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Critical Reading, Writing, & Thinking & Across the Curriculum Techniques Richard Cain Department of Public Health.

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Presentation on theme: "Critical Reading, Writing, & Thinking & Across the Curriculum Techniques Richard Cain Department of Public Health."— Presentation transcript:

1 Critical Reading, Writing, & Thinking & Across the Curriculum Techniques Richard Cain Department of Public Health

2 Apply a technique called the SEE-I approach to writing a short paragraph Locate on an internet site, the eight Elements of Thought 1 that support reasoning using the SEE-I approach.Elements of Thought Locate on an internet site, the nine Standards of Thought 1 helpful in evaluating the quality of written work.Standards of Thought Blended use if Critical Thinking and Writing in an LEP Tier 2 Course Using the Elements of and Standards of Thought in an Assessment Rubric that Focuses on the use of A s for Acceptable and I s for Needs Improvement to Encourage Improvement over a series of assignments Use of Critical Thinking Techniques in a 300 Level Required Course to Prepare for Class Participation from Assigned readings. General Use of Critical Thinking Techniques with In-Class Assignments that Require Little Writing 1 Foundation for Critical Thinking objectives

3 Foundation for Critical Thinking. (2010). 30th International conference on critical thinking: How to teach students to master content by developing a questioning mind. Berkeley, CA. Foundation for Critical Thinking, Berkeley, California. Nosich, G. (2009). Learning to think things through: A guide to critical thinking in the curriculum. Columbus, OH: Pearson. Elder, L., & Paul, R. (2010). The thinkers guide to analytical thinking: How to take thinking apart and what to look for when you do. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking. Pink, D. H. (2009). Drive: The surprising truth about what motivates us. New York: Riverhead. Barnet, S., & Bedau, H. (2008). Critical thinking, reading, and writing: A brief guide to argument (6 th ed.). Boston: Bedfords/St. Martins. sources of learning Blended Approach Where did these ideas come from?

4 Write down on a piece of paper a thought or idea about anything you would like to tell someone SEE-I activity

5 SEE-I Principles 1 1 Learning to Think Things Through SEE-I principles State (S) Brief, clear, and precise topic sentence or spoken thought Elaborate (E) Provide more depth, greater detail Exemplify (E) Clarify using an example of what is meant Illustrate (I) Paint a picture in your readers or listeners mind using words, a simile, metaphors, or analogy

6 State (S) 1 The initial written or spoken thought capturing the initial essence of meaning Reflects in the students own words the purpose, point of view, or question of self-thought or that of another Brief, clear, and precise It is usually the topic sentence in a paragraph If written, it can be linked with a coordinating conjunction or semicolon 1 Learning to Think things Through SEE-I in detail From the Foundation on Critical Thinking, Elements and Standards of Thought, bold underline is an element of thought and non- bold underline is a standard of thought, Elements and Standards of Though

7 Elaborate (E) 1 Provides meaning in depth and precision Can begin written or spoken statement using phrases such as: What I am saying… In other words…, To elaborate… What the author means… To expand… Accurate, fair, no assumptions without supporting information Supporting information may come from (Example – E) 1 Learning to Think things Through SEE-I in detail From the Foundation on Critical Thinking, Elements and Standards of Thought, bold underline is an element of thought and non- bold underline is a standard of thoughtElements and Standards of Though

8 Exemplify (E) 1 Clarifies by providing an example of the initial thought or reading Can be from students own experiences (or as I add in class, from the reading or something the student heard) May express multiple viewpoints (Breadth) At this point, consider the importance of in-text citations and references If written, this is an excellent place for the student to paraphrase a reading or provide a quotation in written work of another with proper citation Literature review synthesis May be an application, a comparison or contrast, the argument that is for or against the topic, a hypothesis about how something could be changed, or the question about the assumptions or values of the author. Accurate, relevant, and no assumptions without supporting information 1 Learning to Think things Through SEE-I in detail From the Foundation on Critical Thinking, Elements and Standards of Thought, bold underline is an element of thought and non-bold underline is a standard of thoughtElements and Standards of Though

9 Illustrate (I) 1 Clarifies by providing a vivid example Allows the student contextualize what is meant by allowing the reader or listener visualize something Illustrates students point of view and from own experience, or observation Paints a picture in the reader or listeners mind using words that brings the idea into focus It could be: An analogy A simile A metaphor Relevant, significant, and fair 1 Learning to Think things Through SEE-I in detail From the Foundation on Critical Thinking, Elements and Standards of Thought, bold underline is an element of thought and non- bold underline is a standard of thoughtElements and Standards of Though

10 State (S): Brief, clear topic sentence PCH 359 – Environmental Health is an overview of the interdependency and interrelationship of the major environmental stressors and their impact on the health and well-being of human populations. 1 SEE-I course intro Course Description (Used on first page of course syllabus) 1 Southern Connecticut State University (n.d.). 2009 – 2011 undergraduate catalog. New Haven, CT: Author

11 Elaborate (E): Provide depth, greater detail To expand the catalog description, the field of environmental health is broad and affects nearly every aspect of our daily lives. SEE-I course intro Course Description (Used on first page of course syllabus)

12 Exemplify (E): Clarify using an example of what you mean. This is best exemplified by Moeller (2005, p. 1) when he states many aspects of human well- being are influenced by the environment, and many diseases are initiated, promoted, sustained, or stimulated by environmental factors; for this reason, the interactions that people have with their environment are an important component of public health. 1 SEE-I course intro Course Description (Used on first page of course syllabus) 1 Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental health (3 rd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

13 Illustrate (I): Paint a picture in your readers mind using words, using a simile, metaphor, or an analogy. To illustrate the catalog description and Moellers point, we use the ecological model in this class as a framework to think about and reason through determinants of health due to our interactions with the environment and relevant approaches to achieve desired outcomes. SEE-I course intro Course Description (Used on first page of course syllabus)

14 Elaborate (E) Provide more depth, greater detail. To expand the catalog description, the field of environmental health is broad and affects nearly every aspect of our daily lives. SEE-I course intro

15 Students were provided with a handout containing a description of the SEE-I approach and asked to identify each component on the course syllabus. SEE-I assignment

16 State (S) - Teacher PCH 359 – Environmental Health is an overview of the interdependency and interrelationship of the major environmental stressors and their impact on the health and well-being of human populations. 1 1 Southern Connecticut State University (n.d.). 2009 – 2011 undergraduate catalog. New Haven, CT: Author SEE-I assignment State (S) - Student The authors purpose is to inform students of the description of the environmental health course and give students some idea of what they will be learning about throughout the semester.

17 Elaborate (E) - Teacher To expand the catalog description, the field of environmental health is broad and affects nearly every aspect of our daily lives. SEE-I assignment Elaborate (E) - Student The catalog description of the course is given and is also compared to D. W Moeller, the author of Environmental Health. Moellers point of view is used to further describe how environmental health affects people.

18 SEE-I assignment Exemplify (E) - Student Moeller brings to light the fact that diseases start and continue on in the different environmental conditions we have all around the world and that by studying these conditions and diseases in a particular area we can try to understand the affect they have on people (or a group of people) and their overall health. Exemplify (E) - Teacher This is best exemplified by Moeller (2005, p. 1) when he states many aspects of human well-being are influenced by the environment, and many diseases are initiated, promoted, sustained, or stimulated by environmental factors; for this reason, the interactions that people have with their environment are an important component of public health. 2 2 Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental health (3 rd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

19 SEE-I assignment Illustrate (I) - Student Moellers quote gives a much more visualized idea on how the course is going to go. I can picture myself learning about the lifecycle of a certain disease or virus. I would [sic] learn about how this disease starts by how it is contracted, then its [sic]affect it would have on the human body or certain populations of people exposed to this disease, and how people would overcome this disease through different medication or treatments. Illustrate (I) – Teacher To illustrate the catalog description and Moellers point, we use the ecological model in this class as a framework to think about and reason through determinants of health due to our interactions with the environment and relevant approaches to achieve desired outcomes.

20 SEE-I assignment Plagiarism Tutorial Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to help you to: 1.Learn about and explain what plagiarism is; 2.Critically think through times and situations when people may resort to using plagiarism in their writing; 3.Understand the risk associated with plagiarism as a student in this course and as a professional. Instructions: Using the SEE-I approach: 1.Define plagiarism. For this question, be sure to provide your reference. Remember to quote any phrase or sequence of three or more words and cite the page or paragraph number. Correctly list your reference according to APA style. 2.What fault lies in the following logic: Plagiarism is bad and I plagiarized; therefore, I am a bad person. 3.Provide one example of plagiarism a student may resort to when under distress to complete an assignment on time. Back your answer up with a solution to this problem using the SEE-I approach. 4.Provide one example of plagiarism a student may resort to when not interested in an assignment. Back your answer up with a solution to this problem using the SEE-I approach. 5.Provide one example of plagiarism a student may resort to when confused about the requirements of assignment. Back your answer up with a solution to this problem using the SEE-I approach. 6.Consider the professional implications of plagiarism as applied to the field of environmental health.

21 SEE-I assignment Plagiarism Tutorial Purpose: The purpose of this assignment is to help you to: 1.Learn about and explain what plagiarism is; 2.Critically think through times and situations when people may resort to using plagiarism in their writing; 3.Understand the risk associated with plagiarism as a student in this course and as a professional. Instructions: Using the SEE-I approach: 1.Define plagiarism. For this question, be sure to provide your reference. Remember to quote any phrase or sequence of three or more words and cite the page or paragraph number. Correctly list your reference according to APA style. 2.What fault lies in the following logic: Plagiarism is bad and I plagiarized; therefore, I am a bad person. 3.Provide one example of plagiarism a student may resort to when under distress to complete an assignment on time. Back your answer up with a solution to this problem using the SEE-I approach. 4.Provide one example of plagiarism a student may resort to when not interested in an assignment. Back your answer up with a solution to this problem using the SEE-I approach. 5.Provide one example of plagiarism a student may resort to when confused about the requirements of assignment. Back your answer up with a solution to this problem using the SEE-I approach. 6.Consider the professional implications of plagiarism as applied to the field of environmental health.

22 SEE-I assignment Plagiarism Tutorial Application SEE-I with Critical Thinking Skills [STATE] While borrowing ideas from multiple sources may seem like it could lead to new thoughts or insights, one has to be careful how they group sources and theories. [ELABORATE] Especially in a professional setting, combining work and data for research purposes needs to be done with care and attention to detail. Not all studies have the same purpose and not all topics or theories are tested the same. Just because two different studies deal with similar questions doesnt mean they lead to common results and can be combined.... as a professional, taking results from studies... and applying it to your own field of study can lead to inconsistent, unfounded, or even incorrect findings. [EXEMPLIFY] A journal article, entitled Effectiveness of intensive autism programmes, is a perfect example of this occurring (Dawson & Gernsbacher, 2010). Not all of the data collected had to do with the specific research of Susan Levy and this led her and her colleagues to a result that had no [unfounded] basis. [ILLUSTRATE] Ethics come into play when this result is seen and utilized.... it is ones duty to conduct meaningful and testable research that leads to findings that can be understood and applied with confidence.... borrowing the ideas of others and combining them to produce your own new idea can have harmful consequences when your new idea is wrong. Dawson, M., & Gernsbacher, M. (2010). Effectiveness of intensive autism programmes. The Lancet, 375(9716), 722- 723.

23 Elements of Reasoning and Standards of Thought Check Nosich (pp. 166 – 167) provides a checklist for students with permission copy and perform a self-evaluation. Using Intellectual Standards to Assess Student Reasoning Using Intellectual Standards to Assess Student Reasoning Critical Thinking: Teaching Students How to Study and Learn (Part Three) – How To Analyze The Logic of An Article, Essay, or Chapter Critical Thinking: Teaching Students How to Study and Learn (Part Three) – How To Analyze The Logic of An Article, Essay, or Chapter evaluation

24 Guide to Critical Thinking

25 Evaluation Improvement System No rewards/punishments Assessment is provided Student is responsible for seeking clarity Not based on point system until last assignment Only Acceptable or Incomplete is provided Point System Can be discouraging Assessment is provided during instructor review Instructor provides feedback Student may revise, if required or necessary Provides grade

26 Blended Approach in Tier 2 LEP Course Purpose: Help critically think through ideas, concepts, problems, conflicts, written and spoken language to learn something in the context of wellness. Each essay corresponds to one of the Key Elements in the learning objectives.

27 Blended Approach in Tier 2 LEP Course Key Element: Focus 1. Explain the self as a complex evolving system within entangled complex evolving supra-systems as contrasted against a complicated determinate system. 2. Identify decisions, behaviors, and lifestyles favorable to the advancement and protection of the well-being of the self.

28 Blended Approach in Tier 2 LEP Course Analytic Styles 1. Analyzing Problems (pages 34 – 35) 2. Analyze Characters in a Story (pages 36 – 37) Analyze Characters in a Story 3. Analyze a Concept in Wellness (page 42) 4. Clarifying your Own Ideas, Clarifying what Others Say (page 44) 5. Thinking Through Conflicting Ideas (page 45) 6. Reflecting Upon Important Ideas Learned (page 47) Reflecting Upon Important Ideas Learned 7. Analyzing a Chapter from another Wellness Textbook (pages 38 – 39)

29 ELEMENTS OF THOUGHT Purpose – what is to be achievedAI Question – primary and secondaryAI Point of View – students or otherAI Assumptions – beliefs taken for grantedAI Concepts – key idea used in thinkingAI Information – to answer questionAI Inferences – direction to or conclusionAI Implications – always at least twoAI STANDARDS OF THOUGHT (25 points) Clarity – understandableAI Accuracy – correct, true, undistortedAI Precision – contains details to solve problemAI Logic – material is connected, no fragmentationAI Significance – important informationAI Relevance – directly connected to conceptAI Breadth – more than one point of viewAI Depth – complexity thought throughAI Fair-minded – considers others thoughtsAI Evaluation #1

30 ELEMENTS OF THOUGHT (25 points) Purpose (0 - 2 points) Question at Issue (0 - 3 Points) Point of View (0 - 3 points) Assumptions (0 – 3) Concepts of Reasoning (0 – 3) Information and Evidence (0 – 3) Inferences (0 – 2) Interpretations (0 – 2) Consequences (0 – 2) Implications (0 – 2) STANDARDS OF THOUGHT (25 points) Clarity (0 – 3) Accuracy (0 – 3) Precision (0 – 3) Logic (0 – 3) Significance (0 – 3) Relevance (0 – 2) Breadth (0 – 3) Depth (0 – 3) Fairness (0 – 2) Evaluation #2


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