Presentation on theme: "Getting to know eachother Interview question: What is the stupidest/most surprising thing you ever did in (working) life? –Why did you do it? –What did."— Presentation transcript:
Getting to know eachother Interview question: What is the stupidest/most surprising thing you ever did in (working) life? –Why did you do it? –What did you learn?
Programme 9:00Introduction on proces mapping 9:30Make the map of the strategy development process of yesterday 11:00Group presentations 11:30Conducting Interviews 11:45Managing change, conflict and resistance 12:30 Lunch
Process Mapping Consultancy Skills
What we will cover about process mapping What is it How to do it –Plan, do, review –Elements of a brown paper Process Map Appendix –What to include –Practical hints –Sample material
What is a Process Map? xxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxx Title As-Is Process Map xxxxxxxxx Sign-in Sheet Task Decision Strength (Typically Green) Live Documents Red Flags Highlighting Key Opportunities Clarification (Typically Yellow) Link to Another Process Summary of Strengths Summary of Opportunities xxxxxx Opportunity (Typically Pink) xxxxxxxxxxxxxx A hi-touch, low-tech representation of an entire business process flow, detailing the actual steps taken, applicable interfaces, decision points and information flows
The process map helps identify and gain support for opportunities The Process Map... –Describes the process as it works today from start to end –May be used to describe the process as it should be –Shows the big picture –Is high touch, low-tech –Identifies strengths and opportunities –Captures the complexity and disconnects of operational issues –Quantifies elements of timing, volume, resource requirement –Develops enthusiasm and ownership of issues –Builds project momentum –Is self-explanatory
Slides/panels Title Introduction MayJunJulAugSepOct Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4 Team 5 Team 6 Team 7 Project Horse-blanket Project Plan We use brown papers for other purposes Any information presented on brown paper for the purpose of validation and socialization Culture Skills Processe s Technology Competitors Customers To From Transformation Map
It is a tool that benefits both client and consultants The technique is superb at breaking down hierarchical boundaries and developing broad client ownership Because he/she often has limited time to gather information... understands the generic process, but not the process specific to the client... has hypotheses of potential opportunities – based on limited data and past experience, which need to be tested... needs to surface the politics and emotions involved in the current situation For the consultant... The Brown Paper map describes the process as they use it today and identifying who gets involved, how, and where... identifies strengths and opportunities as they see them... provides the basis for further data gathering / studies... helps to mobilise the client and allows them to focus on the opportunities without blame …and the client
ANALYSELOGISTICSBUILDREVIEW PLANDOREVIEW PREPARE Process mapping includes more than the actual mapping of the process flow
Prepare –Be clear about the objective and scope Identify which process to model: start, finish, interfaces –Hypotheses about the process today And about benefits, opportunities, data –Create a draft of the process –Decide appropriate level of detail Given the potential opportunities and time constraints Set up logistics –Clearly identify, recruit and prepare people to make it (owner, credible experts and users, facilitator) –Prepare materials (cut / taped brown paper, post-its, icons) –Location (wall space, strong wallpaper) –Time contract PlanPlan How do I start?
DoDo Build the brown paper –Reiterate objectives and expectations –Clarify scope – start and end points, interfaces –Provide some guidance on level of detail –Construct: plan for 3 iterations of the brown paper White Board – agree start, finish and key steps; best done with 1 or 2 people only Rough Draft – using post-its for icons, block out flow with knowledgeable resource. Check for accuracy Brown Paper – the real one –Identify where you need further details and arrange next steps to get them –Capture strengths and opportunities as you progress –Ask the participants at the end what they think the key opportunities and concerns are –Allow time for client to air complaints and frustrations How do I create a Process Map?
ReviewReview Review –Follow-up next steps –Smarten up the paper as necessary –Capture / review builds from review group(s) –Highlight and validate key strengths and weaknesses Analyse –Design necessary in-depth studies –Identify Early Wins –Identify root causes –Look at the process from a customers point of view –Use the Process Map as a starting point to understand costs, cost drivers and key performance indicators What do I do next? Stand back: look at the forest, study the trees, and determine what works and where there are opportunities for improvement
ANALYSE Analyse for root causes Try to understand costs, cost drivers and key performance indicators LOGISTICSBUILDREVIEW Hypothesize about todays process Think about what information you need to validate hypothesis Invite the right people to build the process flow Logistics Map the As Is process flow Gather as much information around the process as possible Invite people to give comments to the Process Map Validate the Process Map with staff and management Arrange brown paper fairs' PLANDOREVIEW PREPARE Summarizing
Elements of a brown paper Process Map
Describes activity / task performed Starts with an action verb Use few words (less than 5) –e.g. Receive order, Give feedback to customer etc. Include organization or unit / person who does the task –Both official and daily life names Describe decision as a yes / no question –e.g. Customer credit worthy?, Already in system?etc Quantify outcome (volume, percentage) Link to another process flow outside this brown paper Describe required input / output Question Yes xx% No xx% Process Name Activity You can use simple symbols for activity, decision and link to another process
Standard activity connection with flow direction Indicates that flow lines cross each other Indicates telephone or other electronic transmission Connect activities with lines and arrows Draw the lines on the brown paper itself – first with a pencil (draft), then with a thick black pen
Red Green Yellow To point out an area of improvement To point out a strength To comment on process flow Highlights an opportunity to improve Number flag to reference it Flag an Opportunity: # Identify opportunities and add comments But for every standard there are exceptions – check whats preferred by the client or the project manager!
To the far left: introduction to the process map, who made it, and a sign in sheet. To the far right: summary of findings, strengths and opportunities Complete with background and summaries
Assignment – group work Develop the process map of your group work on the strategy development of yesterday, containing at least: Basic process map activities All produced group results, clearly presented Comments and learning points Improvement opportunities of the strategy development process Your final results – the strategy confronted to the 4 scenarios Activities which remains to be done
Some tips and hints Assign clear roles to group menbers: –Chairman –Content experts –Process map material makers –Presenter Make it real and alive – add examples and work material of yesterday Use illustrative symbols: drawings of trucks, consumers, computers, etc: be creative Find the right level of detail Beware of should be – we need a description of how it was actually performed Give improvements on the side of the process in different collor paper/pen
Appendix 1: What to include?
The Process Map should include facts to enable a comprehensive evaluation of the process Person / function carrying out each activity (who does what) How many people involved How much time is spent in the process / activity (man years used) Volumes, values of flows Backlogs Touch times Time in system –Elapsed time, cycle time Dwell times and reasons –e.g. rest time on a desk before being processed Errors –How often
The Process Map should include facts to enable a comprehensive evaluation of the process Rework - Nº of iterations Checking –When, by whom, how much time, why Approval points and funding gates Authority level needed to take decision, sign document etc. Interface traffic and hand offs –Mail, telephone, office system, etc. Input / output that are required Duplication of work at boundaries Information about the IT systems used in the process
The Process Map should include facts to enable a comprehensive evaluation of the process If possible get details or estimates of : –Percentage splits at the decision point –Timeframes of process steps Vs end-to-end process time (if the sum of the individual process step time is less than the end to end process time, then this highlights any waiting time) If possible, document the session / process map as in progress gates Authority level needed to take decision, sign document etc. Stick reports or input sheets…onto the brown paper if appropriate Put issues and ideas on the brown paper near to relevant process step or on separate sheets
Get as much written information around the process as possible Attach copies of actual documentation used, e.g. forms Obtain copies of all working documents Get documents / reports describing process Get information on past and present initiatives that address the process –Project Plan –Names, organizational unit and phone numbers of key persons involved in the initiative –Preliminary reports etc. IT systems supporting the process should be clearly shown on the brown paper –Indicate along the process where the different IT systems are used (e.g. use different icons for different systems) –Have a separate section on the brown paper describing the different IT systems
What to include Think about how to show: Resources Time / duration Waiting time Performance measures Systems used vs. manual process
Some opportunities to look for Dead zones – places where work sits, gets held up (bottleneck), or gets lost Lost time –Apparent – people looking for work –Hidden – re-work loops Checking, transporting and other non value-adding activities Alternative routes that are never or seldom needed Night shift tricks and other work-arounds – un-official process that are used Duplicated activities Steps that could be eliminated or combined Broken and ineffective interfaces Identify root causes and quantify opportunities
Appendix 1: Hints and tips
Construction guidelines Don't try to create a finished brown paper from scratch Disagreement about the process is OK Make not knowing the answer to every question OK Start process steps with an action verb Be sure that client participants understand that the steady stream of questions is not an attempt to trick or humiliate them Include copies of actual documents and real examples Capture what really happens Be sure to quantify the process, especially decision points and branches; how much? how often? how many? Stick with agreed formats and be creative Resist making value judgments during this time Rule of thumb: 80 / 20
Some tips and hints Make sure you have the right people building the brown paper – it has to be the ones who perform the process and know it well Make it real – add examples of orders, reports, etc Use illustrative symbols for tools used: hammers, telephones, computers, etc Find the right level of detail Beware of should be – we need a description of how it is actually performed
Some practical hints Have complete supply kit –Keep a spare set of icons – you never have enough Strengthen the edges of the brown paper with tape Use yellow or white Post-it notes first for each activity / task before rewriting them on white rectangles Make sure hand-written text is easy for others to read Draw connections with a soft pencil first, to enable adjustments Initially attach papers in a way that they are easy to move around –Don´t glue down any papers until the brown paper has been reviewed Make sure you use glue that will last Tape post-its on with small tape
Some process hints Prepare a rough draft (high level flow) –Based on preliminary discussions and knowledge on a separate sheet and integrate with content experts Clearly define the start and stop points in the process Manage the scope –Do not try to depict a lengthy / complex process Flow in a single session Clear objectives Get creators to do the work while joint team member facilitates –When they get involved they will really feel ownership for the outcome Focus on what really happens – not what is supposed to happen Keep participants focused on the As Is – not the To Be To maintain continuity try to have a team of people that can be there for the whole session when constructing the brown paper
Some process hints Continue probing, what else?, what happens next?, how often? Keep them moving; don´t let them deliberate too much (maintain focus) Remember the 80:20 rule when driving the detail Integrate presenting back what is on paper –This helps clarify the process and facilitates knowledge transfer Never leave the brown paper to be done by people who do not have the proper training Always ask who else should see this, or who else is involved in the process?