2Review of Lecture 4 The Knowledge Capture Process Single vs. Multiple Experts (Pros and Cons)Interview As Knowledge Capture ToolSources of Errors and Problems in InterviewToday, we will learn about the KMSLC, that is the actual stages involved in the development of a working KMS:First, I will highlight several major challenges one might face when constructing KM systems. This will set the stage for the remaining discussion on KMSLC.For some of you, you might be familiar with the system development life cycle for conventional systems. But how about KMSLC? What are the main similarities and differences between the conventional life cycle and the KMSLC that we will be learning today?Next, we will attempt to understand some characteristics of a user (or person using a system) as compared to an expert who are knowledgeable in an area where we are attempting to apply KM.Altogether, we can identify 8 distinct stages in a KMSLC (at least as outlined in our textbook by Awad and Ghaziri). For the most part, the stages are sequential. But, there are certain stages that are iterative because of the methodology applied in developing KMS.
3Other Techniques On-site Observation (Action Protocol) Brainstorming (Conventional & Electronic)Consensus Decision MakingNominal Group TechniqueDelphi MethodRepertory GridConcept MappingBlackboardingToday, we will learn about the KMSLC, that is the actual stages involved in the development of a working KMS:First, I will highlight several major challenges one might face when constructing KM systems. This will set the stage for the remaining discussion on KMSLC.For some of you, you might be familiar with the system development life cycle for conventional systems. But how about KMSLC? What are the main similarities and differences between the conventional life cycle and the KMSLC that we will be learning today?Next, we will attempt to understand some characteristics of a user (or person using a system) as compared to an expert who are knowledgeable in an area where we are attempting to apply KM.Altogether, we can identify 8 distinct stages in a KMSLC (at least as outlined in our textbook by Awad and Ghaziri). For the most part, the stages are sequential. But, there are certain stages that are iterative because of the methodology applied in developing KMS.
4On-Site ObservationProcess of observing, interpreting, and recording expert’s problem-solving behaviour as it takes placePlaces the knowledge developer closer to the actual steps and procedures used by the experts
5On-Site Observation (cont) Problems:Some experts do not like to be observedReactions from peers during observation can be distractingAccuracy or completeness of captured knowledge weakened by time gap between observation and recording
6BrainstormingAn unstructured, consensus-based approach to generating ideas about a problemSuitable for multiple expertsAll possible solutions considered equallyGoal is to foster the frequency of responses during the sessionConclude by idea evaluation
7Role of Knowledge Developer in Brainstorming Session Introduce and coordinate the brainstorming sessionGive experts a problem to considerPrompt experts to generate ideasWatch for signs of convergenceCall for a vote to reach agreement
8Electronic Brainstorming Computer-aided approach to brainstormingPromote instant exchange of ideas between expertsRequire a pre-session plan to identify objectives and structures the agendaAnonymity reduces effects of shyness, etc.Shorter meeting with concise recommendations
9Electronic Brainstorming (Ex.) An example of a software supporting E-brainstormingA session can present a number of electronic sheets to collect ideas from the participants.
10Electronic Brainstorming (Ex.) Participants enter ideas in one sheet while reading ideas that have already been entered.Knowledge developer provides guidance on exactly how this activity will function.
11Protocol Analysis Think-aloud approach Expert verbalizes while going through a problem solutionProtocols are recorded and analyzedKnowledge developer does not interfere in the solving processStructuring of recorded information occurs when knowledge developer analyzes the protocols.
12Consensus Decision Making Consensus is a process for group decision-makingInput of all participants are gathered and synthesized to arrive at a final decision, that is acceptable to allThrough consensus, not only achieve better solutions, but also promote community and trustAs a tool, it follows brainstorming
13Consensus Procedure (Steps 1-4) A proposal for resolution is put forwardAmend and modify proposal through discussionThose participants who disagree with the proposal have the responsibility to put forward alternative proposalsThe one who put forward the proposal, with help of facilitator, can choose to withdraw proposal if seems to be dead end.
14Consensus Procedure (Steps 5-8) When a proposal seems to be well understood and no new changes asked for, the facilitator confirm any objectionsIf no objections, the facilitator can call for consensusIf there are still no objections, then after a moment of silence, you have the decisionIf consensus appears to have reached, the facilitator repeats the decision so everyone is clear
15Nominal Group Technique (NGT) An idea writing techniqueA structured variation of small group discussion methodPrevents the domination by a single expertEncourages the more passive experts to participateResults in a set of prioritized solutions or recommendationsNWRI-USA 2003
16NGT (Steps 1-4)Divide the people present into small groups of 5 or 6 members, sitting around a tableState an open-ended question (“What are some ways we could encourage people to car pool?”)Have each Person spend several minutes in silence individually brainstorming all possible ideas and write these ideas downHave each group, collect the ideas by sharing them in a round-robin fashion, while recording them on a flipchart
17NGT (Steps 5-7)Have each Person evaluate the ideas and anonymously vote for the best ones (e.g., best idea gets 8 points, next best 7 points, third best 6 points, etc)Share votes within the group and tabulate. A group report is prepared showing the ideas having most points.Allow time for brief group presentations on their solutions.
18NGT (Advantages)Effective in minimizing differences in status among multiple expertsEach expert has an equal chance to express ideas in parallel with other experts in the group(s)With the discussion proceeds in controlled order, it can be more efficient and productive than brainstorming
19NGT (Drawbacks) Technique can be time consuming Could promote impatience among experts who must listen to discussions with other expertsWith multiple experts sharing expertise, a cause of difficulty in adopting the best solution
20Delphi Method A survey of experts A series of questionnaires developed to pool experts’ responses in solving a difficult problemEach expert’s contributions shared with rest of experts by using results of one questionnaire to construct the next questionnaire
21Delphi Method (Pros and Cons) Anonymous responseControlled feedbackStatistical group responseConsPoorly designed questionnaire can be ineffective in capturing the complexity of the problem domainExperts may lack complete knowledge to base their answers
22The Repertory GridAn expert conceptualizes the problem using his or her own modelGrid used to facilitate the capture and evaluation of the expert’s modelA representation of the experts’ reasoning about a particular problemA grid can be a scale or a bipolar construct on which elements are placed within gradations
23Job Interview Rating Repertory Grid (Example) ConstructT1T2T3T4T5T6A. Inexperience31B. AcademicallyIll-qualified2C. PoorAppearanceD. Not punctualE. IntrovertedScale: 1 to 3DixieJohnBarryCurtLesterJoanne
24The Repertory Grid (Pros and Cons) Benefit: may prompt the expert to think more concretely about the problem and how to solve it.Drawback: difficult to manage when large grids are accompanied by complex detailsBecause of complexity and manageability, the tool is normally used in the early stages of knowledge capture
25Concept Mapping A network of concepts, consisting of nodes and links A node represents a concept and a link represents the relationship between concepts.An effective approach for:design a complex structure (Web sites)generate or communicate ideas (e.g., during brainstorming)diagnose misunderstanding
27Steps in Concept Mapping 1 Preparation of ProjectParticipants, focus, schedule2Idea Generation(focus for brainstorming)6UtilizationSTEPS INCONCEPTMAPPING3Idea Structuring(sorting/rating statements)5Interpretation(cluster analysis)4Representation
28Concept Map on Pathogens A pathogen, commonly known as germ, is a biological agent that causes disease to its host.
29Blackboarding (Groupware) Participants are assumed experts with unique experienceEach expert has equal chance to contribute to the solution via the blackboardProcess continues until the problem has been solvedJoin Information Technologies 2003
30Blackboarding (Characteristics) Participants share a common protocol for interactionOrganized participationIterative approach to problem solvingFlexible representation of informationEfficient storage and location of information
31End of Lecture Five This end the Lecture 2. The next lecture, we will cover Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Architecture.
32Three important stepsUse an appropriate tool or technique to elicit information from the expertInterpret the information and infer the expert’s knowledge and reasoning processUse the interpretation to build rules that represent expert’s solutions