# © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

## Presentation on theme: "© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part."— Presentation transcript:

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Analysis & Interpretation: Multiple Variables Simultaneously Chapter 13, Student Edition MR/Brown & Suter 1

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objectives MR/Brown & Suter2 1. Discuss why a researcher might conduct a multivariate analysis 2. Explain the purpose and importance of cross tabulation 3. Describe a technique for comparing groups on a continuous dependent variable 4. Explain the difference between an independent sample t-test for means and a paired sample t-test for means 5. Discuss the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient 6. Discuss a technique for examining the influence of one or more predictor variables on an outcome variable

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objectives MR/Brown & Suter3 1. Discuss why a researcher might conduct a multivariate analysis 2. Explain the purpose and importance of cross tabulation 3. Describe a technique for comparing groups on a continuous dependent variable 4. Explain the difference between an independent sample t-test for means and a paired sample t-test for means 5. Discuss the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient 6. Discuss a technique for examining the influence of one or more predictor variables on an outcome variable

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objective 1 MR/Brown & Suter4 Multivariate analyses allow researchers a closer look at their data than is possible with univariate analyses Univariate analyses provide insights about the data while multivariate analyses can often provide further illumination of those insights

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objective 1 MR/Brown & Suter5

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objective 1 MR/Brown & Suter6

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objectives MR/Brown & Suter7 1. Discuss why a researcher might conduct a multivariate analysis 2. Explain the purpose and importance of cross tabulation 3. Describe a technique for comparing groups on a continuous dependent variable 4. Explain the difference between an independent sample t-test for means and a paired sample t-test for means 5. Discuss the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient 6. Discuss a technique for examining the influence of one or more predictor variables on an outcome variable

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objective 2 MR/Brown & Suter8 Cross tabulation – a multivariate technique used for studying the relationship between two or more categorical variables (i.e., nominal- or ordinal-level) Cross tabs consider the joint distribution of sample elements across variables It is the most used multivariate data analysis technique in applied marketing research

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objectives MR/Brown & Suter9 1. Discuss why a researcher might conduct a multivariate analysis 2. Explain the purpose and importance of cross tabulation 3. Describe a technique for comparing groups on a continuous dependent variable 4. Explain the difference between an independent sample t-test for means and a paired sample t-test for means 5. Discuss the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient 6. Discuss a technique for examining the influence of one or more predictor variables on an outcome variable

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objective 3 MR/Brown & Suter10 When there are only two groups, the independent samples t-test is used to determine if the mean score on the dependent variable for one group is significantly different than the mean score for the second group The dependent variable must be a continuous variable for mean scores to be used

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objectives MR/Brown & Suter11 1. Discuss why a researcher might conduct a multivariate analysis 2. Explain the purpose and importance of cross tabulation 3. Describe a technique for comparing groups on a continuous dependent variable 4. Explain the difference between an independent sample t-test for means and a paired sample t-test for means 5. Discuss the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient 6. Discuss a technique for examining the influence of one or more predictor variables on an outcome variable

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objective 4 MR/Brown & Suter12 Independent Samples t-test for Means A commonly used technique used to determine whether two groups differ on some characteristic assessed on a continuous measure Paired Sample t-test for Means A technique for comparing two means when scores for both variables are provided by the same sample

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objective 4 MR/Brown & Suter13 Independent Samples t- test for Means Respondent Group Same or Different? Different Mean scores on the dependent variable are compared group to group Example: Group 1 is more favorable toward the brand than Group 2 Paired Sample t-test for Means Respondent Group Same or Different? Same Mean scores on the dependent variable are compared variable to variable Example: Group 1 is more favorable toward the brand at time period 1 than it was at time period 2

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objectives MR/Brown & Suter14 1. Discuss why a researcher might conduct a multivariate analysis 2. Explain the purpose and importance of cross tabulation 3. Describe a technique for comparing groups on a continuous dependent variable 4. Explain the difference between an independent sample t-test for means and a paired sample t-test for means 5. Discuss the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient 6. Discuss a technique for examining the influence of one or more predictor variables on an outcome variable

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objective 5 MR/Brown & Suter15 Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient A statistic that indicates the degree of linear association between two continuous variables The correlation coefficient can range from -1 (inverse relationship) to +1 (direct relationship) Note: Correlation Causation; Correlation = Relationship Examples Relationship between number of times exercising with weights and number of times exercising in a fitness class during the month Relationship between the number of hours studied and number of chapters read during exam preparation

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objectives MR/Brown & Suter16 1. Discuss why a researcher might conduct a multivariate analysis 2. Explain the purpose and importance of cross tabulation 3. Describe a technique for comparing groups on a continuous dependent variable 4. Explain the difference between an independent sample t-test for means and a paired sample t-test for means 5. Discuss the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient 6. Discuss a technique for examining the influence of one or more predictor variables on an outcome variable

© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Objective 6 MR/Brown & Suter17 Regression Analysis A statistical technique used to derive an equation that relates a single continuous dependent variable to a single independent variable Y i = the level of a dependent variable (e.g., sales) α = the intercept (think of a graph with an X- and Y-axis) β = the slope coefficient (think of a line on a graph) X i = the level of an independent variable (e.g., number of sales reps) ε i = an error term

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