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Unit 5 Educational Methods. What instructional methods have you been exposed to?? …in high school? …in high school? …in college? …in college? …in non-formal.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 5 Educational Methods. What instructional methods have you been exposed to?? …in high school? …in high school? …in college? …in college? …in non-formal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 5 Educational Methods

2 What instructional methods have you been exposed to?? …in high school? …in high school? …in college? …in college? …in non-formal settings? …in non-formal settings?

3 Analogies… Teaching is like fishing… Teaching is like fishing… You use different lures for different fish You use different lures for different fish You use different methods for different learners. You use different methods for different learners. Teaching is like beautiful music… Teaching is like beautiful music… Where, instructional methods are the instruments Where, instructional methods are the instruments When played alone they make sound… When played alone they make sound… When played together in tune, rhythm, and feeling, they become amazing music! When played together in tune, rhythm, and feeling, they become amazing music!

4 Analogies… Toolbox… Toolbox… What is in your toolbox? What is in your toolbox?

5 Selecting and Using a Variety of Instructional Methods Instructional objectives: Instructional objectives: Define method of Instruction Define method of Instruction Discuss factors to consider when selecting a method of instruction Discuss factors to consider when selecting a method of instruction Distinguish between methods of instruction and instructional aids Distinguish between methods of instruction and instructional aids Identify & discuss a variety of teaching methods Identify & discuss a variety of teaching methods

6 What is a Method? a procedure or process for attaining an object: as a procedure or process for attaining an object: as a (1) : a systematic procedure, technique, or mode of inquiry employed by or proper to a particular discipline or art (2) : a systematic plan followed in presenting material for instruction a (1) : a systematic procedure, technique, or mode of inquiry employed by or proper to a particular discipline or art (2) : a systematic plan followed in presenting material for instruction b (1) : a way, technique, or process of or for doing something (2) : a body of skills or techniques b (1) : a way, technique, or process of or for doing something (2) : a body of skills or techniques

7 Teaching Method Objective oriented activities and flow of information between teachers and students Objective oriented activities and flow of information between teachers and students

8 Methods, Strategy, Aid, Approach Teaching Method tend to be synonymous with technique according to Webster Teaching Method tend to be synonymous with technique according to Webster Teaching Strategy – careful plan that serves an important function in achieving a specific outcome. Teaching Strategy – careful plan that serves an important function in achieving a specific outcome. Instructional aids includes: Instructional aids includes: Chalkboard, Flip chart, PowerPoint Chalkboard, Flip chart, PowerPoint Overheads, VCR, Real Objects, etc. Overheads, VCR, Real Objects, etc. Teaching Approach is a holistic process Teaching Approach is a holistic process Includes the teaching steps, problem- solving strategies, and teaching methods. Includes the teaching steps, problem- solving strategies, and teaching methods.

9 Teaching Methods Lecture-Explaining Lecture-Explaining Resource People Resource People Case Study Case Study Group Discussion Group Discussion Brainstorming & Buzz Groups Brainstorming & Buzz Groups Field-trip (tour) Field-trip (tour)

10 Additional Methods/Strategies Others Others Directed (supervised) study Directed (supervised) study Role-Play Role-Play Socratic Dialogue Socratic Dialogue Jigsaw Jigsaw Concept Map/Sketch Concept Map/Sketch Debate Debate Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning Panel of Experts Panel of Experts

11 What Factors do we consider when selecting an instructional method? The intended specific outcome or purpose The intended specific outcome or purpose Size of group Size of group Learners preference for learning Learners preference for learningpreference The content sometimes dictates the method The content sometimes dictates the method Required preparation Required preparation

12 Instructional/Teaching Methods vs. Instructional Aids? Assist the teacher in the teaching/learning process Assist the teacher in the teaching/learning process White board White board Handouts Handouts Props Props Pictures/Video Pictures/Video Audio Audio Computer based simulation Computer based simulation Models Models Others? Others?

13 Tools for your teaching tool box Lets Try Some

14 Incorporating Problem- solving (Decision-making) Techniques Into Instruction

15 P-S (Decision-Making) Techniques Forked-Road Forked-Road Possibilities Factors Possibilities Factors Situation to be Improved Situation to be Improved Effect, Find the Cause Effect, Find the Cause

16 Forked-Road Decision- Making Technique

17 Essential Elements of a Forked-Road Technique are: A problem where a learner must decide between two possible choices of action A problem where a learner must decide between two possible choices of action Must have factors to consider Must have factors to consider Must make a decision based upon the factors considered Must make a decision based upon the factors considered

18 Before engaging in a problem-solving (decision- making)… The problem (opportunity) must be defined! The problem (opportunity) must be defined! Need to ask yourself, What is the problem? Need to ask yourself, What is the problem? Usually proposed in question form Usually proposed in question form Often, the problem is derived from a situation, or scenario. Often, the problem is derived from a situation, or scenario. case study case study May be real or contrived May be real or contrived Record for all to see

19 Class Exercise

20 Scenario You have been hired in a new position and your supervisor tells you that the company will purchase you a new computer. You have been hired in a new position and your supervisor tells you that the company will purchase you a new computer. Your supervisor explains that you can spend up to $ on a new desktop computer and software. Furthermore, because of existing purchasing agreements you must select between Dell and Gateway. Your supervisor explains that you can spend up to $ on a new desktop computer and software. Furthermore, because of existing purchasing agreements you must select between Dell and Gateway. The choice is yours, however your supervisor has requested a decision in two days. The choice is yours, however your supervisor has requested a decision in two days.

21 What is the decision you need to make? Should I purchase Dell computer or a Gateway computer ?

22 Forked Road Template Forked-Road Problem-Solving Technique Define the Problem / Decision to be Made: Choice OneChoice Two Factors to Consider Decision / Recommendation:

23 What if we have more than two choices? Possibilities-Factors! Possibilities-Factors!

24 Possibilities-Factors Template Possibilities-Factors Problem-Solving Technique Define the Problem / Decision to be Made: Possibilities (Possible Solutions) Factors to Consider Decision / Recommendation:

25 Forked Road or Possibilities Factors? 1. Selecting between turf grass and natural grass. 2. Choosing a greenhouse covering. 3. Determining whether to attend the National Convention. 4. Selecting from among seed varieties. 5. Determining best pest control. 6. Selecting a career choice. 7. Promoting a management practice. 8. Determining whether to invest in new equipment. 9. Selecting lumber types. 10. Choosing a path of action.

26 Instructional Tips 1. Get learners to define the problem (best) Or, you define the problem Or, you define the problem 2. Record for all to see 3. Use the template to facilitate the problem- solving (decision-making) effort Complete the template yourself Complete the template yourself 4. Assist students in identifying the factors to consider 5. Provide the resources for seeking out information on the possibilities 6. Have students identify a solution 7. Allow students to share their solution with rationale for their choice

27 Integrating reading, speaking, listening and writing skills

28 Jigsaw Is a teaching technique invented by social psychologist Elliot Aronson in Is a teaching technique invented by social psychologist Elliot Aronson in Elliot Aronson Elliot Aronson Students of a normal-sized class (26 to 33 students) are divided into competency groups of four to six students, each of which is given a list of subtopics to research. Students of a normal-sized class (26 to 33 students) are divided into competency groups of four to six students, each of which is given a list of subtopics to research. Individual members of each group then break off to work with the "experts" from other groups, researching a part of the material being studied, after which they return to their starting body in the role of instructor for their subcategory. Individual members of each group then break off to work with the "experts" from other groups, researching a part of the material being studied, after which they return to their starting body in the role of instructor for their subcategory. The strategy is an efficient teaching method that encourages listening, engagement, interaction, peer teaching, and cooperation by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in the academic activity. The strategy is an efficient teaching method that encourages listening, engagement, interaction, peer teaching, and cooperation by giving each member of the group an essential part to play in the academic activity. Both individual and group accountability are built into the process. Both individual and group accountability are built into the process. Jigsaws are a four-skills approach, integrating reading, speaking, listening and writing. Jigsaws are a four-skills approach, integrating reading, speaking, listening and writing.

29 Expert Panels A A1+A2+A3+A4 Expert Panels D D1+D2+D3+D4 Expert Panels B B1+B2+B3+B4 Expert Panels C C1+C2+C3+C4 Team 1Team 2 Team 1Team 2 Each team provides one expert to form a panel Teams regroup for peer teaching and report writing Team 3Team 4 Team 3Team 4

30 Lets Try it You have each been given a You have each been given a First, all the #s get into teams 1 First, all the #s get into teams 1 Second, you will be experts on the events of the Olympic Games Second, you will be experts on the events of the Olympic Games and meet by color (blue, orange, purple, yellow) Third, get back together in # Teams and share 4 facts about your event with the others in your team Third, get back together in # Teams and share 4 facts about your event with the others in your team

31 Closure… Select the right tool for the right job Select the right tool for the right job Variety is valued Variety is valued Method is determined by many factors Method is determined by many factors Include instructional aids to add variety & clarity Include instructional aids to add variety & clarity

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