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OTHER KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE TECHNIQUES Lecture Five (Chapter 5, Notes; Chapter 6, Textbook)

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Presentation on theme: "OTHER KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE TECHNIQUES Lecture Five (Chapter 5, Notes; Chapter 6, Textbook)"— Presentation transcript:

1 OTHER KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE TECHNIQUES Lecture Five (Chapter 5, Notes; Chapter 6, Textbook)

2 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-2 Review of Lecture 4 The Knowledge Capture Process Single vs. Multiple Experts (Pros and Cons) Interview As Knowledge Capture Tool Sources of Errors and Problems in Interview

3 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-3 Other Techniques On-site Observation (Action Protocol) Brainstorming (Conventional & Electronic) Consensus Decision Making Nominal Group Technique Delphi Method Repertory Grid Concept Mapping Blackboarding

4 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-4 On-Site Observation Process of observing, interpreting, and recording experts problem-solving behaviour as it takes place Places the knowledge developer closer to the actual steps and procedures used by the experts

5 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-5 On-Site Observation (cont) Problems: Some experts do not like to be observed Reactions from peers during observation can be distracting time gap between observation and recording Accuracy or completeness of captured knowledge weakened by time gap between observation and recording

6 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-6 Brainstorming An unstructured, consensus- based approach to generating ideas about a problem Suitable for multiple experts All possible solutions considered equally Goal is to foster the frequency of responses during the session Conclude by idea evaluation

7 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-7 Role of Knowledge Developer in Brainstorming Session Introduce and coordinate the brainstorming session Give experts a problem to consider Prompt experts to generate ideas Watch for signs of convergence Call for a vote to reach agreement

8 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-8 Electronic Brainstorming Computer-aided approach to brainstorming Promote instant exchange of ideas between experts Require a pre-session plan to identify objectives and structures the agenda Anonymity reduces effects of shyness, etc. Shorter meeting with concise recommendations

9 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-9 Electronic Brainstorming (Ex.) An example of a software supporting E- brainstorming A session can present a number of electronic sheets to collect ideas from the participants.

10 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-10 Electronic Brainstorming (Ex.) Participants enter ideas in one sheet while reading ideas that have already been entered. Knowledge developer provides guidance on exactly how this activity will function.

11 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-11 Protocol Analysis Think-aloud approach Expert verbalizes while going through a problem solution Protocols are recorded and analyzed Knowledge developer does not interfere in the solving process Structuring of recorded information occurs when knowledge developer analyzes the protocols.

12 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-12 Consensus Decision Making Consensus is a process for group decision-making Input of all participants are gathered and synthesized to arrive at a final decision, that is acceptable to all Through consensus, not only achieve better solutions, but also promote community and trust As a tool, it follows brainstorming

13 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-13 Consensus Procedure (Steps 1-4) A proposal for resolution is put forward Amend and modify proposal through discussion Those participants who disagree with the proposal have the responsibility to put forward alternative proposals The one who put forward the proposal, with help of facilitator, can choose to withdraw proposal if seems to be dead end.

14 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-14 When a proposal seems to be well understood and no new changes asked for, the facilitator confirm any objections If no objections, the facilitator can call for consensus If there are still no objections, then after a moment of silence, you have the decision If consensus appears to have reached, the facilitator repeats the decision so everyone is clear Consensus Procedure (Steps 5-8)

15 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-15 Nominal Group Technique (NGT) An idea writing technique A structured variation of small group discussion method Prevents the domination by a single expert Encourages the more passive experts to participate Results in a set of prioritized solutions or recommendations NWRI-USA 2003

16 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-16 NGT (Steps 1-4) Divide the people present into small groups of 5 or 6 members, sitting around a table State an open-ended question (What are some ways we could encourage people to car pool?) Have each Person spend several minutes in silence individually brainstorming all possible ideas and write these ideas down Have each group, collect the ideas by sharing them in a round-robin fashion, while recording them on a flipchart

17 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-17 NGT (Steps 5-7) Have each Person evaluate the ideas and anonymously vote for the best ones (e.g., best idea gets 8 points, next best 7 points, third best 6 points, etc) Share votes within the group and tabulate. A group report is prepared showing the ideas having most points. group report Allow time for brief group presentations on their solutions.

18 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-18 NGT (Advantages) Effective in minimizing differences in status among multiple experts Each expert has an equal chance to express ideas in parallel with other experts in the group(s) With the discussion proceeds in controlled order, it can be more efficient and productive than brainstorming

19 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-19 NGT (Drawbacks) Technique can be time consuming Could promote impatience among experts who must listen to discussions with other experts With multiple experts sharing expertise, a cause of difficulty in adopting the best solution

20 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-20 Delphi Method A survey of experts A series of questionnaires developed to pool experts responses in solving a difficult problem Each experts contributions shared with rest of experts by using results of one questionnaire to construct the next questionnaire

21 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-21 Delphi Method (Pros and Cons) Pros Anonymous response Controlled feedback Statistical group response Cons Poorly designed questionnaire can be ineffective in capturing the complexity of the problem domain Experts may lack complete knowledge to base their answers

22 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-22 The Repertory Grid An expert conceptualizes the problem using his or her own model Grid used to facilitate the capture and evaluation of the experts model A representation of the experts reasoning about a particular problem A grid can be a scale or a bipolar construct on which elements are placed within gradations

23 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-23 Construct T1T2T3T4T5T6 A. Inexperience 331111 B. Academically Ill-qualified 212113 C. Poor Appearance 321213 D. Not punctual 232311 E. Introverted 232211 Dixie John Barry Curt Lester Joanne Scale: 1 to 3 Job Interview Rating Repertory Grid (Example)

24 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-24 The Repertory Grid (Pros and Cons) Benefit: may prompt the expert to think more concretely about the problem and how to solve it. Drawback: difficult to manage when large grids are accompanied by complex details Because of complexity and manageability, the tool is normally used in the early stages of knowledge capture

25 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-25 Concept Mapping A network of concepts, consisting of nodes and links A node represents a concept and a link represents the relationship between concepts. An effective approach for: design a complex structure (Web sites) generate or communicate ideas (e.g., during brainstorming) diagnose misunderstanding

26 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-26 Concept Map - A Simple Example

27 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-27 Steps in Concept Mapping STEPS IN CONCEPT MAPPING 1 Preparation of Project Participants, focus, schedule 2 Idea Generation (focus for brainstorming) 3 Idea Structuring (sorting/rating statements) 4 Representation 5 Interpretation (cluster analysis) 6 Utilization

28 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-28 Concept Map on Pathogens A pathogen, commonly known as germ, is a biological agent that causes disease to its host.

29 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-29 Blackboarding (Groupware) Participants are assumed experts with unique experience Each expert has equal chance to contribute to the solution via the blackboard Process continues until the problem has been solved Join Information Technologies 2003

30 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-30 Blackboarding (Characteristics) Participants share a common protocol for interaction Organized participation Iterative approach to problem solving Flexible representation of information Efficient storage and location of information

31 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-31 End of Lecture Five

32 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-32 Three important steps Use an appropriate tool or technique to elicit information from the expert Interpret the information and infer the experts knowledge and reasoning process Use the interpretation to build rules that represent experts solutions

33 Chapter 5: Some Knowledge Capturing Techniques 5-33 Voting in each group


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