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Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall CHAPTER 17: Treatment Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin.

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall CHAPTER 17: Treatment Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall CHAPTER 17: Treatment Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin

2 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Treatment Psychological Therapies Perspectives on Psychotherapy Medical Interventions

3 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Psychological Therapies Professionals Involved in Therapy §Clinical Psychologists l Ph.D. in psychology, conducts testing, diagnosis, treatment, and research §Counseling Psychologists l Ph.D. in counseling, help people with marital, family, and minor adjustment problems §Psychiatrists l M.D., does a residency in psychiatry and can prescribe medications §Psychiatric Social Workers l Masters degree in social work with special training in counseling

4 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Psychological Therapies Psychoanalytic Therapies § Uncovering, resolving unconscious conflicts § Orthodox Psychoanalysis l Free association l Dream Analysis l Resistance l Transference § Brief Psychoanalytic Therapy

5 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Psychological Therapies Psychoanalytic Therapies §Free association l A basic technique of psychoanalysis in which the patient says whatever comes to mind- freely and without censorship §Resistance l The tendency for patients to actively block, or resist, psychologically painful insights §Transference l The tendency of patients to displace intense feelings for others onto the therapist

6 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Psychological Therapies Behavioral Therapies §Behavioral-therapy or Cognitive-behavioral Therapy l Techniques used to modify disordered thoughts, feelings, and behaviors through the principles of learning §Classical Conditioning Techniques l Flooding, Systematic Desensitization, Aversion Therapy §Operant-Conditioning Techniques l Reward and Punishment, Token Economy, Biofeedback, Social Skills Training

7 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Psychological Therapies Behavioral Therapies §Classical-Conditioning Techniques l Flooding Technique in which the patient is saturated with a fear-provoking stimulus until the anxiety is extinguished l Systematic Desensitization Technique used to treat anxiety disorders by pairing gradual exposure to an anxiety-provoking situation with relaxation l Aversion Therapy Technique for classically conditioned people to react with aversion to alcohol and other harmful substances

8 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Psychological Therapies Behavioral Therapies §These are Baseline- Instruction-Response Prevention (RP) cycles from a woman with a hand-washing compulsion. §After a few cycles, the woman was washing less often and getting fewer urges to wash. Hand Washing Urges Therapeutic Effects of Exposure & Response Prevention

9 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Psychological Therapies Behavioral Therapies Aversion Therapy to Treat Alcoholism §Alcohol is paired with a chemical that causes nausea and vomiting. §Person should learn to associate alcohol with nausea.

10 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Psychological Therapies Behavioral Therapies §Operant-Conditioning Techniques l Reward and Punishment Token Economy l Biofeedback Procedure in which people learn to control physiological responses with the help of feedback about their internal states l Social Skills Training Used to teach interpersonal skills through modeling, rehearsal, and reinforcement (e.g., assertiveness training)

11 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Psychological Therapies Behavioral Therapies Biofeedback and the Tension Headache §Sensors on the head detect muscle activity. §System converts signal to visual display. §Patient watches the display, learns to relax forehead muscles.

12 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Psychological Therapies Cognitive Therapies §Cognitive Therapy l A form of psychotherapy in which people are taught to think in more adaptive ways l Rational-Emotive Behavior Therapy A form of cognitive therapy in which people are confronted with their irrational, maladaptive beliefs l Becks Cognitive Therapy Uses a gentler, more collaborative approach to cognitive therapy

13 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Psychological Therapies Cognitive Therapies Ellis A-B-C Theory of Emotional Distress §Emotional distress is caused by irrational thoughts and self-defeating beliefs. l Activating Event - Beliefs - Consequences §Emotional consequences then help sustain the irrational beliefs.

14 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Psychological Therapies Humanistic Therapies §Removing impediments to personal growth §Person-Centered Therapy l Involves a warm and accepting environment to foster self-insight and acceptance l Founded by Carl Rogers l Therapists show empathy, unconditional positive regard, and use reflection §Gestalt Therapy l Therapy in which clients are aggressively prompted to express their feelings l Founded by Fritz Perls

15 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Psychological Therapies Humanistic Therapies Group-Therapy Approaches §Group Therapy l The simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group setting l Each approach to psychotherapy has a form of group therapy, e.g., transactional analysis is used by psychoanalysts. §Family Therapy l Form of psychotherapy that treats the members of a family as an interactive system

16 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Perspectives on Psychotherapy The Bottom Line: Does Psychotherapy Work? §Based on the results of 475 studies (Smith et al., 1980), the average psychotherapy client shows more improvement than 80% of those in the no-treatment control group. The Benefits of Psychotherapy

17 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Perspectives on Psychotherapy Improvement in Psychotherapy: The More The Better? §With additional therapy sessions, the percentage of people who improve increases up to 26 sessions. §Rate of improvement then levels off. §At one session per week, six months appears to be the ideal of amount of time.

18 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Perspectives on Psychotherapy Are Some Therapies Better Than Others? §All approaches are equally effective. §However for some disorders, certain types of therapy tend to be more successful. l Examples: behavioral therapy for phobias, person-centered therapy for raising self-esteem, and cognitive therapy for depression §There is no universal best type of therapy.

19 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Perspectives on Psychotherapy What are the Active Ingredients? §Three common, nonspecific factors are apparent in all types of psychotherapy. l Supportive Relationship l A Ray of Hope Placebo Effect (the curative effect of an inactive treatment that results simply from the patients belief in its therapeutic value) operates but it is not as effective as real psychotherapy. l Opportunity to Open Up

20 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Perspectives on Psychotherapy What is the Future of Psychotherapy? Orientations of Psychotherapists Eclectic: Borrowing ideas and techniques from different approaches

21 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Medical Interventions Drug Therapies § Psychopharmacology l The study of the effects of drugs on psychological processes and disorders

22 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Medical Interventions Drug Therapies Antipsychotic Drugs & Hospitalization Trends

23 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Medical Interventions Types of Drug Treatments I §Antianxiety Drugs l Tranquilizing medications used in the treatment of anxiety l Trade names: Librium, Valium, Xanax, BuSpar §Antidepressants l Drugs that relieve depression by increasing the supply of norepinephrine, serotonin, or dopamine l Trade names: Tofranil, Prozac

24 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Medical Interventions Types of Drug Treatments II § Mood Stabilizer l Calms mania; may reduce bipolar mood swings l Trade Name: Lithium Carbonate A drug used to control mania and mood swings in people with bipolar disorder §Antipsychotic Drugs l Drugs used to control the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders l Trade names: Thorazine, Clozaril, Risperdal

25 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Medical Interventions Perspectives on Drug Therapies §Drugs have helped numerous people who once lived in psychiatric institutions. §People may not respond well to psychotherapy. §However, some drugs produce unpleasant or dangerous side effects and may lead to a physical and/or psychological addiction. l Thus, patients become passive in the healing process. §Neither psychotherapy nor drug therapy has been found to be generally more effective.

26 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Medical Interventions §Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) l Electric-shock treatments that often relieve severe depression by triggering seizures in the brain §Psychosurgery l The surgical removal of portions of the brain for the purpose of treating psychological disorders

27 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall How To: Beating the Winter Blues Seasonal Differences in SAD §Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is depression linked to certain times of year. l Symptoms are lethargy, withdrawal, increases in sleeping and eating §People with SAD feel even worse than most people do in the winter. §Light therapy can ease their suffering.

28 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Where People Turn for Help

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