborative process mapping requires careful preparation – and the logistics of it can be challenging (large room, stationery…).Getting the right people into the room (i.e. covering all steps of the process, able to provide details…) is absolutely critical.
11Plan How do I start? Prepare Set up logistics Be clear about the objective and scopeIdentify which process to model: start, finish, interfacesHypotheses about the process todayAnd about benefits, opportunities, dataCreate a draft of the processDecide appropriate level of detailGiven the potential opportunities and time constraintsSet up logisticsClearly identify, recruit and prepare people to make it (owner, credible experts and users, facilitator)Prepare materials (cut / taped brown paper, post-it’s, icons)Location (wall space, strong wallpaper)Time contractPlan
12How do I create a Process Map? Build the brown paperReiterate objectives and expectationsClarify scope – start and end points, interfacesProvide some guidance on level of detailConstruct: plan for 3 iterations of the brown paperWhite Board – agree start, finish and key steps; best done with 1 or 2 people onlyRough Draft – using post-its for icons, block out flow with knowledgeable resource. Check for accuracyBrown Paper – the real oneIdentify where you need further details and arrange next steps to get themCapture strengths and opportunities as you progressAsk the participants at the end what they think the key opportunities and concerns areAllow time for client to air complaints and frustrationsDo
13Review What do I do next? Review Analyse Follow-up next steps Smarten up the paper as necessaryCapture / review builds from review group(s)Highlight and validate key strengths and weaknessesAnalyseDesign necessary in-depth studiesIdentify “Early Wins”Identify root causesLook at the process from a customers point of viewUse the Process Map as a starting point to understand costs, cost drivers and key performance indicatorsReviewStand back: look at the forest, study the trees, and determine what works and where there are opportunities for improvement
14Summarizing PLAN DO REVIEW PREPARE LOGISTICS BUILD REVIEW ANALYSE Hypothesize about today’s processThink about what information you need to validate hypothesisInvite the “right” people to build the process flowLogisticsMap the “As Is” process flowGather as much information around the process as possibleInvite people to give comments to the Process MapValidate the Process Map with staff and managementArrange ’brown paper fairs'Analyse for root causesTry to understand costs, cost drivers and key performance indicatorsAs in many things consultants do, collaborative process mapping requires careful preparation – and the logistics of it can be challenging (large room, stationery…).Getting the right people into the room (i.e. covering all steps of the process, able to provide details…) is absolutely critical.
16You can use simple symbols for activity, decision and link to another process Describes activity / task performedStarts with an action verbUse few words (less than 5)e.g. “Receive order”, “Give feedback to customer” etc.Include organization or unit / person who does the taskBoth official and daily life namesActivityYes xx%Describe decision as a yes / no questione.g. “Customer credit worthy?”, “Already in system?”etcQuantify outcome (volume, percentage)“Question”No xx%Link to another process flow outside this brown paperDescribe required input / output“Process Name”
17Connect activities with lines and arrows Standard activity connection with flow directionIndicates that flow lines cross each otherIndicates telephone or other electronic transmissionDraw the lines on the brown paper itself – first with a pencil (draft), then with a thick black pen
18Identify opportunities and add comments Flag an Opportunity:To point out an area of improvementRed“ # ”GreenTo point out a strengthHighlights an opportunity to improveNumber flag to reference itTo comment on process flowYellowBut for every standard there are exceptions – check what’s preferred by the client or the project manager!
19Complete with background and summaries To the far left: introduction to the process map, who made it, and a sign in sheet.To the far right: summary of findings, strengths and opportunities
20Assignment – group work Develop the process map of your group work on thestrategy development of yesterday,containing at least:Basic process map activitiesAll produced group results, clearly presentedComments and learning pointsImprovement opportunities of the strategy development processYour final results – the strategy confronted to the 4 scenariosActivities which remains to be done
21Some tips and hints Assign clear roles to group menbers: ChairmanContent expertsProcess map material makersPresenterMake it “real and alive” – add examples and work material of yesterdayUse illustrative symbols: drawings of trucks, consumers, computers, etc: be creativeFind the right level of detailBeware of “should be” – we need a description of how it was actually performedGive improvements on the side of the process in different collor paper/pen
23The Process Map should include facts to enable a comprehensive evaluation of the process Person / function carrying out each activity (who does what)How many people involvedHow much time is spent in the process / activity (man years used)Volumes, values of flowsBacklogsTouch timesTime in systemElapsed time, cycle timeDwell times and reasonse.g. “rest” time on a desk before being processedErrorsHow often
24The Process Map should include facts to enable a comprehensive evaluation of the process Rework - Nº of iterationsCheckingWhen, by whom, how much time, whyApproval points and funding gatesAuthority level needed to take decision, sign document etc.Interface traffic and hand offsMail, telephone, office system, etc.Input / output that are requiredDuplication of work at boundariesInformation about the IT systems used in the process
25The Process Map should include facts to enable a comprehensive evaluation of the process If possible get details or estimates of :Percentage splits at the decision pointTimeframes of process steps Vs end-to-end process time (if the sum of the individual process step time is less than the end to end process time, then this highlights any waiting time)If possible, document the session / process map as in progress gatesAuthority level needed to take decision, sign document etc.Stick reports or input sheets…onto the brown paper if appropriatePut issues and ideas on the brown paper near to relevant process step or on separate sheets
26Get as much written information around the process as possible Attach copies of actual documentation used, e.g. formsObtain copies of all working documentsGet documents / reports describing processGet information on past and present initiatives that address the processProject PlanNames, organizational unit and phone numbers of key persons involved in the initiativePreliminary reports etc.IT systems supporting the process should be clearly shown on the brown paperIndicate along the process where the different IT systems are used (e.g. use different icons for different systems)Have a separate section on the brown paper describing the different IT systems
27What to include Think about how to show: Resources Time / duration Waiting timePerformance measuresSystems used vs. manual process
28Some opportunities to look for ‘Dead zones’ – places where work sits, gets held up (bottleneck), or gets lostLost timeApparent – people looking for workHidden – re-work loopsChecking, transporting and other non value-adding activitiesAlternative routes that are never or seldom neededNight shift ‘tricks’ and other ‘work-arounds’ – un-official process that are usedDuplicated activitiesSteps that could be eliminated or combinedBroken and ineffective interfacesIdentify root causes and quantify opportunities
30Construction guidelines Don't try to create a finished brown paper from scratchDisagreement about the process is OKMake not knowing the answer to every question OKStart process steps with an action verbBe sure that client participants understand that the steady stream of questions is not an attempt to trick or humiliate themInclude copies of actual documents and real examplesCapture what really happensBe sure to quantify the process, especially decision points and branches; how much? how often? how many?Stick with agreed formats and be creativeResist making value judgments during this timeRule of thumb: 80 / 20
31Some tips and hintsMake sure you have the right people building the brown paper – it has to be the ones who perform the process and know it wellMake it “real” – add examples of orders, reports, etcUse illustrative symbols for tools used: hammers, telephones, computers, etcFind the right level of detailBeware of “should be” – we need a description of how it is actually performed
32Some practical hints Have complete supply kit Keep a spare set of icons – you never have enoughStrengthen the edges of the brown paper with tapeUse yellow or white “Post-it” notes first for each activity / task before rewriting them on white rectanglesMake sure hand-written text is easy for others to readDraw connections with a soft pencil first, to enable adjustmentsInitially attach papers in a way that they are easy to move aroundDon´t glue down any papers until the brown paper has been reviewedMake sure you use glue that will lastTape “post-its” on with small tape
33Some process hints Prepare a rough draft (high level flow) Based on preliminary discussions and knowledge on a separate sheet and integrate with content expertsClearly define the start and stop points in the processManage the scopeDo not try to depict a lengthy / complex process Flow in a single sessionClear objectivesGet “creators” to do the work while joint team member “facilitates”When they get involved they will really feel ownership for the outcomeFocus on what really happens – not what is supposed to happenKeep participants focused on the “As Is” – not the “To Be”To maintain continuity try to have a team of people that can be there for the whole session when constructing the brown paper
34Some process hintsContinue probing, what else?, what happens next?, how often?Keep them moving; don´t let them deliberate too much (maintain focus)Remember the 80:20 rule when driving the detailIntegrate “presenting back” what is on paperThis helps clarify the process and facilitates knowledge transferNever leave the brown paper to be done by people who do not have the proper trainingAlways ask who else should see this, or who else is involved in the process?