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Reference Reading: Chapter 17; pp. 156-158 (up to step-by-step procedures)
Before the dental radiographer can competently perform the paralleling technique, he/she must have a thorough understanding of Terminology Principles Basic rules that govern this technique
Parallel: moving or lying in the same plane, always separated by the same distance and not intersecting
Intersecting: to cut across or through
Perpendicular: intersecting at, or forming a right angle
Right Angle: an angle of 90 degrees formed by 2 lines perpendicular to one another
Long Axis of the tooth: an imaginary line that divides the tooth longitudinally (from tip of crown to tip of root), into two equal halves
Central Ray: the center portion of the primary beam of radiation.
OPEN TO PAGE 156 OF YOUR TEXTS
The film is placed in the mouth PARALLEL to the long axis of the tooth being radiographed.
The central ray is directed perpendicular to both film and tooth
A beam alignment device must be used to hold the film parallel with the tooth. The patient cannot hold the film in this manner.
On maxillary arch, the film must be placed toward the middle of the oral cavity in order to achieve parallelism. This can result in increased image magnification.
To compensate for the image magnification, we use a long cone in the paralleling technique. Sometimes referred to as The Long Cone Technique
Using a long cone ensures that only the most parallel rays at the center of the x-ray beam will be directed at the tooth and film.
Film must be placed parallel to the tooth The central ray must be directed perpendicular to both film and tooth.
Film will be placed at mid-palate on the maxillary shots. (increased object-receptor distance) This increased DISTANCE between the film and the tooth can result in MAGNIFICATION.
To COMPENSATE for this magnification, we use a LONG CONE (16 inches). (increased target-receptor distance) This ensures that only the rays near the center of the x-ray beam form the image.
Radiology – Paralleling, Bisecting, Bitewing. Everything lines up to long axis Film is placed parallel to long axis of tooth being radiographed Central.
1 Paralleling Radiographic Exposures: The Preferred Method XCP.
Copyright © 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. Chapter 18 Bisecting Technique.
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Resource Reading: Chapter 17 – pp. 158 – end of chapter.
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Copyright ©2012 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Essentials of Dental Radiography for Dental Assistants and Hygienists, Ninth Edition Evelyn.
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Copyright © 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. Chapter 21 Occlusal and Localization Techniques.
Copyright © 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. Chapter 19 Bite-Wing Technique.
22 Production and Evaluation of Dental Radiographs.
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Copyright © 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. Chapter 23 Extraoral Imaging.
Reference reading: Chapter 19. Show interproximal caries Show pulp changes Show overhangs Display improperly fitting crowns Shows recurrent caries beneath.
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OCCLUSAL EXPOSURE TECHNIQUES. At times, more extensive radiographic views of oral tissues are desired than are obtainable with periapical or bite-wing.
Bitewing radiography. Main indications Detection of interproximal caries Monitoring the progression of dental caries Assessment of existing restorations.
TECHNIQUE/PROCESSING ERRORS TERMINOLOGY DA 118. RADIOLUCENT Terms used to describe the black areas and white areas viewed on a dental radiograph are radiolucent.
Intraoral radiographic techniques Bitewing radiography.
Radiographic Grids II By Professor Stelmark. Ideally, grids would absorb all scattered radiation and allow all transmitted photons to reach the image.
Module 6: Radiographic Techniques Lesson 16: Periapical Radiographs & Intraoral Surveys Kathleen A. Hock, RDH, MAdEd Dental Hygiene Department William.
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Copyright © 2012, 2006, 2000, 1996 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. Chapter 20 Exposure and Technique Errors.
Divide into groups Will count as quiz grade Present your section of the chapter in any format All team members must participate Groups: 1 – Intro/Overview.
Chapter 1 - Section 3 Special Angles. Supplementary Angles Two or more angles whose sum of their measures is 180 degrees. These angles are also known.
Vectors: planes. The plane Normal equation of the plane.
PERMANENT MAXILLARY ANTRIOR TEETH. MAXILLARY INCISORS Most prominent Widest MD Straight incisal edge Straight M Slightly curved D.
Reflection Regular reflection occurs when parallel light rays strike a smooth surface and reflect in the same direction. Diffuse reflection occurs when.
Chapter 17 The Grid So far we have discussed how kVp, patient size and collimation impact scatter radiation. As the part size and kVp increase, scatter.
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