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Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 1 TRAINING Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Goals of Training Ropes & Hardware Requirements Ropes.

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Presentation on theme: "Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 1 TRAINING Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Goals of Training Ropes & Hardware Requirements Ropes."— Presentation transcript:

1 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 1 TRAINING Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Goals of Training Ropes & Hardware Requirements Ropes & Hardware Requirements Haul Systems Line Transfer vs. Third-Man Pickoff Safety Line Philosophy Patient Packaging Evolutions Discussion Quiz Continuing Education Working Fire Training 04-5 Training Materials Click anywhere to view show in its entirety

2 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 2 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Learning or refamiliarizing members with basic rope techniques Understanding how these techniques will work in real scenarios. Emphasis on conducting rope rescues in a safe manner. Goals of Training

3 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 3 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Always use static rope, not dynamic. –Rappelers and cliff climbers like dynamic rope because it has more give; rescuers dont need that. –Static rope used is a two-person load rope; 9,000 lb. Capacity. –Static rope has a low spin tendency; important for working with a Stokes. –Core carries 80% of the weight; the sheath carries 20%. Rope & Hardware Requirements

4 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 4 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Always use static rope, not dynamic (cont.). –Use training rope with a safety. –Dont step on rope or smoke near it (to avoid burning it). –Pad edges to avoid friction. Rope & Hardware Requirements (cont.)

5 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 5 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Carabiners: Dos and Donts –Make sure the gate is locked; don't drop them. –Load carabiners in-line; don't let them turn sideways. Rope & Hardware Requirements (cont.)

6 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 6 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Rappel Rack & Figure 8 –Use a Rack with a Line Transfer or Third-Man Pickoff. –Add and subtract friction with more control (depending on how many bars are used). Rope & Hardware Requirements (cont.)

7 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 7 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Gibbs & Rescue Ascenders –Used a lot in haul systems; Z-rigs, 3:1, 4:1, etc. –Shock loading the rope with these devices will damage the rope because they dig in. will damage the rope because they dig in. Rope & Hardware Requirements (cont.)

8 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 8 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Pulleys –Used for mechanical advantage –Size of rope to use with a pulley is determined by rope diameter; specifically, four times the rope diameter. half-inch rope demands a minimum 2" diameter pulley; you can go bigger but never smaller. –Smaller-diameter pulleys will crush the rope by overbending it. Rope & Hardware Requirements (cont.)

9 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 9 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Harnesses –Rated for one person; all other devices are rated for two persons. Important to remember in Line Transfer or Third-Man Pickoff maneuvers: Dont clip victim to your harness! Hook them to the haul system! –Class of Harness Class II is basically just a seat harness (used in Confined Space evolutions) Class III is a chest-and-seat harness. Rope & Hardware Requirements (cont.)

10 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 10 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Prusik Wraps: –Single: Used around our main line or a working line; great for unloading your own system, like a rappel system. Wrap them carefully so they dont overlap or they wont work. Use it to make a foot loop for you to stand on. Haul Systems

11 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 11 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Prusik Wraps: –Tandem Triple-Wrap Prusik: Use a long and a short Prusik cord Can replace mechanical grab devices like a gibbs, rescue ascenders, etc. Use if short of hardware. Great for making a safety to a haul system; when they stretch out, they lock off. Haul Systems (cont.)

12 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 12 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Anchors: –Must be bomb-proof Keep in-line with rescuer if possible; avoid slack and load shock. Steel beams and concrete abutments are excellent because they're anchored top and bottom. A handrailing probably isn't. –Trees: Can be good Consider the size and root system; a 2" sapling won't work! Make sure it's alive. Haul Systems (cont.)

13 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 13 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Anchors: –Boulders: They must be huge and embedded in the ground. –Vehicles: Excellent Be sure and remove the keys; chock it down in necessary. –Equipment: Useful if very heavy and immovable Haul Systems (cont.)

14 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 14 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Anchors: –Picket System –Steel pickets planted in a row –System will lose efficiency as it grows: Single picket: 700 lbs. 1:1 : = 1400 1:1:1 = 1800 3:2:1 System; different ways of rigging it –Stud work: Use in a bind, but back it up with something else Haul Systems (cont.)

15 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 15 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Ladder Gin: –Use when you can only rig one side in a scenario (as opposed to an A- Frame where you have two sides) –You can use a single or straight ladder, extension ladder, etc. –High-point anchor: Remember the angle must be less than 90 degrees! Haul Systems (cont.)

16 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 16 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Ladder Gin: –Use it to rig a: 2:1 system for lifting a static line for rapelling a dynamic line with an offset mechanical system to haul a Stokes, etc. –Don't pull off-axis when using a Ladder Gin; it's not an A-frame; it relies on a straight-down load to keep it steady. –Add a third line for stability if you have the room and secure the bottom of the ladder. Haul Systems (cont.)

17 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 17 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II A-Frame: –Useful for trench rescue –Laterally sturdy as well as vertically sturdy when you rig the guy lines –Takes a high-point anchor for a mechanical advantage system –Use the A-Frame when two sides are available for rigging; otherwise, use the Ladder Gin. Haul Systems (cont.)

18 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 18 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Mechanical Advantage (MA) –3:1 and 4:1 are most useful; easy to rig –Increase MA if more lift is needed or you're short on manpower. –There are disadvantages to using exceedingly large MAs, such as 12:1 or 15:1: You use an awful lot of rope You lose sensitivity and can't feel what's happening to the rope: snagging, etc. –You can exceed the rope weighting and overload such a system Haul Systems (cont.)

19 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 19 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Line Transfer –moving a dead weight (ex: unconscious person) from another haul system to the haul system of the rescuer system Use no less than six bars on your rack! Third-Man Pickoff –rigging a harness on a trapped person and moving person to haul system of rescuer Line Transfer vs. Third-Man Pickoff

20 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 20 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II It's becoming evident that safety lines are not essentially necessary on rescues. If we use rated equipment that's in good shape and use good technique, we can skip the safety. However, if there's time and manpower to rig one, go ahead and do it. But if response speed is critical, go without it. Follow the S.O.G. in your department regarding the use of safety lines. Safety Line Philosophy

21 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 21 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Don't drive or walk on ropes. Rig tag lines on all personnel working near cliff edges. Proper PPE: gloves and helmet, weather permitting Make your assignments and go with it; examine the capabilities of your people and use them accordingly. Good communications, coordination and teamwork Scene Operations

22 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 22 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Stokes, SKED, LSP, Half-Back, Hastey Harness (see examples in Volume 04-4) Patient Packaging

23 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 23 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II General Advice & Precautions : –Set haul assignments: give assignments based on personnel strengths and preferences. –Decide on rigging to use: mechanical advantage, hardware, etc. –Select anchor points. –Select lift conveyance: Stokes, SKED, etc. –Is rescuer being lowered or rapelling down? –If lowering rescuer, be sure and load system before descent begins. Evolutions

24 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 24 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II General Advice & Precautions (cont.) –Position system so rope falls just beyond the edge of cliff or structure; this way, the rescuer is within reach of rescue team and doesn't have to swing out too far. –If it's too close, then our patient gets bumped up against the side of the cliff or structure below the rescue point. –On Line Transfers or Third-Man Pickoffs, never connect the patient to rescuer's harness; only to the haul system. Evolutions (cont.)

25 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 25 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Ladder Gin: Lowering/Lifting –Anchor points add stability to system when they are fairly wide; but don't set them too far back because long tag lines tend to pull on the system. –Watch twists when using 3:1, 4:1 systems. Avoid nylon rubbing on nylon. Use a swivel if necessary. –Set system length so there is sufficient height beneath the system hardware to haul Stokes over the edge without a lot of manual lifting Evolutions (cont.)

26 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 26 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Ladder Gin: Lowering/Lifting (cont.) –Consider using a redirect pulley system to move the haul team away from the edge, reducing congestion at the point of rescue. –A redirect also works well with a Ladder Gin because it keeps the pull force centered and in line with the ladder, avoiding movement side-to-side. Evolutions (cont.)

27 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 27 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Stairwell Carry –Use the line to hold the weight of a Stokes or lowering device while rescuers escort the it down the stairwell. The dimensions of the stairwell will determine exactly how you handle the stretcher. –Two carabiners connected by a swivel are the heart of the haul system Evolutions (cont.)

28 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 28 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Stairwell Carry (cont.) –As usual, pick a sturdy anchor point. In a stairwell: this could be a railing base or support. or you could rig a high anchor point using a ladder at the top of the stairwell if there's room. –The routine is to lower, then manipulate the stretcher around the stairwell, then lower. Evolutions (cont.)

29 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 29 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Line Transfer –Rescuer may go to five bars on the rescue rack when lowering; when adding the patient to the system, never use less than six bars for added safety in descent. –Upon reaching the patient either by rapelling or by being lowered, invert and work upside down as you hook the patient to the haul system. DO NOT hook the patient to your harness! –Weight the system with the patient before you remove him from the ledge. Evolutions (cont.)

30 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 30 Ropes & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Stokes Rescue –Diamond lash the patient into the Stokes, also making adjustments for horizontal or vertical rescue. –Size of patient will demand adjustment of lashing. –Rescuer below maintains control of tag lines on the Stokes as it is hauled up. Evolutions (cont.)

31 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 31 Department Discussion The department involved in this months training pose some discussion questions that you can use as discussion-starters in your own departments training sessions. How will your department handle these scenarios?

32 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 32 Department Discussion What constitutes a correct rescue technique? Is there such a thing as a bad rescue? How does your department handle ropes? Does it keep them pre-rigged in a bag? Heres a question for the company officer: how do you assign duties on the rescue scene? Is it by ability? Seniority? What criteria do you use? -

33 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 33 Department Discussion What is your departments policy on safety lines during actual rescues?Do you think its a good idea to be able to execute rescues using equipment that your department doesnt own? Why might this be useful?

34 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 34 Department Discussion Is there any advantage to executing a rescue by a different method if the one you usually use has always worked? - Deputy Chief Steve Rhinehart Maryland Heights Fire Protection District, St. Charles County, Missouri

35 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 35 Ropes & Rigging Techniques: Quiz Date__________________ Firefighter________________ Chief/T.O.______________ Education Credits _________ Select the best answer: 1. True or False: Keeping a downward weight on a Ladder Gin wont help its stability. 2. True or False: Because rapelling is an accepted technique, you should also use dynamic rope for rescues as you would with rapelling. 3. True or False: Dont let carabiners turn sideways.

36 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 36 Ropes & Rigging Techniques: Quiz Select the best answer: 4. Multiple Choice: Which of the following would you NOT use to grab in a safety system? a. Rescue ascender b. Prusik wrap c. Gibbs ascender d. Butterfly knot e. None of the above

37 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 37 Ropes & Rigging Techniques: Quiz Select the best answer: 5. Multiple Choice: When considering mechanical advantage, which of the following are important? a. Possible loss of sensitivity through the rope b. Possible overloading of the rope weighting c. Amount of rope that will be used d. Less than optimal manpower e. All of the above (Answers on Slide 40)

38 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 38 Continuing Education Kramer vs. Kramer: Rope & Rigging Techniques, Pt. II Complete written responses to the following three essay questions: 1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a county-wide task force for specialized rescue? 2. Describe how specialized rescue is conducted in your county or your area and list any changes you would recommend. 3. As a rule, do you feel that a county-wide task force for a specialty function is effective? Why or why not? …CONT. If youre enrolled in the Open Learning Fire Service Program at the University of Cincinnati, heres your opportunity this month to earn one college credit hour for watching Working Fire Training.

39 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 39 Continuing Education ENROLLMENT INFORMATION: For more information on enrolling in the Open Learning program to gain college credit, call Fire at 800-516-3473 for a brochure or, to register directly, call the University of Cincinnati at 513-556-6583. Associates and Bachelors programs are available. Call to have your transcripts evaluated. Send your responses to: Mr. Bill Kramer University of Cincinnati College of Applied Science 2220 Victory Parkway, ML #103 Cincinnati, Ohio 45206

40 Working Fire Training / Copyright 2004 / Volume 04-5 40 04-5 Training Materials TRAINING Thanks so much for viewing Working Fire Training! See you next month – stay safe! Answers to quiz on Slides 42-44: 1. False 2. False 3. True 4. d. 5. e.


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