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Loop Dissevering: A Technique for Temporally Partitioning Loops in Dynamically Reconfigurable Computing Platforms 10th Reconfigurable Architectures Workshop.

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Presentation on theme: "Loop Dissevering: A Technique for Temporally Partitioning Loops in Dynamically Reconfigurable Computing Platforms 10th Reconfigurable Architectures Workshop."— Presentation transcript:

1 Loop Dissevering: A Technique for Temporally Partitioning Loops in Dynamically Reconfigurable Computing Platforms 10th Reconfigurable Architectures Workshop (RAW 2003), Nice, France, April 22, 2003 17th Annual Intl Parallel & Distributed Processing Symposium (IPDPS 2003) João M. P. Cardoso University of Algarve, Faro, INESC-ID, Lisboa Portugal

2 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Motivation for(int i=0; i<8;i++) for(int j=0;j<8;j++) CosTrans[j+8*i] = CosBlock[i+8*j]; for(int i=0; i<8;i++) for(int j=0;j<8;j++) { TempBlock[i+j*8] = 0; for(int k=0;k<8;k++) TempBlock[i+j*8] += InIm[i+k*8] * CosTrans[k+j*8]; } How to map sets of computational structures requiring more resources than available?

3 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Motivation How to map sets of computational structures requiring more resources than available? Temporal Partitioning for(int i=0; i<8;i++) for(int j=0;j<8;j++) CosTrans[j+8*i] = CosBlock[i+8*j]; for(int i=0; i<8;i++) for(int j=0;j<8;j++) { TempBlock[i+j*8] = 0; for(int k=0;k<8;k++) TempBlock[i+j*8] += InIm[i+k*8] * CosTrans[k+j*8]; }

4 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Motivation How to map sets of computational structures requiring more resources than available? Temporal Partitioning Other motivations for Partitioning Computations in Time each design is simpler may lead to better performance! amortize some configuration time by overlapping execution stages use of smaller reconfigurable arrays to implement complex applications For more info: see Cardoso and Weinhardt, DATE 2003

5 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Motivation How to map sets of computational structures requiring more resources than available? Temporal Partitioning Computational structures for each loop or set of nested loops implemented in a single partition But, what to do with a Loop requiring more resources than available?

6 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Outline Motivation Configure-Execute Paradigm (execution stages) Target Architecture PACT XPP Architecture XPP Configuration Flow XPP-VC Compilation Flow Temporal Partitioning of Loops Experimental Results Conclusions & Future Work

7 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 f2 c2 f2c2 Configure-Execute Paradigm (Execution Stages) the program in a single configuration two configurations without on-chip context planes and without partial reconfiguration with partial reconfiguration with on-chip context planes Fetch (f)Configure (c)Compute (comp) f1c1comp1comp2 f1c1comp1 f2c2_2 comp2 f1c1comp1comp2 c2_1 time

8 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 PE X × Y Coarse-grained array: Processing elements (PEs): compute typical ALU operations Two columns of SRAMs (Ms) I/O ports for data streaming PE M M PACT XPP Architecture (briefly)

9 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Ready/ack. protocol for each programmable interconnection Flow of data (pre-foundry parameterized bit-widths) Flow of events (1-bit lines) PE M M PACT XPP Architecture (briefly)

10 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 PE PACT XPP Architecture (briefly) Dynamically reconfigurable: On-chip configuration cache and configuration manager Partial reconfiguration (only those used resources are configured) PE Configuration Manager (CM) Configuration Cache (CC) fetch configure CMPort0 CMPort1 M M

11 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 XPP Configuration Flow Uses 3 stages to execute each configuration: Array may request the next configuration Configuration manager accepts requests and proceeds without intervention from external host c0; If(CMPort0) then c1; If(CMPort1) then c2; c1 fetchconfigure { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/5/1525838/slides/slide_11.jpg", "name": "João M. P.", "description": "Cardoso RAW 2003 XPP Configuration Flow Uses 3 stages to execute each configuration: Array may request the next configuration Configuration manager accepts requests and proceeds without intervention from external host c0; If(CMPort0) then c1; If(CMPort1) then c2; c1 fetchconfigure

12 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 XPP-VC Compilation Flow TempPart: partitions and generates reconfiguration statements which are executed by Configuration Manager MODGen: maps C subset to NML (PACT proprietary structural language with reconfiguration primitives) C program Preprocessing + Dependence Analysis TempPart Temporal Partitioning MODGen Module Generation (with pipelining) NML file xmap XPP Binary Code NML Control Code Generation (Reconfiguration) For more info: see Cardoso and Weinhardt, FPL 2002

13 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Temporal Partitioning One partition for each node in the Hierarchical Task Graph (HTG) TOP level Merge adjacent nodes if combination of both can be mapped to XPP device and if merge does not degrade overall performance If HTG node too large, create separate partition for each node of the inner-HTG and call algorithm recursively start end Loop 1 x coef Loop 2 Loop 3 Loop 4 tmp y

14 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Temporal Partitioning of Loops What to do when loops in the program cannot be mapped due to the lack of enough resources? Software/reconfigware approach control of the loop in software, migrates to reconfigware inner-code sections, each one mapped to a single configuration Loop Distribution transforms a loop into two or more loops each loop with the same iteration-space traversal of the original loop inner statements of the original loop are split among the loops Loop Dissevering transforms a loop in a set of configurations cyclic behavior implemented by the configuration flow

15 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Temporal Partitioning of Loops Loop Distribution Loop Dissevering … for(nx=0;nx { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/5/1525838/slides/slide_15.jpg", "name": "João M. P.", "description": "Cardoso RAW 2003 Temporal Partitioning of Loops Loop Distribution Loop Dissevering … for(nx=0;nx

16 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Loop Distribution … for(nx=0;nx { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/5/1525838/slides/slide_16.jpg", "name": "João M. P.", "description": "Cardoso RAW 2003 Loop Distribution … for(nx=0;nx

17 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Loop Distribution Cannot be applied to all loops no break of cycles in the dependence graph of the original loop Use of auxiliary array variables for each loop-independent flow dependence of a scalar variable (known as scalar expansion) and for each control dependence in the place where we want to partition the loop Expansion of some arrays But, it preserves the software pipelining potential, and may improve parallelization, cache hit/miss ratio, etc.

18 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Loop Dissevering L1: L3: L4: Finish: … nx=0; write nx; read nx; If(nx>=X_DIM_BLK) goto Finish; ny=0; write ny; read ny; read nx; If(ny>=Y_DIM_BLK) goto L4; for(i=0;i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/5/1525838/slides/slide_18.jpg", "name": "João M. P.", "description": "Cardoso RAW 2003 Loop Dissevering L1: L3: L4: Finish: … nx=0; write nx; read nx; If(nx>=X_DIM_BLK) goto Finish; ny=0; write ny; read ny; read nx; If(ny>=Y_DIM_BLK) goto L4; for(i=0;i

19 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Loop Dissevering Applicable to every loop Only relies on a configuration manager to execute complex loops May relieve the host microprocessor to execute other tasks No array or scalar expansion (only scalar communication) But, Besides its usage to furnish feasible mappings, is it worth to be applied? Does it lead to efficient solutions (in terms of performance)? What are the improvements if the architecture can switch between configurations in few clock cycles?

20 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Experimental Results Compared Architectures Both with runtime support to partial reconfiguration ARCH-A word-grained partial reconfiguration ARCH-B context-planes with switching between contexts in few clock cycles f2c2 f1c1comp1 f2c2_2 comp2 f1c1comp1comp2 c2_1

21 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Experimental Results BenchmarkDescription#LoC#loops#loops after loop dist. DCT 8 8 Discrete Cosine Transform on an image 80810 BPIC Binary pattern image coding 151810 Life Conways game of life algorithm 11810- Benchmarks

22 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Experimental Results (resource savings) Using loop dissevering When compared to implementations without loop dissevering only 44% (DCT), 66% (BPIC), and 85% (Life) of resources are used Benchmark w/o loop disseveringw/ loop disseveringRatio (#PEs) #configs#PEs#configs#PEs DCT1123554/1320.44 BPIC1148597/1890.66 Life4144/3046123/4160.85

23 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Experimental Results (speedups) Architecture A (ARCH-A) Word-grained partial reconfiguration Architecture B (ARCH-B) Context-planes DCT

24 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Experimental Results (speedups) Life Applying Loop Dissevering Benefits of ARCH-B are neglected when partitions in the loop compute for long times

25 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Conclusions Temporal Partitioning + Loop Dissevering guarantees the mapping of theoretically unlimited computational structures Loop Dissevering and Loop Distribution may lead to performance enhancements saving of resources Loop Dissevering applicable to every loop performance efficient implementations may require fast reconfiguration the resultant performance may decrease when innermost loops are partitioned (no more potential for loop pipelining) when each active partition computes for short times (does not amortize the reconfiguration time)

26 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Future Work More study on the impact of Loop Dissevering and Loop Distribution To understand the impact of the number of context- planes, configuration cache size, etc. To evaluate loop partitioning when mapping to FPGAs Automatic implementation of Loop Distribution Methods to decide between Loop Dissevering and Loop Distribution

27 João M. P. Cardoso RAW 2003 Acknowledgments (in the paper) Part of this work has been done when the author was with PACT XPP Technologies, Inc, Munich, Germany. We gratefully acknowledge the support of all the members of PACT XPP Technologies, Inc., especially the help of Daniel Bretz, Armin Strobl, and Frank May, regarding the XDS tools. A special thanks to Markus Weinhardt regarding the fruitful discussions about loop dissevering and the XPP-VC compiler.


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