Presentation on theme: "COMP 1631, WINTER 2011. HOLOGRAPHY : is a 3 Dimensional laser photography. These holograms are recorded images of an original object Contains depth and."— Presentation transcript:
HOLOGRAPHY : is a 3 Dimensional laser photography. These holograms are recorded images of an original object Contains depth and parallax, that is the ability to see around the object to objects located behind it. Rainbow holograms are commonly seen: Credit cards (security features Product packaging Divers licenses Identification cards usually contain these images Also: many museums now have holographic displays to teach/ educate people in a newer more visual way. Identification card
1947 Dennis Gabor (develops theory) 1962 Emmett Leith Juris Upatnieks (3-D visual medium) 1962 Dr. Yuri N. Denisyuk (produced first white-light reflection Hologram) 1968 Dr. Stephan A. Benton (printing holograms) 1972 Lloyd Cross (holographic film)
Dr. Dennis Gabor (Father of holographics) 1947, scientist Dennis Gabor was working on improving the resolution of an electron microscope when he developed the theory of holography. Theory: storing on photographic film a 3D image of the information pattern encoded in a beam of light The project was stopped during the following decade because they had not developed (invented) the proper light sources to run the futuristic projections. Greek Wording: HOLOS whole GRAMMA message Received 1971 Nobel Prize in Physics Dennis chose the word holography to describe the information storage and retrieval process that store and reconstruct holographic images.
Emmett Leith 1962, Leith and Juris Upatnieks from the University of Michigan recognized that holography could be used as a 3D visual medium. They read Gabors paper and duplicated hes theory using a laser and an off-axis technique, used in their previous work. This technique is still being used today. The hologram worked for a toy train and bird, that they had used but they needed a laser light to view the holographic image. TODAY: very many labs are still having trouble because they all posses the exact material for directing the laser light but the moment that there is a quarter wavelength movement of light during exposure, the hologram is spoiled
Dr. Yuri Denisyuk Dr. Stephen A. Benton 1962 Dr. Yuri Denisyuk combined holography with 1908 Nobel Laureate Gabriel Lippmanns work His holography achievement was that he was able to produce a white-light reflection Hologram. The white-light hologram was the first to be viewed in light from an ordinary incandescent light bulb. 1968 Benton followed up on Dr. Denusyuks white-light, and came up with the white-light transmission holography. This holography could be viewed in ordinary white light creating a rainbow image This technique made mass production of holograms, using an embossing technique, by stamping the interference pattern onto plastic which enlightened the public Hologram was then used in banks, publishing and advertising
Lloyd Cross 1972 Lloyd Cross toke holography to the next level, after it has been in the public. He developed the integral Hologram. For this he combined white-light transmission holography with conventional cinematography. This invention produced 3D images, the sequential frames of 2D motion-sample footage of a a rotation subject were then recorded on film. When a person views the film, the composite images are made by the human brain as a 3-D image. Because of Cross we now have holographic museum exhibitions and other art around the world we can enjoy
There are many people, as seen, who have contributed to Gabors theory on 3D holography that have decided to take it to the next level. As this started in 1947, holography is still being focused on by many scientist and now companies are teaming up to still try and improve this invention. I can tell you that this is not science fiction, in 2022 this will be science fact, said Howard Stringer, chairman of Sony. You could enjoy the 2022 FIFA World Cup directly from your countrys largest stadium, without having to fly abroad for the real-live show.
How it works A laser is always used for holography, because of its coherent and monochromatic, which means single frequency output. The light (beam from laser) that makes up the real scene is specified by the amplitude, wavelength and phase. The phase (one point or portion in a recurring series of changes) of light from the original scene becomes lost. When researchers look at holograms they record the amplitude and the phase of light. This picture shows us that holography needs a reference beam that is combined with the light from the object (object beam) to produce the recorded phase of light wave at every point in the image. The Optical interference among the reference beam and the object beam makes a series of intensity fringes that can be recorded (on standard photographic film).
How it works The film that the intensity fringes were placed on gets processed. If all works out then it will become illuminated again with the reference beam, and the diffraction from the fringe pattern (film) will reconstruct the original object beam in both intensity and phase. When the intensity and phase are reproduced, the image will appear 3D, and we will have a 3D holographic display.
Advances in technology This is a picture from a video taken at CNN. It shows a hologram reporter in the CNN studios who is actually in Chicago. Although it has not been perfected (as you can see in the video there is a blue line glowing around the figure) researchers are getting very close to perfecting the image. This was done by using several cameras in Chicago studio as well as this CNN studio and on the floor there was a circle which all the lasers have been meeting to come up with the picture.
Whats next Scientists are coming very close on working towards the next step in technology. By 2020 we should be able to purchase a 3D holographic TV, meaning that those flat screens that just came out will be gone. However, they are not just talking about watching things jump out at you, but something very different. The scientists are on the verge of making a television which projects a 3D image but not like what we see when we put on those glasses at the cinema. These holographic TVs will allow us to see a 3 dimensional object on our TV, so when one person is watching a game on one side of the living room, they will have a different view as the person sitting the opposite end of the living room. (different angles of what they are watching).
Whats next Because technology is advancing very rapidly, the future may hold such things as actual holographic iphones, games and computers. After producing the 3D image on the TV, the next step will be to have the game or movie your watching happen right on top of your coffee table in front of you. Allowing you to be face to face with your favorite players.
Fun facts National Security Agency (NSA): Visitors to the Agency are greeted by a hologram depicting a EC-121 aircraft, projected into space 20 inches in front of the holographic film. 31 star encircle the aircraft just aft of its wings. NSOC was formed form the need for a coordinated response to the downing of an American electronic surveillance aircraft by North Korea in 1969. The 31 stars symbolize the 31 American lives lost. Holography appears in Star Wars as a Holographic Image communication device. And as people, when we watch this this is what we interpret what holography is, which is not right at all. Actually Holography has specific limitation that keep it from being what we see in star wars. The Coca-Cola Company: Ten bottles and an icy fountain glass of Coke were displayed at the Coca-Cola Centennial, but viewers couldnt take a sip because the bottle and glass were actually holographic images.