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©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Oral Fluids Collection: Cotton ropes can be used collect oral fluids.

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Presentation on theme: "©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Oral Fluids Collection: Cotton ropes can be used collect oral fluids."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Oral Fluids Collection: Cotton ropes can be used collect oral fluids to be used as a diagnostic specimen. Infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, swine influenza virus, or porcine circovirus type 2 can be detected in oral fluids. A specialized assay is used, be sure to check with the diagnostic laboratory for submission details.

2 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Euthanasia: Proper Captive Bolt Gun Placement Draw a line from medial canthus of the eye to the medial side of opposite ear, repeat on other side. Where the lines cross is the proper place (yellow circle) to place the bolt gun. Be sure to have the end of the gun flat against the skull so that the barrel is perpendicular to the surface of the skull. Proper placement should penetrate the brain and brainstem. Ensure proper cartridge size

3 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Captive bolt gun: Utilizes gun powder charges to a drive bolt through the brainstem for euthanasia. 130 milligrain charge adequate for most pigs Traditional style captive bolt gun

4 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Post-mortem sample collection technique for aseptically collecting joint fluid from both the stifle and hock Step 1: Make a slit through the skin along midline (not directly over the joints) and skin the leg all the way down past the hock

5 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Step 2, Stifle Samples: Once skinned, locate the patella and then make three deep slices with your knife around the stifle It is important to make your cuts all the way to the underlying bone Patella Post-mortem sample collection technique for aseptically collecting joint fluid from both the stifle and hock

6 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Step 2 Images Palpating the patella Finishing making the 3 rd cut Post-mortem sample collection technique for aseptically collecting joint fluid from both the stifle and hock

7 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Step 3: Along the medial cut make sure you have sliced down through all tissue layers to the bone Locate the patella and slide it laterally, thus exposing the stifle joint without contaminating it. Patella pulled laterally with muscle Open stifle joint (note the presence of the patellar grove) Post-mortem sample collection technique for aseptically collecting joint fluid from both the stifle and hock

8 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Step 4: Collect sample from the joint by using a sterile syringe and a 20 g x 1 needle Post-mortem sample collection technique for aseptically collecting joint fluid from both the stifle and hock

9 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Step 5: Make a tiny incision in the joint capsule to allow access for a swab. Dont stab into the joint. Use a new clean knife or sterile scalpel for this incision. Use a sterile swab to obtain a sample for culture. Post-mortem sample collection technique for aseptically collecting joint fluid from both the stifle and hock

10 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Step 6 hock samples: Use the most distal cut that was originally made for the stifle sample to access the hock joint Patella Post-mortem sample collection technique for aseptically collecting joint fluid from both the stifle and hock

11 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Step 7: Grab the belly of the transected muscle and pull it distally, taking your knife and cutting connective tissue as you pull, exposing the hock joint Post-mortem sample collection technique for aseptically collecting joint fluid from both the stifle and hock

12 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Step 8: At this point you should be able to visualize the hock joint and collect samples without contaminating the joint. Post-mortem sample collection technique for aseptically collecting joint fluid from both the stifle and hock

13 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Transfer samples to appropriate packaging and label with pig identifier. Post-mortem sample collection technique for aseptically collecting joint fluid from both the stifle and hock

14 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive This is a common method for restraining and bleeding pigs that are too small for the snare method.

15 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Vaccination schedule at a sow farms: Help to keep pre-farrowing vaccinations and feed adjustments on schedule even when employees most familiar with the process are off for the day.

16 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Posted treatment protocols: Posted treatment protocols: These are critical to getting consistent results and proper treatment over time. Without a consistent approach to treatment, response can not be evaluated and refinements are tough to make. Compounding is illegal: Compounding is illegal: Mixtures often mask an underlying problem or risk factor that needs to be corrected.

17 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive The blue device is checking for the amount of deterioration that has occurred to the nasal turbinates of the pig. The deeper the device is able to enter the turbinates, the greater degree of damage or loss of turbinate function has occurred.

18 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Needle-free injection system: when pressed firmly against the hide of an animal, automatically propels, via a pressurized system, a dose of treatment through the skin and into muscle tissue. Carbon-dioxide canister attaches here Pressure gauge Injector

19 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Needleless Injector System Full user harness is beneficial when moving through open pens or when injecting multiple crated animals System without harness is beneficial when working in a stationary location or farrowing room handling piglets CO 2 Cylinder Pressure Amplifier

20 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Needleless injector used for iron dextran injections in pre-weaning piglets Note: All injections are only given in the neck muscle of the piglet

21 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Blood collection on mature swine Hog snare is placed around the snout and behind the incisors to restrain the animal Vacutainer® blood collection system (similar to human collection system)

22 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Blood collection via ear swabbing Collecting blood on a sterile, synthetic swab after puncturing the ear vein. The blood collected on the swab can be stored in a falcon tube containing sterile saline and then submitted to a diagnostic lab. Samples collected in this manner have substantial dx limitations. Mainly used for daily monitoring of boars during semen collection

23 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Proper location for administering TB antigen when testing swine

24 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Back Fat Determination Using Real-time Ultrasound Technology Probe is placed at the 10 th or last rib of the animal. The visual image of the underlying fat and muscle is saved and measured to determine carcass traits of the animal

25 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Biosecurity Tools and Equipment

26 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Swine carcass incinerator: Diesel-fuel powered machine that is used to reduce animal carcasses to ash. Use of incinerators reduce site traffic and are thus more ideal for biosecurity reasons.

27 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Portable Swine Transfer Chute: Used to transfer swine directly between two semi trailers. Bedding, usually sawdust, is used for increased traction during transfer

28 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Support boards to allow human access to transferring swine without entering either vehicle. Portable Swine Transfer Chute: Used to transfer swine directly between two semi trailers.

29 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Trailer dryer: Drying is used to reduce the pathogen load present on the trailer after washing and disinfection.

30 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Trailer wash bays This trailer completed wash cycle, parked on clean side, and on incline to drain water Dirty trailers wait and enter wash bay from this side only Truck Wash Facility

31 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Rendering Vehicle: This vehicle has recently emptied a disposal bin without transferring the contents completely and effectively into the holding compartment on the truck. This creates a biosecurity concern, a safety risk for the driver and a public relations problem.

32 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Farm cats and pigs dont mix. Cats are not effective rodent control and can spread disease to the pigs on the site

33 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Bones from a deceased pig. The dead animal was not located in the pen of pigs and was consumed. This is illegal in most states, a biosecurity risk, and poor welfare.

34 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Individual Animal Identification Tools

35 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Temporary swine identifiers/markers; examples of products that are commonly used to identify pigs during treatment, handling, etc. Such marking devices can be found in several forms.

36 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Ear notch identification system: a commonly used practice in purebred, replacement stock or small producer herds, that involves cutting notches in piglet ears at an early age Right designates litter number Left designates pig number = =5

37 ©2008. Karriker, L. * Iowa State University * Swine Medicine Section * Digital Archive Animals marked to indicate treatments or vaccinations have been administered


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