Presentation on theme: "Questioning Techniques"— Presentation transcript:
1Questioning Techniques USSF Referee Instructor CourseITIPUnited States Soccer Federation
2Questioning Techniques Lesson SetThink about previous classes that you’ve attended.Were questions asked by the students? And were responses given?Did the instructor ask questions and seek responses? A coincidence?
3Questioning Techniques Lesson SetWhy question? It’s an tool to help students learn.When questions are posed by the student, it’s important that you respond to these questions …. your response should have a positive effect on the group’s learning.
4Questioning Techniques Lesson ObjectiveAt the end of this lesson the you will list:The purpose of a questionThree techniques for posing specific questions to trainees.
5Questioning Techniques Purpose of a QuestionTest (Check for understanding)Teach (Help student to learn/retention)Achieve Activity (Promotes active participation)Apply Mental Pressure (Promotes higher level thinking skills)
6Questioning Techniques During the LessonAsking questions during a lesson is most effective and most needed for retentionAdvantagesParticipationClarificationProgressAdjustDisadvantagesTime WastedInterest LostDeviation
7Questioning Techniques AdvantagesPrompts Active Participation which helps retention.Clarification …. Check for understanding . A student who does not understand a point will silently dwell on it while you’re going ahead. In effect you have lost him for the balance of the lesson.You can gage how effective your teaching is. If you ask carefully, you can determine if you are “getting across”, i.e. making Progress.You can Adjust to emphasize key points. Allows you to make sure you get across the information you want.7
8Questioning Techniques DisadvantagesTime may be lost waiting for the slow answer/reaction. A tight time schedule does not allow for too much questioning.Focus is on one individual …. unless question is of general interest, other students may be distracted or loose concentration on the subject.Question can sometimes take you off track of the topic … you must be careful in how and what you say. This may also upset the way you plan to develop the presentation.8
9Questioning Techniques You askPlan carefullyUse sparinglyControl
10Questioning Techniques Questions can enhance or hinder learningYou Ask …. Avoid spontaneous questions …. Be prepared with pre-determined questions that anticipate problems in the lesson plan. You decide what to emphasize, reinforce, point out … based on past experiences, perceived difficulties with subject matter, knowledge level of students, etc.Plan Carefully to emphasize. Make sure question is formulated at thinking level that you want …. Don’t just come up with haphazard questions. Decide at what point a question needs to be asked to liven up, emphasize. Ask question in easily an stated manner to the whole group.
11Questioning Techniques Use Sparingly ….. Overuse can detract from the learning …. Too many questions can cause learners to become defensive and create a high level of tension, which then becomes a negative learning atmosphere. It is only one technique. You limit your chances of succeeding with all students, since they each learn in a different combination of ways.Control the questioning … questions can be used to create a certain tension level intended to keep students attentive. Make sure you keep any discussion under control so that the students are not thrown off the track.
12Questioning Techniques Qualities of a Good QuestionMust be on the subject matterThere must be one point onlyMust be clearOnly one correct answerFamiliar language to studentUse good grammarNever suggest the answer in the question
13Questioning Techniques Qualities of a Good QuestionAvoid questions with yes/no answersAsk questions that are open-endedLimit questions that rely completely on memoryUse correct terminology and vocabulary that student’s understand, taking into account any cultural differences.Avoid questions that contain the answer, i.e. avoid answering your own questions
14Questioning Techniques APPLE PrincipleASK PAUSE PICK LISTEN EVALUATEASK … choose words carefully and be precise with what you are askingPause …. Ask question, then pause 5-15 seconds before calling on studentPick …. Avoid calling on same one or two students who are always anxious to answerListen …. For completeness of answerEvaluate …. Reinforce correct answers … fill in missing pieces by redirecting to class or to another student for a reaction.
15Questioning Techniques APPLEAsk The Group … first pose the questionPause …. This allows students time to think of the answer. Wait 5-15 seconds, then …Pick …. Call on a specific student, do not accept “hands up” … avoid calling on same one or two students who are always anxious to answer.Listen … for completeness of answer … don’t jump in too early. Evaluate … Never say just “yes” or “no” …… don’t humiliate or embarrass a student, let them down easy … “are you sure?”Reinforce correct answers. Always tell the student when they are incorrect, then explain the correct answer.
16Questioning Techniques How to Pose a QuestionAsk The GroupAsk “W” QuestionsAsk “Suppose” QuestionsAsk for DepthBe PreciseGet AgreementsAvoid Grilling“W” … who …. What …. When …. WhyDepth …. Follow up student response with “tell me more” …. “what makes you say that?”Avoid answering your own questionsAvoid directing questions to a student for disciplinary reasonsDon’t use round-robin questioningDon’t call on student to respond to question before question is asked.Leave an occasional question unanswered at the end of a lesson
17Questioning Techniques Ask The GroupMany students feel apprehensive if they know an instructor is going to ask them a question. They feel relieved when they know a question is going to be posed to someone else.The typical reaction when posed to someone else is to stop thinking about the answer, relying on that other student to supply the correct information.Don’t use round-robin questioning
18Questioning Techniques Ask The GroupOne of your objectives should be to get every student thinking about the answer to the question.Don’t call on student to respond to question prior to the question being asked.Avoid directing question to a student for disciplinary reasons.Avoid answering your own questions
19Questioning Techniques Ask “W” QuestionsPosing questions with words:WHO WHAT WHERE WHY WHENThese are the key words that will improve your questions and help you to secure facts, information and a specific response.
20Questioning Techniques Ask “Suppose” QuestionsThese questions help to amplify and reinforce a point.They can be used to bring up a new or added point.They’re also useful when you need to break a deadlock.
21Questioning Techniques Ask For DepthAsking the student for examples, explanations, references, reasoning behind thinking will reinforce the student’s learning.Follow up a student response with “Tell me more” … “ What makes you say that?”
22Questioning Techniques Be PreciseMake sure question is understood.You need to frame the question carefullyIf there are several key factors in the question, it helps to write it out for the students to “see” as well as “hear”.
23Questioning Techniques Get AgreementsOne way is to offer several solutions in the form of a question to the group.Another way is to confirm an answer by asking others, in turn, whether or not they agree.Always acknowledge the right answer and reinforce correct responses.
24Questioning Techniques Avoid GrillingAsk questions in a positive manner, it helps the student to think, to reinforce, to improve attention and retention.Be helpful …. be positive even with a wrong answer or no answer … suggest answer yourself, hint or prompt student.Avoid embarrassing student by continued questioning. Switch to another student.Berating one student also negatively affects other students.
25Questioning Techniques Is like teaching a pig to sing: GRILLINGIs like teaching a pig to sing:It frustrates youandit annoys the pig!
26Questioning Techniques A Good Question IsFully Understood by the ClassContains No AmbiguityStimulates ThoughtDiscourages GuessingIt is important to use correct terms and language.Poorly formed questions and incorrect terminology can often do more harm than good.
27Good Questioning Technique Encourages Questioning TechniquesGood Questioning Technique EncouragesClass ParticipationKeeps Class AlertPromotes RetentionQuestioning can create a certain level of tension …. but the right question can relieve tension as well.
28Questioning Techniques Lesson AssignmentWrite out the following and bring to the in-class clinic sessions:An explanation of the purpose of a question.The (3) techniques for posing specific questions to students and an example for each.The (4) qualities of a good question with an example of each.
29Questioning Techniques USSF Referee Instructor CourseITIPUnited States Soccer Federation