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International Conference on Program Comprehension (ICPC) 2008 A Traceability Technique for Specifications Aharon Abadi, Mordechai Nisenson and Yahalomit.

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Presentation on theme: "International Conference on Program Comprehension (ICPC) 2008 A Traceability Technique for Specifications Aharon Abadi, Mordechai Nisenson and Yahalomit."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Conference on Program Comprehension (ICPC) 2008 A Traceability Technique for Specifications Aharon Abadi, Mordechai Nisenson and Yahalomit Simionovici

2 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Outline Motivation Goals Our Solution: Outline of Traceability Link Process IR Techniques Experiments Conclusions Future work

3 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Traceability The ability to link between different artifacts –Example artifacts: code, user manuals, design documentation, development wikis, etc. In particular, link code to: –Relevant requirements –Sections in design documents –Test-cases –Other structured and free-text artifacts Also, link from requirements, design documents, etc. to code

4 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Whats Traceability Good For? Program Comprehension –Top-down –Bottom-up Particularly relevant for the maintenance of legacy systems Impact analysis –Keeping non-code artifacts up-to-date Requirement Tracing –Discover what code needs to change to handle a new req. –Aid in determining whether a specification is completely implemented and covered by tests

5 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Challenges Scalability –Large # of artifacts Heterogeneity –Large # of different document formats and programming languages Noisy –Free text information (natural language): conjuctions, prepositions, abbreviations, etc. –Some information may be outdated, or just plain wrong Prior work: –Recovering Traceability Links in Software Artifact Management Systems using information retrieval methods [Lucia et al., 2007] –Recovering Traceability Links between Code and Documentation [Antoniol et al., 2002, Deerwester et al., 1990, Marcus and Maletic, 2003]

6 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Outline Motivation Goals Our Solution: Outline of Traceability Link Process IR Techniques Experiments Conclusions Future work

7 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Example /* * The File interface provides… */ public class FileImpl extends FilePOA{ private String nativefileName; /** * Creates a new File… */ public FileImpl(String nativePath...){ … } /** *… */ Private String f(..){…} }

8 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Goals Examine the effectiveness of IR techniques for traceability between code and documentation on real world data Most prior work compared 2 specific algorithms, LSI and VSM –Is LSI really better? –How does LSI stack up with other dimensionality reduction techniques? –How does it compare with other non-dimensionality reduction techniques? How do different levels of abstraction affect the choice of the best methods? –How to fit a method and parameters to a dataset?

9 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Outline Motivation Goals Our Solution: Outline of Traceability Link Process IR Techniques Experiments Conclusions Future work

10 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Traceability Link Process Text Preprocessing Sectoring Document Pre-processing IR-Index Words expansion words extraction Query Construction Words ranking documents sections Off line processes partial code (word 1,rank 1 ),…,(word m, rank m ) sections Text Preprocessing (word 1,rank 1 ),…,(word m, rank m )

11 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Text Preprocessing Text Preprocessing … Copyright owners grant member companies of the OMG permission to make a limited … … copyright owner grant member compani omg permiss make limit … Lower-case, stop-words, number etc. Stemming

12 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications /* * The File interface provides… */ public class FileImpl extends FilePOA{ private String nativefileName; /** * Creates a new File… */ public FileImpl(String nativePath...){ … } /** *… */ Private String f(..){…} } Words Extraction words extraction FileImpl Class Name Public Function names Public function arguments and return type Comments Super class name FileImpl nativePath FilePOA Creates a new File… The File interface provides…

13 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Words Expansion Words expansion …NativePath, fileName, delete_all_elements… … NativePath,Native,Path, fileName, File,Name, delete_all_elements, Delete,all,elements … Use well-known coding standards for sub-words separation

14 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Outline Motivation Goals Our Solution: Outline of Traceability Link Process IR Techniques Experiments Conclusions Future work

15 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Information Retrieval (IR) Methods Vector Space Model (VSM) [Salton et al., 1975] implemented by Lucene –Each document, d, is represented by a vector of ranks of the terms in the vocabulary: v d = [ r d ( w 1 ), r d ( w 2 ), …, r d ( w | V | )] –The query is similarly represented by a vector –The similarity between the query and document is the cosine of the angle between their respective vectors Jensen Shannon Similarity Model [Abadi et al., 2008] –Each document, d, is represented by its empirical probability distribution over words: p d ( w ) –The query is similarly represented –The similarity score is calculated as 1 – JS ( p q, p d ), where JS is the Jensen- Shannon Divergence

16 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Dimensionality Reduction Methods LSI [Deerwester et al., 1990] –Commonly used in prior studies –An algebraic method –Dimensions represent orthogonal topics PLSI [Hofmann, 1999] –Probabilistic extension to LSI –Based on the assumption that documents are mixtures of topics distributions –Words and documents are conditionally independent given the topic SDR [Globerson and Tishby, 2003] –Based on information theory –Topics are sufficient statistics in information theory terms –These statistics are functions that capture maximum mutual information between words and documents

17 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Outline Motivation Goals Our Solution: Outline of Traceability Link Process IR Techniques Experiments Conclusions Future work

18 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Datasets Software Communication Architecture (SCA) is an open architecture framework that defines how software and hardware elements operate within a software defined radio. Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) is OMG's open, vendor-independent architecture and infrastructure that computer applications use to work together over networks. DatasetSize (MB)SectionsVocabulary size SCA CORBA Documentation details: Queries details: Dataset# classes# relevant results / query Total # of relevant results SCA76 – 1365 CORBA45 – 2058

19 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications IR Quality Measures n: n: Average precision:

20 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications MAP versus Method

21 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Mean Average Precision (MAP) versus Dimension

22 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Precision versus Recall

23 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Dimensionality of Datasets SCACORBA PLSI Results

24 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Precision versus Recall over Algorithms for SCA

25 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Precision versus Recall over Algorithms for CORBA

26 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications MAP versus Method – Combined over SCA & CORBA

27 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Outline Motivation Our Solution: Outline of Traceability Link Process Similarity measures IR Techniques IR Quality Measures Experiments Conclusions Future work

28 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Conclusions Our Most significant results are: –Traceability between code and documentation in real world systems is effective via IR techniques. –For realistic datasets the Vector Space Model and Jensen Shannon model, which did not perform dimensionality reduction where shown to be the most effective. –SDR was shown to be the best dimensionality reduction model, specifically it is better then LSI. –As the documentation links are more abstract, the performance of VSM, JS model and SDR become equivalent. Additional results: –SDR was shown to be robust to datasets abstractness level –LSI and PLSI are sensitive to datasets abstractness level –We believe that PLSI poor performance is due to the difficulty of modeling very short documents, which could result in severe overfitting

29 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Outline Motivation Our Solution: Outline of Traceability Link Process Similarity measures IR Techniques IR Quality Measures Experiments Conclusions Future work

30 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Future work Development of new measures for evaluation of different IR algorithms and datasets, specifically for traceability –Example: developing a measure of abstractness for a specification which will help with tuning of parameters such as dimensionality Using dimensionality reduction techniques for creating thesaurus from the indexed data and using it for adding synonyms to the query Traceability for other types of documents and links Investigate alternative methods for query construction

31 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications References A.D. Lucia, F.Fasano, R. Oliveto, and G. Tortora. Recovering Traceability Links in Software Artifact Management Systems using Information Retrieval Methods. ACM Trans. Softw. Eng. Methodol., 16(4):13, G. Antoniol, G. Canfora, G. Casazza, A.D. Lucia, and E. Merlo. Recovering Traceability Links Between Code and Documentation. IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng., 28(10): , S.C. Deerwester, S.T. Dumais, T.K. Landauer, G.W. Furnas, and R.A. Harshman. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis. Journal of the American Society of Information Science, 41(6): , A. Marcus and J. I. Maletic. Recovering Documentation to Source Code Traceability Links using Latent Semantic Indexing. In ICSE 03: Proceedings of the 25 th International Conference on Software Engineering, , G.Salton, A. Wong, and C.S. Yang. A Vector Space Model for Automatic Indexing. Commun. ACM, 18(11): , T.Hofmann, Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing. In SIGIR, 50-57, A. Globerson and N. Tishby. Sufficient Dimensionality Reduction. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 3: , 2003.

32 ICPC A Comparison of Traceability Techniques for Specifications Thank You!


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