2Problems and BenefitMany ads try to sell an image, brand or feeling. For example, many car commercials show people looking tough, sophisticated or in control behind the wheel of a particular car.
3Problems and Benefit: Identifying a problem and offering a solution Some ads try to sell you something you really need.This ad presents the Tata Nano as a fuel-efficient car. The target audience is people in India who are in the market for buying a new car, may not have even considered fuel efficiencyThis ad convinces them of a need they were not yet aware of.Good advertising knows how to blur the line between needs and wants.
4Bandwagon effectAn allusion to the kind of float or wagon in a parade that carries many happy people; in its figurative sense, it describes what happens when something becomes popular quickly as people follow the examples set by others.
5TestimonialsTestimonials are statements from ordinary people, recommending a certain product.
6CelebritiesThe premise for understanding endorsement is that people want to identify with the individuals they see in ads.
7AssociationAssociation is the technique of linking products closely with certain values.In order to achieve association in an ad, the placement of a product is very important.These ads are carefully constructed to appeal to the emotions of the audience.
8Products are commonly associated to: wealth / luxury fame / prestige When advertisers use association, they attempt to associate their product with the people, values and lifestyles depicted in the ads. Associations are positive and rely heavily on the visual image created in the ad, but the text enforces the association.Products are commonly associated to:wealth / luxuryfame / prestigehappinesssuccessyouthfulness / healthexcitement / adventure / riskpatriotismindependence / individuality / non-conformitylove / romance / sex
9ImageImage: Advertisers rely heavily on the saying An image is worth a thousand words.The placement of an image in relation to the text is crucial as readers normally scan and digest an ad within a matter of seconds.People often want to imitate what they see in ads.Contrast is also an important factor to keep in mind when working with image.
10Slogan The text is usually kept to a minimum The most prominent text is the sloganThe slogan, or tagline, should be short, catchy and poignant, because the audience’s attentions span is usually brief and fleeting.
11Copy Ads sometimes offer a small story. Volkswagen is famous for its large simple images of Volkswagen as. “Lemon” describes the rigorous safety controls through which the cars must pass before they are sold.
12SignatureTraditionally, ads show a product and the company name, though this is not always the case.These days Internet addresses are used more and more as the signature for an ad.
13Counter-advertisingEfforts have been made to raise awareness of the adverse effects of corporate advertising and marketingAnti-smoking ads
14Anti-adsThe car manufacturer Volvo has the slogan There is more to life than a VolvoStartles the reader at first—this slogan draws our attention to the conventions of advertising, and then it breaks them.It says “Your life and safety are more important to us than this advertising campaign.”
15Anti-adsAnother company who has been famous for breaking all the advertising rules is the clothing company Benetton.They do not show the company’s productRaise awareness
16Philanthropic AdsSome companies have presented themselves as foundations or non-profit organizations in an effort to boost their image as philanthropistsChipotle: Videos
17Culture Jamming: distorting of messages and advertisements produced by large corporations Ways in which individuals distort the messages and advertisements of large corporationsMash ups: individuals rearranging a company’s graphic or iconic images to create new meaning, often defaming the company. Mash-ups can be done easily using the Internet and photo manipulation programs
18ParodyWhen individuals take a well-known ad and change it to give it new meaning, they are in essence parodying the style of that ad. Parody is the art of mocking someone or something by imitating them or their style.
19PastichePastiche is another way of drawing attention to a cultural value.It also makes use of imitation, but not by obviously parodying a particular genre and could almost pass itself off as a genuine example.
20PasticheThis is a pastiche of ads from the 1950s, when cigarette and beverage companies made false claims about how healthy their products were and the benefits they would bring.Because the claims in the pastiche cola ad are so preposterous, they make us think about the adverse effects of cola.Pastiche holds up a mirror in order to mock and question our cultural values.