2Techniques of TQM Joint problem solving Brainstorming Data collection Methods of analysisPlanning for just-in-time (JIT) managementAims of JITThe operation of JIT
3Joint Problem SolvingThe key to success in introducing total quality within an organisation, involving task groups and quality circles in seeking ways of continuous improvement to quality, is based on a systematic approach to joint problem solving. While details often vary, the principles are based on:
4Joint problem solvingdepersonalizing conflicts by diluting emotions and do systematic approachP providing a logical framework which encourages the facts come to the surface so that the facts rather than the individuals determine the solutionintegrating the objectives of the organization and the people working in it.
5Action‑oriented problem solving process To achieve this an action‑oriented problem solving process can used as set out with the following main components:1. problem identification ‑ using brainstorming, a full list of current operating problems including quality problems should be identified. In selecting a project to work on, groups should take account of factors such as:· is the problem in their own area?· does it affect the whole group?· does it occur frequently?· will it save man hours and time?· will it improve quality ‑ reduce waste?·
62. establish a goal : On the principle of continuous improvement, whatever goal is set to be reviewed continuously. The importance of setting is that it provides a basis for focusing the group's activity establishing whether success has been achieved.3. priorities and plan ‑ this should provide an indication to the group of the priorities in achieving a goal and the plan of action which is developed in order to enable them to achieve it.4. brainstorm the current conditions and likely causes of particular problems5. gather statistical data
78. discuss alternative solutions 9. make the decision 10. implement 6. organise the data7. analyse causes8. discuss alternative solutions9. make the decision10. implement11. use preventive practice
8BRAINSTORMINGBrainstorming is a way of getting as many ideas as possible on a problem or a solution in the shortest possible time. Brainstorming works most effectively when there is a group of people responding within the following framework:v don’t discuss ‑ just concentrate on writing up ideas as quickly as possible without criticising anything that is said
9Brainstorming 2v build on others’ suggestions ‑ by using the thoughts of others to trigger one’s own thought processes ‑ the classic lateral thinking approachv go for quantity ‑ by trying to write up as many ideas as possible within a period of time, say five or ten minutesv be imaginative ‑ quite often the most creative solutions come from initially daft ideas; avoid creating an environment where people are inhibited from putting forward ideas because others criticize or laugh at them.
10Brainstorming 3It is based on the principle that discussion can be helpful not only in solving problems but in changing attitudes, obtaining commitment and, perhaps most important, in developing ideas.
11Brainstorming-Data Collection Analysis of quality problems in order to determine solutions needs to be based on data collected on quality performance whether it be simple, such as the number of rejects and the reason for the rejects on a particular line, or a more complex cost analysis. The process of collecting data is based first on brainstorming a list of all the factors likely to contribute to a particular situation
12METHODS OF ANALYSISOnce all the data has been collected, it needs to be analysed so that it is possible to identify the most important causes of a problem or the key features of a particular situation. There is mainly 3 types of method of anaysis:Pareto analysisPaired comparisonCause and effect diagramsMatrix
13Pareto AnalysisPareto analysis (sometimes referred to as the 80/20 rule and as ABC analysis) is a method of classifying items, events, or activities according to their relative importance. It is frequently used in inventory management where it is used to classify stock items into groups based on the total annual expenditure for, or total stockholding cost of, each item. Organisations can concentrate more detailed attention on the high value/important items. Pareto analysis is used to arrive at this prioritisation.
14Pareto Analysis 2Pareto analysis is named after the Italian economist Vilfred Pareto, who in 1897 investigated the distribution of wealth an income in Italy and discovered that a very large percentage were in the hands of a very small percentage of the population. Vilfredo Pareto was a 19th century economist who observed that 80% of Italy's wealth was owned by 20% of the population. He applied the same logic to business
15Pareto Analysis 3Pareto analysis is therefore no more than a simple system identify the “vital few and trivial many” causes of particular problems based on the principle that 20 per cent of the problems 80 per cent of the trouble. Using the information about customer complaints collected, it is possible to carry out a Pareto analysis to identify the vital few facts about customer complaints the eight-week period analysed.
16Example to Pareto Analysis Control of travel costs : again, typically, 20% of journeys will account for 80% of total travel costs - and should be closely monitored and controlled.
17Paired ComparisonOne method that is found useful is taken from job evaluation techniques. Paired comparison is a method of establishing priorities from a list of possible causes of a problem by comparing each cause “in pairs”. Scoring is allocated on basis that the most important problem scores two points, if two problems are of broadly similar importance score one each and a problem which is of less importance scores nothing totalling up the scores a rank order is produced. The disadvantage the method are that at times it can be difficult to justify why any particular problem is considered more important than another, there is a restriction on the number of comparisons that made and the method relies on a team’s ability to come to a consensus which is not always easy to achieve.
18Cause and effect diagrams Ishikawa’s method. In preparing the cause and effect diagram it is important to show on the diagram all probable causes of a problem even if some are rejected at a later stage in the analysis. This enables a problem-solving group to get a clear picture of the particular situation, which has been identified.
19Cause and effect diagrams 2 Once a cause and effect diagram has been completed it is necessary to identify the key causes of the problem which appear on the diagram and d necessary carry out a further paired comparison or collect data order to establish more information.
20MatrixAnother useful form of analysis is to use the matrix, which is simple form either in a table or a chart of demonstrating a number of different variables at the same time. For instance, it can be used to demonstrate the people, the error types and how many errors of each type are made by each person.
21JUST-IN-TIMEDefinition A strategy for inventory management in which raw materials and components are delivered from the vendor or supplier immediately before they are needed in the manufacturing process
22JIT 2Basically JIT is a program directed towards ensuring that the right quantities are purchased or produced at the right time, and that there is no waste. Anyone who perceives it purely as a material‑control system, however, is bound to fail with JIT. JIT fits well under the TQM umbrella, for many of the ideas and techniques are very similar and, moreover, JIT will not work without TQM in operation.
23JIT 3JIT is:v A series of operating concepts that allows systematic identification of operational problems.v A series of technology‑based tools for correcting problems following their identification.
24Advantages of JITAn important outcome of JIT is a disciplined program for improving productivity and reducing waste. This program leads to cost‑effective production or operation and delivery of only the required goods or services, in the correct quantity, at the right time and place. This is achieved with the minimum amount of resources ‑ facilities, equipment, materials, and people.