2 What instructional methods have you been exposed to?? …in high school?…in college?…in non-formal settings?
3 Analogies… Teaching is like fishing… Teaching is like beautiful music… You use different lures for different fishYou use different methods for different learners.Teaching is like beautiful music…Where, instructional methods are the instrumentsWhen played alone they make sound…When played together in tune, rhythm, and feeling, they become amazing music!
5 Selecting and Using a Variety of Instructional Methods Instructional objectives:Define method of InstructionDiscuss factors to consider when selecting a method of instructionDistinguish between methods of instruction and instructional aidsIdentify & discuss a variety of teaching methods
6 What is a “Method”? a procedure or process for attaining an object: as a (1) : a systematic procedure, technique, or mode of inquiry employed by or proper to a particular discipline or art (2) : a systematic plan followed in presenting material for instructionb (1) : a way, technique, or process of or for doing something (2) : a body of skills or techniques
7 Teaching MethodObjective oriented activities and flow of information between teachers and students
8 Methods, Strategy, Aid, Approach Teaching Method tend to be synonymous with technique according to WebsterTeaching Strategy – “careful plan” that serves an important function in achieving a specific outcome.Instructional aids includes:Chalkboard, Flip chart, PowerPointOverheads, VCR, Real Objects, etc.Teaching Approach is a “holistic process”Includes the teaching steps, problem-solving strategies, and teaching methods.
9 Teaching Methods Lecture-Explaining Resource People Case Study Group DiscussionBrainstorming & Buzz GroupsField-trip (tour)
11 What Factors do we consider when selecting an instructional method? The intended specific outcome or purposeSize of groupLearners’ preference for learningThe content sometimes dictates the methodRequired preparation
12 Instructional/Teaching Methods vs. Instructional Aids? Assist the teacher in the teaching/learning processWhite boardHandoutsPropsPictures/VideoAudioComputer based simulationModelsOthers?
13 Tools for your teaching tool box Let’s Try SomeTools for your teaching tool box
14 Incorporating Problem-solving (Decision-making) Techniques Into Instruction
15 P-S (Decision-Making) Techniques Forked-RoadPossibilities FactorsSituation to be ImprovedEffect, Find the Cause
17 Essential Elements of a Forked-Road Technique are: A problem where a learner must decide between two possible choices of actionMust have factors to considerMust make a decision based upon the factors considered
18 Before engaging in a problem-solving (decision-making)… The problem (opportunity) must be defined!Need to ask yourself, “What is the problem?”Usually proposed in question formOften, the problem is derived from a situation, or scenario.case studyMay be real or contrivedRecord for all to see
20 ScenarioYou have been hired in a new position and your supervisor tells you that the company will purchase you a new computer.Your supervisor explains that you can spend up to $ on a new desktop computer and software. Furthermore, because of existing purchasing agreements you must select between Dell and Gateway.The choice is yours, however your supervisor has requested a decision in two days.
21 What is the decision you need to make? Should I purchase Dell computer or a Gateway computer?
22 Problem-Solving Technique Forked Road TemplateForked-RoadProblem-Solving TechniqueDefine the Problem / Decision to be Made:Choice OneChoice TwoFactors to ConsiderDecision / Recommendation:
23 What if we have more than two choices? Possibilities-Factors!
24 Possibilities-Factors Template Problem-Solving TechniqueDefine the Problem / Decision to be Made:Possibilities (Possible Solutions)Factors to ConsiderDecision / Recommendation:
25 Forked Road or Possibilities Factors? Selecting between turf grass and natural grass.Choosing a greenhouse covering.Determining whether to attend the National Convention.Selecting from among seed varieties.Determining best pest control.Selecting a career choice.Promoting a management practice.Determining whether to invest in new equipment.Selecting lumber types.Choosing a “path” of action.
26 Instructional Tips Get learners to define the problem (best) Or, you define the problemRecord for all to seeUse the template to facilitate the problem-solving (decision-making) effortComplete the template yourselfAssist students in identifying the factors to considerProvide the resources for seeking out information on the possibilitiesHave students identify a solutionAllow students to share their solution with rationale for their choice
27 Integrating reading, speaking, listening and writing skills
28 JigsawIs a teaching technique invented by social psychologist Elliot Aronson in 1971.Students of a normal-sized class (26 to 33 students) are divided into competency groups of four to six students, each of which is given a list of subtopics to research.Individual members of each group then break off to work with the "experts" from other groups, researching a part of the material being studied, after which they return to their starting body in the role of instructor for their subcategory.The strategy is an efficient teaching method that encourages listening, engagement, interaction, peer teaching, and cooperation by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in the academic activity.Both individual and group accountability are built into the process.Jigsaws are a four-skills approach, integrating reading, speaking, listening and writing.
29 Team 3 Team 4 Team 1 Team 2 Expert Panels A A1+A2+A3+A4 Each team provides one expert to form a panelExpert Panels AA1+A2+A3+A4Expert Panels CC1+C2+C3+C4Expert Panels BB1+B2+B3+B4Expert Panels DD1+D2+D3+D4Teams regroup for peer teaching and report writingAll the #’s get together i.e. A1+ B1+C1+D1 (1 – 6) = teamsExpert Panels all the Letters get together i.e. A1+A2+A3+A4+A5+A6 (all blue)Regroup to re-teach by TeamsTeam 1Team 2Team 3Team 4
30 Let’s Try it You have each been given a First, all the #’s get into teams 1Second, you will be ‘experts’ on the events of the Olympic Gamesand meet by color (blue, orange, purple, yellow)Third, get back together in # Teams and share 4 facts about your event with the others in your team
31 Closure… Select the right “tool” for the right “job” Variety is valued Method is determined by many factorsInclude instructional aids to add variety & clarity