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IE496 Industrial Engineering Internship Dr. Barnes March 17, 2008 Lecture # 8.

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Presentation on theme: "IE496 Industrial Engineering Internship Dr. Barnes March 17, 2008 Lecture # 8."— Presentation transcript:

1 IE496 Industrial Engineering Internship Dr. Barnes March 17, 2008 Lecture # 8

2 Ethics – Part 2

3 Review of Ethics Last time we looked briefly at – The origins of ethics The origins of ethics Theories of ethics (Utilitarianism, Duty Ethics, Rights Ethics, Virtue Ethics) Theories of ethics (Utilitarianism, Duty Ethics, Rights Ethics, Virtue Ethics) Engineering as a profession Engineering as a profession Codes of ethics (IIE, NSPE, Order of an Engineer) Codes of ethics (IIE, NSPE, Order of an Engineer) Ethics cases (e.g., space shuttle) Ethics cases (e.g., space shuttle)

4 This week How to analyze problems from an ethical viewpoint.

5 Analyzing Ethical Problems 1 st Step – completely understand all issues involved and enumerate them. 1 st Step – completely understand all issues involved and enumerate them. Three categories of issues – Three categories of issues – Factual – what is actually known about a case.Factual – what is actually known about a case. Conceptual – the meaning or applicability of an idea.Conceptual – the meaning or applicability of an idea. Moral – which moral principle is applicable to the situation.Moral – which moral principle is applicable to the situation.

6 Two analysis techniques 1. Line Drawing 2. Flow Charting (lines must have directional arrowheads) Supporting narrative and

7 1. Line Drawing Useful for situations in which the applicable moral principles are clear, but there seems to be a great deal of gray area about which ethical principle applies. Useful for situations in which the applicable moral principles are clear, but there seems to be a great deal of gray area about which ethical principle applies. Polar opposites are established. Polar opposites are established. Positive paradigm.Positive paradigm. Negative paradigm.Negative paradigm. Moral problems are placed along line in accordance with where it is perceived that each fall on a continuum. Moral problems are placed along line in accordance with where it is perceived that each fall on a continuum. P is placed where you believe problem fits relative to entries. P is placed where you believe problem fits relative to entries.

8 Elementary line-drawing technique Negative paradigm Positive paradigm Negative paradigm Positive paradigm (NP) (PP) (NP) (PP)

9 Example - Problem 1 Dispose of slightly hazardous waste into lake. Water source for nearby town. Water source for nearby town. EPA limit 10 ppm. EPA limit 10 ppm. Average concentration of disposal – 5 ppm – Average concentration of disposal – 5 ppm – Expect no health problems.Expect no health problems. Person not able to detect (taste) compound.Person not able to detect (taste) compound.

10 Problem 1 continued – Hypothetical Considerations 1. Dump 5 ppm waste in lake; harmless, but unusual taste. 2. Towns water-treatment system can effectively remove waste. 3. Town can remove waste with company- purchased equipment. 4. Town can remove waste with taxpayer- purchased equipment. 5. Occasional (rare) illness, lasts for an hour. 6. At 5 ppm people get fairly sick, lasts one week, no long term effect. 7. Special equipment can reduce ppm to 1.

11 Hypotheticals on line and problem estimate Negative paradigm Positive paradigm Negative paradigm Positive paradigm (NP) (PP) (NP) (PP) P 7 2, P 7 2,3

12 Flow Charting Helpful when there is a sequence of events or a series of consequences that flows from each decision. Helpful when there is a sequence of events or a series of consequences that flows from each decision. Gives a visual picture and readily allows one to see results of each decision. Gives a visual picture and readily allows one to see results of each decision.

13 Elementary flow chart Operation Decision

14 Example - Problem 2 Should Union Carbide build a plant at Bhophal? Investigate – Laws. Laws. Safety standards. Safety standards. Cost considerations. Cost considerations.

15 Union Carbide -Flow Chart

16 Please read –

17 Info Source Engineering Ethics, 2 nd Edition, Charles B. Fleddermann, Chapter 4, Pearson Prentice Hall, Read - Section 4.5: Conflict Problems Section 4.5: Conflict Problems 1 st - Conflicting moral choices, but one is obviously more significant than the other.1 st - Conflicting moral choices, but one is obviously more significant than the other. 2 nd – Creative Middle Way, an attempt at a compromise that will work for everyone. 2 nd – Creative Middle Way, an attempt at a compromise that will work for everyone. 3 rd – When 1 and 2 dont work, bite the bullet, use your gut feelings and make best possible choice from information available. 3 rd – When 1 and 2 dont work, bite the bullet, use your gut feelings and make best possible choice from information available. Section 4.6: Bribery/Acceptance of Gifts Section 4.6: Bribery/Acceptance of Gifts Bribery never acceptable.Bribery never acceptable.

18 Ethical Problem Solving Techniques: Addressing Airbus Case Study By: Joe Mathew IE 491 University at Buffalo April 22, 2005

19 Incident Summary Airbus A departed Vancouver Airbus A departed Vancouver Substantial amount of smoke and vapor seen emitting from Engine 2 Substantial amount of smoke and vapor seen emitting from Engine 2 Emergency landing in Vancouver Emergency landing in Vancouver Engine 2 shut down Engine 2 shut down Inspection showed fuel was leaking Inspection showed fuel was leaking

20 Causal Factors 1. Incorrect entry on maintenance office duty board Did not follow trouble shooting manual (TSM)Did not follow trouble shooting manual (TSM) Unnecessarily removed LP fuel line from fuel/oil heat exchangerUnnecessarily removed LP fuel line from fuel/oil heat exchanger 2. Unfamiliarity with Equipment Retainer hidden from viewRetainer hidden from view Did not use Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM)Did not use Aircraft Maintenance Manual (AMM) 3. Engine vibration caused detachment of fuel/oil heat exchanger LP fuel line Substantial leak from Engine 2Substantial leak from Engine 2

21 Line Drawing – Causal Factor 1, 2 Negative Paradigm Positive Paradigm Compliance with TSM and AMM was not achieved. Compliance with TSM and AMM was achieved. Negative Paradigm: The workers do not follow the Trouble Shooting Manual and the Aircraft Maintenance Manual resulting in troubleshooting and performing maintenance without reference Positive Paradigm: The workers followed the Trouble Shooting Manual and Aircraft Maintenance Manual so that all troubleshooting and maintenance is performed with proper reference and guidance. P

22 Flow Charting – Causal Factor 3 Preventive fuel leak inspection needed on aircraft Proper inspection with use of elevated platform? High-Power Engine Run Performed? Fuel Leak Detection Implemented? Perform High-Power Engine Run Implement Fuel Leak Detection Perform inspection with use of elevated platform Preventive Fuel Leak Inspection Performed Yes No

23 Dharmy Bhatt IE 491: Ethics Presentation April 22, 2005 Bells Amusement Park Tulsa, Oklahoma

24 Accident Summary April 20, 1997 – Two roller coaster cars collided on the Wildcat roller coaster April 20, 1997 – Two roller coaster cars collided on the Wildcat roller coaster The two cars were going up a hill and an anti- rollback device failed to keep the first car on the track and it slipped back and crashed into the car behind it. The two cars were going up a hill and an anti- rollback device failed to keep the first car on the track and it slipped back and crashed into the car behind it. The roller coaster was inspected two weeks before this accident. The roller coaster was inspected two weeks before this accident. One person was killed and five others were injured. One person was killed and five others were injured.

25 Causal Factors 1. The chain dog was riding up on the edge of the chain trough. If the chain rides up the side of the car and onto the left leg of the chain near the top of the hill, the chain can disengage and the car could slip.If the chain rides up the side of the car and onto the left leg of the chain near the top of the hill, the chain can disengage and the car could slip. 2. Maintenance records/maintenance of the roller coaster. There was no documentation for scheduled or nonscheduled maintenance of The Wildcat, or for operating procedures.There was no documentation for scheduled or nonscheduled maintenance of The Wildcat, or for operating procedures.

26 Flowchart – The chain dog Factor The Wildcat can operate. Has the chain dog been changed? No Has someone inspected the changes? A maintenance worker must inspect the changes. No Yes Is the chain log at the proper height? Fix the height of the chain dog and inspect again. The Wildcat can operate properly. No Yes

27 Line Drawing-- Maintenance Line Drawing-- Maintenance Negative Paradigm Positive Paradigm Documentation hinders the performance of each car. Proper documentation exists and the roller coaster is acceptable. P 1. Every time The Wildcat breaks down, it is documented. 2. Operating procedure are followed for the most part. 3. Operators havent been trained at all. 4. Changes made to the car dont need to be written down. 5. Proper part replacements should be followed

28 Ethics Problem Solving: Whiteshell Air Service Ltd. Airplane Engine Failure Theresa J Moehle IE 491 April 22, 2005

29 Accident Summary: Airplane departed Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba without incident Airplane departed Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba without incident After plane was leveled in air, large backfire heard and loss of engine power After plane was leveled in air, large backfire heard and loss of engine power Pilot landed plane in swampy area with minor and severe injuries to passengers Pilot landed plane in swampy area with minor and severe injuries to passengers

30 Casual Factors Incorrect installation of airplane parts Incorrect installation of airplane parts Cylinder push rod tubeCylinder push rod tube Valve adjustment screw protrusion beyond limitsValve adjustment screw protrusion beyond limits Caused damage to valve train – exhaust valve would not open overtimeCaused damage to valve train – exhaust valve would not open overtime Failure to properly inspect airplane Failure to properly inspect airplane Field Barometric Power Reference CheckField Barometric Power Reference Check Valve clearance checks on 400-hr scheduleValve clearance checks on 400-hr schedule

31 Line Drawing: Incorrect Installation of Parts NPPP Airplane parts are installed incorrectly causing immediate, fatal damage Airplane parts are installed correctly 1.Parts are installed incorrectly, but corrected immediately 2.Parts are installed incorrectly, and cause minor damage overtime 3.Parts are installed incorrectly, but cause no damage overtime 123P

32 Flow Chart: Failure to Properly Inspect Plane Should plane be inspected? Have parts been replaced? No Yes Inspect plane before flying Had last Check within 400 hrs? Yes Inspect plane before flying Has pilot noticed Irregular Sounds? Inspection is not needed Inspect plane before flying No Yes

33 Assignment Work in groups to – Choose one problem/accident and it to me to get my permission before you start – sources of info on original class Schedule and Syllabus document. Earliest date and time will decide who get problem if more that one group asks for it. Choose one problem/accident and it to me to get my permission before you start – sources of info on original class Schedule and Syllabus document. Earliest date and time will decide who get problem if more that one group asks for it. Analyze problem/accident using both techniques shown today. Analyze problem/accident using both techniques shown today. Present your analysis in class using PPT. Present your analysis in class using PPT. Send me one copy of your electronic file via . Send me one copy of your electronic file via .

34 Assignment - continued Dates: April 14 th, 21 st, 28 th in class Dates: April 14 th, 21 st, 28 th in class All reports due April 14 th : one written report and accompanying PowerPoint slides per group – paper and electronic copies to me; supporting material such as diagrams or photos are useful All reports due April 14 th : one written report and accompanying PowerPoint slides per group – paper and electronic copies to me; supporting material such as diagrams or photos are useful Presentation order announced April 14 th Presentation order announced April 14 th 12 minutes per group, 4 minutes per person 12 minutes per group, 4 minutes per person

35 Groups Group 1: Anipindi, Awad, Bednowitz Group 2: Brown, Chandra, Chang Group 3: Cheng, Chung, Davis Group 4: Devendorf, Dooling, Frank Group 5: Henchey, Hyde, Indraputra Group 6: Jackson, Luo, Lyke Group 7: Markin, Mohd Yusof, Myers Group 8: Pedicone, Piecuch, Prok Group 9: Snyder, Stange, Stovers Group 10: Szalkowski, Willis, Worthy

36 The End Questions??


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