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Test Planning Test Design Test Analysis Test Design Techniques Static Techniques Dynamic Techniques Choosing A Test Design Technique Test Design Specification.

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Presentation on theme: "Test Planning Test Design Test Analysis Test Design Techniques Static Techniques Dynamic Techniques Choosing A Test Design Technique Test Design Specification."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Test Planning Test Design Test Analysis Test Design Techniques Static Techniques Dynamic Techniques Choosing A Test Design Technique Test Design Specification Structure Test Design Specification Examples Homework

3 Test Planning – the process of defining and documenting the strategy that will be used to verify and ensure that a product or system meets its design specifications and other requirements. Test Plan document should be created by QC management (QC Analyst/QC Lead/QC Manager) and answer on the following questions: How the testing will be done? Who will do it? What will be tested? How long it will take? What the test coverage will be, i.e. what quality level is required? Test Plan document formats can be as varied as the products and organizations to which they apply, but there are three major elements that should be described in each Test Plan: Test Coverage Test Methods Test Responsibilities

4 IEEE 829 – Standard for Software Test Documentation According to IEEE 829 Test Plan consists of: Test plan identifier Introduction Test items Features to be tested Features not to be tested Approach Item pass/fail criteria Suspension criteria and resumption requirements Test deliverables Testing tasks Environmental needs Responsibilities Staffing and training needs Schedule Risks and contingencies Approvals

5 Test Design Phase – In software engineering, test design phase is a process of reviewing and analyzing test basis, selecting test design techniques and creating designed test cases, checklists and scenarios for testing software. Test Design Specification It is a document that describes features to be tested and specifies list of all test scenarios or test cases, which should be designed for providing the testing of software. The test design does not record the values to be entered for a test, but describes the requirements for defining those values. Test design could require all or one of: Knowledge of the software, and the business area it operates on Knowledge of the functionality being tested Knowledge of testing techniques and heuristics Planning skills to schedule in which order the test cases should be designed, given the effort, time and cost needed or the consequences for the most important and/or risky features

6 Review and Analyze Test Basis Select Test Design Techniques Create Test Design Specification Create Test Cases Specification Test Plan SRS Mock-ups Test Design Specification … Test Case Specification Trainings Content

7 Test Analysis is the process of looking at something that can be used to derive test information. This basis for the tests is called the 'test basis. Test analysis has the following major tasks, in approximately the following order: Review Test Basis Define Test Conditions Evaluate testability of the requirements and system Define test environment Test Basis – all documents from which the requirements of a component or system can be inferred (the documentation on which the test cases are based). Test Condition – an item or event of a component or system that could be verified by one or more test cases, e.g. a function, transaction, feature, quality attribute or structural element. Traceability – the ability to identify related items in documentation and software, such as requirements with associated tests. There are: Horizontal traceability Vertical traceability

8 Review and Analyze Test Basis Select Test Design Techniques Create Test Design Specification Create Test Case Specification Test Plan SRS Mock-ups Test Design Specification … Test Case Specification Trainings Content

9 Test Design Techniques are used to derive and/or select test cases Why they are important? Two main categories of Test Design Techniques 1 Test Design Techniques Static: The fundamental objective of static testing is to improve the quality of software work products by assisting engineers to recognize and fix their own defects early in the software development. Dynamic: Testing that involves the execution of the software of a component or system.

10 . Static Techniques Static Analysis Control FlowData Flow Informal Reviews Walkthroughs Technical Reviews Inspections

11 Informal Review – a review not based on a formal (documented) procedure. Walkthrough – a step-by-step presentation by the author of a document in order to gather information and to establish a common understanding of its content. Technical Review – a peer group discussion activity that focuses on achieving consensus on the technical approach to be taken. Inspection – a type of peer review that relies on visual examination of documents to detect defects. The most formal review technique and therefore always based on a documented procedure. Control flow analysis – a form of static analysis based on a representation of unique paths (sequences of events) in the execution through a component or system. Control flow analysis evaluates the integrity of control flow structures, looking for possible control flow anomalies such as closed loops or logically unreachable process steps. Data Flow Analysis – a form of static analysis based on the definition and usage of variables.

12 Dynamic Techniques. Structure – BasedExperience – Based Specification- Based Equivalence Partitioning State Transition Decision Tables Use Case Testing Boundary Values Analysis Error Guessing Exploratory Testing Statement Decision Condition Multiple Condition Testing, either functional or non-functional, without reference to the internal structure of the component or system.

13 Equivalence partitioning (EP) – A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence partitions. In principle test cases are designed to cover each partition at least once. Idea: Divide (i.e. to partition) a set of test conditions into groups or sets that can be considered the same (i.e. the system should handle them equivalently), hence equivalence partitioning. Example: Bank represents new deposit program for corporate clients. According to the program client has ability to get different %, based on amount of deposited money. Minimum which can be deposited in $1, maximum is – $999. If client deposits less than $500 it will have 5% of interests. In case the amount of deposited money is $500 and higher, then client gets on 10% of interests more. InvalidValid for 5% discountValid for 15% discountInvalid $0$0 $1 $499 $500 $999$1000

14 Boundary value: An input value or output value which is on the edge of an equivalence partition or at the smallest incremental distance on either side of an edge, for example the minimum or maximum value of a range. Boundary value analysis (BVA): A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed based on boundary values. Idea: Divide test conditions into sets and test the boundaries between these sets. Example: Bank represents new deposit program for corporate clients. According to the program client has ability to get different %, based on amount of deposited money. Minimum which can be deposited in $1, maximum is – $999. If client deposits less than $500 it will have 5% of interests. In case the amount of deposited money is $500 and higher, then client gets on 10% of interests more. InvalidValid for 5% discountValid for 15% discountInvalid $0$0 $1 $499 $500 $999$1000

15 Decision table – A table showing combinations of inputs and/or stimuli (causes) with their associated outputs and/or actions (effects), which can be used to design test cases. Example: If you hold an 'over 60s' rail card, you get a 34% discount on whatever ticket you buy. If you hold family rail card and you are traveling with a child (under 16), you can get a 50% discount on any ticket. If you are traveling with a child (under 16), but do not have family rail card, you can get a 10% discount. You can use only one type of rail card.

16 State transition – A transition between two states of a component or system State transition testing – A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute valid and invalid state transitions Example: The diagram below shows an example of entering a Personal Identity Number (PIN) to a bank account. The states are shown as circles, the transitions as lines with arrows and the events as the text near the transitions. Wait for Pin 3 rd try Start 1 st try 2 nd try Access to account Eat card Card inserted Enter Pin Ok Pin NOT Ok Pin Ok Pin NOT Ok

17 Use Case testing - is a technique that helps us identify test cases that exercise the whole system on a transaction by transaction basis from start to finish. Use cases describe the process flows through a system based on its most likely use This makes the test cases derived from use cases particularly good for finding defects in the real-world use of the system Each use case usually has a mainstream (or most likely) scenario and sometimes additional alternative branches (covering, for example, special cases or exceptional conditions). Each use case must specify any preconditions that need to be met for the use case to work. Use cases must also specify post conditions that are observable results and a description of the final state of the system after the use case has been executed successfully.

18 Dynamic Techniques. Structure – BasedExperience – Based Specification- Based Equivalence Partitioning State Transition Decision Tables Use Case Testing Boundary Values Analysis Error Guessing Exploratory Testing Statement Decision Condition Multiple Condition Procedure to derive and/or select test cases based on an analysis of the internal structure of a component or system.

19 Types of Structure based technique: Statement A testing aimed at exercising programming statements. If we aim to test every executable statement we call this full or 100% statement coverage. Decision A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute decision outcomes. Condition A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute condition outcomes – the evaluation of a condition to True or False Multiply Condition A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute combinations of single condition outcomes (within one statement.

20 Statement – an entity in a programming language, which is typically the smallest indivisible unit of execution. Example:

21 Decision is an IF statement, a loop control statement (e.g. DO-WHILE or REPEAT-UNTIL), or a CASE statement, where there are two or more possible exits or outcomes from the statement. Example:

22 Dynamic Techniques. Structure – BasedExperience – Based Specification- Based Equivalence Partitioning State Transition Decision Tables Use Case Testing Boundary Values Analysis Error Guessing Exploratory Testing Statement Decision Condition Multiple Condition Procedure to derive and/or select test cases based on the testers experience, knowledge and intuition.

23 Experience-based techniques: Error guessing is a technique that should always be used as a complement to other more formal techniques. The success of error guessing is very much dependent on the skill of the tester, as good testers know where the defects are most likely to lurk. Exploratory testing is a hands-on approach in which testers are involved in minimum planning and maximum test execution.

24 Which technique is best? This is the wrong question! Each technique is good for certain things, and not as good for other things. Some techniques are more applicable to certain situations and test levels, others are applicable to all test levels. The internal factors that influence the decision about which technique to use are: Tester knowledge and experience Expected defects Test objectives Documentation Life cycle model The external factors that influence the decision about which technique to use are: Risks Customer and contractual requirements System type Regulatory requirements Time and budget

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26 Review and Analyze Test Basis Select Test Design Techniques Create Test Design Specification Create Test Case Specification Test Plan SRS Mock-ups Test Design Specification … Test Case Specification Trainings Content

27 According to IEEE-829 standard template structure looks in the following way: 1.Test Design Specification Identifier 1.1 Purpose 1.2 References 1.3 Definitions, acronyms and abbreviations 2.Features to be Tested 3.Approach Refinements 4.Test Identification 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.Feature Pass/Fail Criteria

28 Test Design Specification Identifier section covers: Purpose of the document Scope of the document List of references which should include references on test plan, functional specification, test case specification, etc. Definitions, acronyms and abbreviations used in Test Design Specification Features to be Tested identifies test items and describes features and combinations of features that are the object of this design specification. Reference on Functional Specification for each feature or combination of features should be included. Approach Refinements section describes the following: Specific test techniques to be used for testing features or combinations of features Types of testing which will be provided Methods of analyzing test results Test results reporting Whether automation of test cases will be provided or not Any other information which describes approach to testing

29 Feature Pass/Fail Criteria specifies the criteria to be used to determine whether the feature or feature combination has passed or failed The following items can be considered as pass / fail criteria: Feature works according to stated requirements Feature works correctly on the test platforms Feature works correctly with other modules of application All issues with High and Medium Priority will be verified and closed

30 Test Identification section is separated to sub-section according to the amount of test items identifying future documentation which will be created for testing features or combinations of features that are the object of this design specification Features can be covered by test objectives in different ways depending on projects needs, approaches for testing etc. Lets consider three examples of such coverage: Feature covered Feature covered Feature covered by test cases by test scenarios by check list

31 Business Value: I, as an Administrator user, should be able to create a simple user account to log in application. Functional Requirements: User Registration page should contain three fields User Name, Password, Confirm Password and two buttons – Save and Cancel. Mock up: User Name field is limited by 10 symbols and should contain letters of Latin alphabet only. User Name field is empty by default. User Name should be unique in the system. Password field should be no less than 4 symbols long and should include only numbers and letters of Latin alphabet only. Password field is empty by default. Confirm Password field should be equal to Password. Confirm Password field is empty by default. Cancel button cancels account creation and closes User Registration page. Save button validates data entered into fields on User Registration page and creates user account if entered data are correct; or shows error dialogs if validation fails. Validation should be provided in following order: User Name, Password, and Confirm Password.

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33 RequirementTest NameDescription Save button functionality Creating new user account and save This test verifies that user account could be created if all fields on User Registration page are filled with correct data; and User Registration page is closed on save action Cancel button functionality Creating new user account and cancel This test verifies that user account is not created after filling in fields on User Registration page and canceling; and User Registration page is closed on cancel action Default valuesDefault values on the User Registration pageThis test verifies that all fields on User Registration page are blank by default User Name field validation Error dialog on saving user account with too long user name This test verifies that error dialog appears while save action if user name length is too long: 1)boundary length – 11 characters 2)restricted length – more than 11 characters Error dialog on saving user account with blank User Name field This test verifies that error dialog appears while save action if User Name field is blank Verify boundary length for user name This test verifies that user account having user name with boundary length 1 or 10 could be created Error dialog on saving user account with wrong user name This test verifies that error dialog appears while save action if User Name field include: 1)special symbols; 2)numbers; 3)both Error dialog on saving already existing user account This test verifies that error dialog appears while save action if user already exists in the system Password field validation Error dialog on saving user account with too short password This test verifies that error dialog appears while save action if password length is too short: 1)boundary length – 3 characters 2)restricted length – less than 3 characters Error dialog on saving user account with blank Password field This test verifies that error dialog appears while save action if password is blank Verify boundary length for password This test verifies that user account having password with boundary length 4 could be created Error dialog on saving user account with incorrect password This test verifies that error dialog appears while save action if Password field includes special symbols Confirm Password field validation Error dialog on saving user account with unequal password and confirm password This test verifies that error dialog appears while save action if: 1)Confirm Password field is blank 2)password and confirm password do not match

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35 Create Test Design Specification based on Software Requirements Specification Practice in using Test Design Techniques and design test objectives using Dynamic Test Design Techniques


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