Typical ATC Instructions Fly present heading direct Olympia VOR (OLM) Hold NE on the 030 radial Right turns EFC in two doughnuts
Use the heading indicator (or HSI) to visualize the holding pattern. This method assumes standard right-hand turns in the hold. Apply this technique after you are established on a heading directly toward a holding fix (VOR, NDB, intersection, etc.)
To visualize the basic principle, divide the heading indicator into sectors: First, mentally draw a line inclined about 30° from the horizontal. Next, add a virtual vertical line from the top of the heading indicator to the center of the instrument.
Now find the radial or bearing that defines the inbound leg of your hold and note which piece of the pie it falls into. If the holding course falls into the upper-right sector, you should fly a teardrop entry. If the holding course falls in the upper-left sector, use a parallel entry. And if the course lies in the large bottom sector, fly a direct entry.
After you understand the pieces of pie, you can complete the simple mental picture to fly holding pattern entries. Put the holding fix at the center of the heading indicator, and place your airplane at the bottom of the instrument. Lets apply this method to several specific examples…
Fly present heading direct Olympia VOR Hold NE on the 030 radial Right turns
Fly present heading direct Olympia VOR Hold SE on the 130 radial Right turns
Fly present heading direct Olympia VOR Hold NW on the 300 radial Right turns
Fly present heading direct Olympia VOR Hold SE on the 180 radial Right turns
What holding instructions would suggest a: Teardrop entry Direct entry Parallel entry
You can use the same visualization method for non- standard holds with left-hand turns. Just adjust the pieces of the pie and entry sectors as shown here.
More Information The information about holding in AIM 5-3-7AIM Chapter 10 of the Instrument Flying Handbook and Chapter 3 of the Instrument Procedures Handbook Basic Instrument Flight Patterns at the end of Chapter 5 of the Instrument Flying Handbook