2Oxygen therapy Objectives: Understand the reasons for requiring oxygen therapy.Be able to set up oxygen equipment.Why do you as third years need to know about oxygen therapy? Knowing who is responsible is vitalNon prescribers (pt group directives) adrenaline in anaphylaxis
3Oxygen therapyOxygen is required for the functioning and survival of all body tissues and deprivation for more than a few minutes is fatal.
4Oxygen therapyIn immediately life threatening situations oxygen should be administered.Local policies will reflect when oxygen that has not been prescribed may be administered and by whom.Pt group directives third years can prescribe
5Oxygen therapy When to use oxygen therapy? Hypoxaemia. Acute hypotension.Breathing inadequacy.Trauma.Acute illness.CO poisoning.Severe anaemia.During the peri-operative period.
6Oxygen therapy To ensure safe and effective treatment remember: Oxygen is a prescription drug.Prescriptions should include –Flow rate.Delivery system.Duration.Instructions for monitoring.Monitoring resps oxygen sats not definitive tool need to be looking at other things acccessory muscles etc
7Oxygen therapy Oxygen delivery methods: All systems require. Oxygen supply.Flow meter.Oxygen tubing.Delivery device.(Humidifier).
9Oxygen therapy Non-rebreathing mask Allows the delivery of high concentrations of oxygen (85% at 15 litres/min).Has a reservoir bag to entrain oxygen.One way valves prevent room and expired air from diluting the oxygen concentration.A tight seal is essential.Reservoir bag must be seen to expand freely.
10Oxygen therapy Simple facemask Easy to use. Allows administration of variable concentration dependant on flow of fresh gas up to 40%.Requires a good fit.
11Oxygen therapy Nasal cannulae Easy to use. Well tolerated. Comfortable for long periods.Patient can eat and talk easily.Possible to deliver oxygen concentrations of 24-40% at flow rates of 1-6 litres/min.Flow rates in excess of 4 litres/min might cause discomfort and drying of mucous membranes and are best avoided.
12Oxygen therapy Venturi mask Mixes a specific volume of air and oxygen. Useful for accurately delivering low concentrations of oxygen.Valves are colour coded and flow rate required to deliver a fixed concentration is shown on each valve.Can deliver oxygen concentrations between 24-60%.
13Oxygen therapy Humidification Is recommended if more than 4 litres/min is delivered.Helps prevent drying of mucous membranes.Helps prevent the formation of tenacious sputum.
14Oxygen therapyOxygen concentrations will be affected with all delivery systems if not fitted correctly or tubing becomes kinked and ports obstructed.
15Oxygen therapy Information to patient. Support and reassurance. Confidence and compliance.
16Dangers of oxygen therapy Ignition hazard.Risk of respiratory depression in some patients with COPD if high concentrations of oxygen administered (CO2 retainers).
17Oxygen Therapy Summary Oxygen therapy can be life saving therapy. Treat like any other drug.Be familiar with the principles of oxygen delivery and different devices