2Techniques Transect Walk Timeline Social Mapping Seasonal mapping Venn diagramMatrix rankingPair wise rankingWell being ranking
3Applied to all techniques Who can be the facilitator?Understand the basic issue in question thoroughlyConduct the PRA at the place where the target group lives and at a time convenient to themExplain the objective of the exercise to the participantsA good representative group of participants is a must to gather meaningful and unbiased data
4TransectIt is mostly used for the appraisal of natural resources in terms of status, problems and potential. It provides a cross-sectional representation of the different agro-ecological zones.This has also been used for the depiction of various social aspects, such as, the caste and ethnic determinants of a settlement.Verification of issues raised during other PRA exercises .Serves as an important entry point for the PRA facilitators into the community in an un-intrusive and non-threatening manner.Types of transect PathsWalk from a high point across to a low point in the areaJust a straight line walk from one extreme point of the area to the other.To get more detailed view of the area, an S-shaped transect walk is also undertakenVerification of issues raised during other PRA exercises – particularly during social mapping, natural resources mappingThey provide an opportunity to double-check the information generated through social maps, resource maps, and other PRA methods.Walking together in small groups, local people and facilitators tend to become informal and shed some of their inhibitions.
5Key stepsLocate a group of local people having some knowledge of the area and who are willing to walk with you for the exercise. Explain the purpose of the study.Go along with the people at the prefixed time on the already decided transect path.Observe the surroundings. If necessary, stop at certain locations for detailed discussions on the points emerging. It also gives you a breather and time to note down details.After returning, draw a transect on a large sheet of paper. Let the local people take the lead in drawing the transect diagram. Use your notes and the notes of other members of the transect team while making the diagramIt is not uncommon to have two transects done for the same area- one by local men and another by local women. What is very striking s the different perspectives the two transect produce.The path, as far as possible, should remain the same for different transect walks. It helps in making the date more comparable. If you want the coverage to be detailed, you can select more than one path and have the same and different team do the transect walk.
6TimelineIt is used to explore the temporal dimension from a historical perspective. It captures the chronology of events as recalled by local peopleTime line provides an aggregate of the various landmark events as perceived by the local people.Helps to learn from the community what they consider to be important past events, the historical perspective on current issues and to generate discussions on changes with respect to issues you are interested in such as economic conditions
7Key stepsIdentify some elderly persons in the village, explain the purpose of the exercise.The key questions:When was the village established? What are the important events in the history of the village? What major changes took place? What are the reasons for these changes?Make a note of the key points un brief in cards in bold letters.Once you feel that the list is more or less complete, ask them to keep the cards in a chronological order- the earlier events on the top and the later events lower down.Read out the events and ask them whether they are happy with the order.Add years to the left side of the list of events.Triangulate with other elderly persons in the village to see the correctness of the information given in the time line. Secondary sources of information can also be used.Concept of timeThere are particular instances of problems of interpretation in how people relate to time. Another problem is the common use of local times frames, particularly within communities which follow a different time frame and don’t use our calendar. People may talk about a particular event but may not recall the exact time period. There are no set procedures to get over these problems. You have to use your own ingenuity and improvise methods.
8Social mappingIt seeks to explore the spatial dimensions of people’s realities.Developing a comprehensive understanding of the physical and social aspects of village life. Collecting demographic and other required information household wiseSocial mapping is different from other maps as it is not drawn by the experts but by local people, and it is not drawn to scale.It depicts what the local people believe to be relevant and important to them. It reflects their perceptions of the social dimensions of their reality with a high degree of authenticity.Serves as a guiding instrument during the process of planning interventions. Serves as monitoring and evaluating tool.
9Explain the purpose of the exercise to the participants Explain the purpose of the exercise to the participants. Request them to start the process. Ask them to draw the physical features of their locality.
10Leave it to them to use whatever materials they choose- local as well as other materials- the aim is to make it as creatively as possible
11Watch the process carefully. Listen to the discussions carefully Watch the process carefully. Listen to the discussions carefully. While they are drawing, take notes in as much detail as possible.
12Once the mapping is over, ask some villagers to identify their houses in the map. Number the households and ask the details for each household. Note it down. It will be useful for gathering data later
13Wide range of materials and varying time period In case you need more details, you can list the households serially , and the names of their heads and other required details can be written on separate sheets of paper. The very participants who made the map can compile the information right at the site of mapping. Hence, we need not move from house to house to collect the details.Cards are also used to collect details. To this end, have a card for each household. Write down the number of the household as also the name of the person heading it.Wide range of materials and varying time period
14You can use different types of seeds (poker coins) to learn about different household wise information, such as, members migrated to other cities. Ask them to put as many seeds in the figure of each house as would represent the number of members migrated to other cities for livelihood. Record the details on paper using symbols, designs, and color codes immediately. Other information that can be captured include provision of electricity, drinking water supply in households etc
15ChallengesSometimes the non-literate participants are hesitant to start the mapping. Lack of confidence, fear of ridicule by others and the belief that maps can be made by the experts are some of the reasons. The use of expensive looking marker pens and paper turn out to be a barrier.Effective in small and medium sized localities having around households. In bigger villages and slums, it has not been so easy.Mapping at different location for various partsMapping by representatives of various parts
16Seasonal mappingSeasonal mapping is used for temporal analysis across annual cycles, with months or seasons as the basic unit of analysisIt depicts the perceptions of the local people regarding seasonal variations on a wide range of items.Seasonal diagram helps to identify heavy workload periods, periods of relative ease, credit crunch, disease, food availability, wage availability etc. Identifies periods of stress and to plan for when intervention is most required.Identifies and analyses the livelihood patterns across the year.
17Start a discussion on the present season and the work they have been doing during the season. Draw a grid with the required number of columns. Ask them to identify a unique characteristic or symbol for each month.
18Now on the vertical axis, take the aspects whose seasonal variations you are interested in exploring. E.g, availability of daily wage labor during various months.
19An Example April May June July August September Category /Months Crop Cultivation(Paddy-only crop they practice)Number of working days in monthWage Labour outside the village (Iron rod)DiseaseFestivalEducationFemaleMaleAprilWeeding15-20Chicken poxMayHarvestingHeadacheTemple FestivalJuneFree LandAdmission FeesUpto Vth- 1500Upto VII- 3000JulyPloughingAugustSowingSeptemberTransplantation
20October November December January February March Category /Months Crop CultivationNumber of working days in monthWage Labour outside the village (Iron rod)DiseaseFestivalEducationFemaleMaleOctoberWeeding15-20ColdDiwali5000 Rs.NovemberUse of Fertilizers/UreaChikungunya, FeverDecemberUse of PesticideShabrimala25 Families2000 per familyJanuaryHarvestingHeadachePongalRs.FebruaryPloughingShivratri200 Rs.MarchSowingChicken Pox
21People’s concept of time People have their own systems and units of time. It is important for the facilitators to first understand the system of time of the local people.A few facilitators find it difficult to arrive at the local concept of time. Imposing your own time frames generally spoils the whole process.The key questions helpful in arriving at the patterns of local seasons and individual months can include:What month/ season is this?What are the other months/seasons?What is the sequence of the months/seasons?What are the major activities during the different months/seasons?
22DimensionsIf you are interested in running a credit programme with the community, you can look at the seasonal variations with respect toWage employmentFood availabilityExpenditureCredit requirementFestivals and other social occasions requiring expenditureInputs for agriculture: sowing and harvest seasonsOthers
23Venn DiagramVenn diagram is useful to study and understand local people’s perceptions about local institutions, individuals, programmes etc.Particularly useful to study and analyse:Various institutions and individuals and their influences on the local peopleVarious groups and individuals in the locality and their influence.Relative importance and usefulness of services and programmes
24Ask the participants to list the various institutions , which are assigned in different sizes of the circles.Distance from the centre is proportionate to access, i.e., less distance means easier accessSize of the circle is proportionate to perceived importance- i.e., big circle more important
26Matrix RankingUseful to arrive at comparative understanding of various items of certain characteristics of a selected group.Helps develop an in-depth understanding of the decision making process of people.
27Identify the topic on which you want to develop an in-depth understanding of the pattern of decision making on a number of different criteria. Identify the individuals with whom you would like to do the matrix. Initiate a discussion on the topic. In this case, we tried to understand the credit savings matrix of 8 women
28List down the various options List down the various options. The next step is to arrive at the criteria. We can use pair-wise comparison of the options to arrive at the reasons for their preference.
29Draw up a matrix with the objects (here women) across the top and the criteria down the side (here credit information)
30This method helps both the participant and the facilitators understand the underlying financial behavior of the clients for the preferences as well as the decision making process
31Pair-wise Ranking Process: Helps analyse priorities and preferences of a groupHelps in understanding people’s decision making processesProcess:Compares two items at a time and carries on until each item has been compared with the otherFinal analysis is based in the frequency of times each of the items have been ‘preferred’ over the other
32Understand the top 6-8 issues in hand and set up the matrix
33In the total section, calculate the frequency of each item In the total section, calculate the frequency of each item. This total helps identify prioritiesTaking two issues at a time, ask the group to chose between the two options at each stage
34Well being rankingUsed for ranking and grouping households and communities on the basis of income/livelihood, wealth and other perceivable well being criteria such as educational attainment, food security etc.It is based on the perception of the local people. It helps to understand the local people’s conceptions of wealth, well-being and their views on socio-economic disparities between households. Note: the ranking is relative and not absoluteHelpful to explore issues like: livelihood, vulnerability, constraints to development as people perceive them, and to design intervention strategies in line with people’s aspirations.To study inter-household and inter-group socio-economic disparities and to understand how the local people view them.Well being ranking is generally done with key informants. The selection is made based on the basis of their knowledge about the different households.
35Following from the Social mapping exercise, make a list of households Following from the Social mapping exercise, make a list of households. The names of the head of households are written on separate cards. A group of key informants with good knowledge of the village are then asked to rank the household.
36Let the participants do the ranking on their own Let the participants do the ranking on their own. Ask the participants to sort out the household cards into representatives categories of well- being. Ensure that the participants discuss among themselves and arrive at the well-being categories.
37As the participants arrange the household cards, ask them why they have placed the cards in a particular order. This gives you the criteria participants are using to do the well being ranking
38Card Sorting Method: If small villages with household ranging from 30-40, ask the participants to arrange the households in descending order of well-being, i.e., highest to lowest on well being
39Note down the numbers and the names of the head of the households falling under each category of well being. Add the necessary basic details on each household card. Also prepare a category wise list of the households with details of the assets, income , occupation etc
40The Statistical Model Group of Informants Well-being Category Household no falling in the categoryScore1I (rich)10,4,14,19,13,5,181/3=0.33II1,6,9,15,20,7,172/3=0.66III2,8,12,16,3,113/3=12I(rich)19,14,4,61/5= 0.2010,5,18,13,1,152/5= 0.409,20,7,173/5= 0.60IV16,8,114/5= 0.80V2,12,35/5= 13I14,6,1,15,12¼= 0.254,9,13,5,18,102/4= 0.57,17,20,19¾= 0.758,11,16,3,24/4=1Involves different groups of key informantsNote down the number of categories and category-wise household numbers. Each group of informant s may have different categories, different criteria of classification.Follow the same process separately with each group of informants and record the details.Prepare a list of households and show the allocation of well-being categories by different informants against each household.Finding the score for the different well-being groups: for example, the first group of informants have used 3 well-being categories. All the cards/households in the first well-being category will get a score of 1/3, all the cards in the second category will get 2/3 and all the cards in the third category (poorest) will get 3/3. Likewise, you can follow the same process for other group of informants.Next step is to prepare a table where the household numbers are put serially and then the scores each household gets from the three key informants is indicated. Calculate the average of the there scores and put it in the last column.The higher the average score, the poorer that household is. The lower the score, the better off that household is.
41(The higher the average score, that poorer the household) a table where the household numbers are put serially and then the scores each household gets from the three key informants is indicated. Calculate the average of the there scores and put it in the last columnCard (household no)Group of Informants 1Group of informants 2Group of informants 3Average Score10.660.400.250.4321.00340.330.200.500.3450.4160.3770.600.750.6780.800.9390.5910So on…..(The higher the average score, that poorer the household)Is there are wide variations in household scores at different informants, you need to look at the reasons for the variance.
42ChallengesAs well-being ranking relies heavily on cards marked with the names of HH, the non-literate don’t find the process very participatory. A common practice- one of the participants reads the names on the cards aloud. However, problem of sensitive nature of the information that is being handled and processedWell being ranking is based on the assumption that the key informants are knowledgeable about the relative well-being of all households in their locality. This assumption might prove to be incorrect in certain cases. In large localities, it is difficult to find participants who know about different groups. This holds true for urban and semi-urban areas.Wealth, income, assets etc are generally considered sensitive topics and are not discussed openly in many communitiesExpectations of the participants on the outcome