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5-1 © 2007 Prentice Hall Chapter Five Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research
5-2 © 2007 Prentice Hall Chapter Outline 1)Overview 2)Primary Data: Qualitative Versus Quantitative Research 3)Rationale for Using Qualitative Research Procedures 4)A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures
5-3 © 2007 Prentice Hall Chapter Outline 5)Focus Group (FG) Interviews i.Characteristics ii.Planning and Conducting Focus Groups iii.Telesessions and Other Variations iv.Advantages and Disadvantages of Focus Groups v.Applications of Focus Groups vi.Online Focus Group Interviews vii.Advantages and Disadvantages of Online FGs 6)Depth Interviews i.Characteristics ii.Techniques iii.Advantages and Disadvantages of Depth Interviews iv.Applications of Depth Interviews
5-4 © 2007 Prentice Hall Chapter Outline 7) Projective Techniques i. Association Techniques ii. Completion Techniques a. Sentence Completion b. Story Completion iii. Construction Techniques a. Picture Response b. Cartoon Tests iv. Expressive Techniques a. Role Playing b. Third-Person Technique v. Advantages and Disadvantages of Projective Techniques vi. Applications of Projective Techniques
5-5 © 2007 Prentice Hall Chapter Outline 8)Analysis of Qualitative Data 9)International Marketing Research 10)Ethics in Marketing Research 11)Summary
5-6 © 2007 Prentice Hall A Classification of Marketing Research Data Survey Data Observational and Other Data Experimental Data Fig. 5.1 Qualitative DataQuantitative Data DescriptiveCausal Marketing Research Data Secondary DataPrimary Data
5-7 © 2007 Prentice Hall Qualitative Vs. Quantitative Research Qualitative Research To gain a qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations Small number of non- representative cases Unstructured Non-statistical Develop an initial understanding Objective Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Outcome Quantitative Research To quantify the data and generalize the results from the sample to the population of interest Large number of representative cases Structured Statistical Recommend a final course of action Table 5.1
5-8 © 2007 Prentice Hall A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures Association Techniques Completion Techniques Construction Techniques Expressive Techniques Fig. 5.2 Direct (Non- disguised) Indirect (Disguised) Focus Groups Depth Interviews Projective Techniques Qualitative Research Procedures
5-9 © 2007 Prentice Hall Characteristics of Focus Groups Group Size 8-12 Group Composition Homogeneous, respondents, prescreened Physical SettingRelaxed, informal atmosphere Time Duration1-3 hours RecordingUse of audiocassettes and videotapes ModeratorObservational, interpersonal, and communication skills of the moderator Table 5.2
5-10 © 2007 Prentice Hall Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators 1. Kindness with firmness: The moderator must combine a disciplined detachment with understanding empathy so as to generate the necessary interaction. 2. Permissiveness: The moderator must be permissive yet alert to signs that the groups cordiality or purpose is disintegrating. 3. Involvement: The moderator must encourage and stimulate intense personal involvement. 4. Incomplete understanding: The moderator must encourage respondents to be more specific about generalized comments by exhibiting incomplete understanding.
5-11 © 2007 Prentice Hall Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators, cont. 5. Encouragement: The moderator must encourage unresponsive members to participate. 6. Flexibility: The moderator must be able to improvise and alter the planned outline amid the distractions of the group process. 7. Sensitivity: The moderator must be sensitive enough to guide the group discussion at an intellectual as well as emotional level.
5-12 © 2007 Prentice Hall Procedure for Planning and Conducting Focus Groups Fig. 5.3 Determine the Objectives and Define the Problem Specify the Objectives of Qualitative Research Develop a Moderators Outline Conduct the Focus Group Interviews Review Tapes and Analyze the Data Summarize the Findings and Plan Follow-Up Research or Action State the Objectives/Questions to be Answered by Focus Groups Write a Screening Questionnaire
5-13 © 2007 Prentice Hall Variations in Focus Groups Two-way focus group. This allows one target group to listen to and learn from a related group. For example, a focus group of physicians viewed a focus group of arthritis patients discussing the treatment they desired. Dual-moderator group. A focus group conducted by two moderators: One moderator is responsible for the smooth flow of the session, and the other ensures that specific issues are discussed. Dueling-moderator group. There are two moderators, but they deliberately take opposite positions on the issues to be discussed.
5-14 © 2007 Prentice Hall Variations in Focus Groups Respondent-moderator group. The moderator asks selected participants to play the role of moderator temporarily to improve group dynamics. Client-participant groups. Client personnel are identified and made part of the discussion group. Mini groups. These groups consist of a moderator and only 4 or 5 respondents. Tele-session groups. Focus group sessions by phone using the conference call technique. Online Focus groups. Focus groups conducted online over the Internet.
5-15 © 2007 Prentice Hall Advantages of Focus Groups 1. Synergism 2. Snowballing 3. Stimulation 4. Security 5. Spontaneity 6. Serendipity 7. Specialization 8. Scientific scrutiny 9. Structure 10. Speed
5-16 © 2007 Prentice Hall Disadvantages of Focus Groups 1.Misuse 2.Misjudge 3.Moderation 4.Messy 5.Misrepresentation
5-17 © 2007 Prentice Hall Online Versus Traditional Focus Groups Table 5.3 CharacteristicOnline Focus GroupsTraditional Focus Groups Group size Group compositionAnywhere in the worldDrawn from the local area Time duration hours1-3 hours Physical settingResearcher has little controlUnder the control of the researcher Respondent identityDifficult to verifyCan be easily verified Respondent attentivenessRespondents can engage in other tasksAttentiveness can be monitored
5-18 © 2007 Prentice Hall Online Versus Traditional Focus Groups Table 5.3, cont. Respondent recruitingEasier. Can be recruited online, ,Recruited by traditional means panel, or by traditional means(telephone, mail, mail panel) Group dynamicsLimitedSynergistic, snowballing (bandwagon) effect Openness of respondentsRespondents are more candidRespondents are candid, except for due to lack of face-to-face contactsensitive topics Nonverbal communicationBody language cannot be observedBody language and emotions Emotions expressed by using symbolsobserved Use of physical stimuliLimited to those that can be displayedA variety of stimuli (products, on the Internetadvertising demonstrations, etc.) can be used
5-19 © 2007 Prentice Hall Online Versus Traditional Focus Groups Table 5.3, cont. TranscriptsAvailable immediatelyTime consuming and expensive to obtain Observers communicationObservers can communicate with theObservers can manually send notes with moderatorthe moderator on a split-screento the focus group room Unique moderator skillsTyping, computer usage, familiarityObservational with chat room slang Turnaround timeCan be set up and completedTakes many days for setup and in a few dayscompletion Client travel costsNoneCan be expensive Basic focus group costsMuch less expensiveMore expensive: facility rental, food, taping, transcript preparation
5-20 © 2007 Prentice Hall Advantages of Online Focus Groups Geographical constraints are removed and time constraints are lessened. Unique opportunity to re-contact group participants at a later date. Can recruit people not interested in traditional focus groups: doctors, lawyers, etc. Moderators can carry on side conversations with individual respondents. There is no travel, videotaping, or facilities to arrange so the cost is much lower.
5-21 © 2007 Prentice Hall Disadvantages of Online Focus Groups Only people that have access to the Internet can participate. Verifying that a respondent is a member of a target group is difficult. There is lack of general control over the respondent's environment. Only audio and visual stimuli can be tested. Products can not be touched (e.g., clothing) or smelled (e.g., perfumes).
5-22 © 2007 Prentice Hall Depth Interview Techniques: Laddering In laddering, the line of questioning proceeds from product characteristics to user characteristics. This technique allows the researcher to tap into the consumer's network of meanings. Wide body aircrafts(product characteristic) I can get more work done I accomplish more I feel good about myself(user characteristic) Advertising theme: You will feel good about yourself when flying our airline. You're The Boss.
5-23 © 2007 Prentice Hall Depth Interview Techniques: Hidden Issue Questioning In hidden issue questioning, the focus is not on socially shared values but rather on personal sore spots; not on general lifestyles but on deeply felt personal concerns. fantasies, work lives, and social lives historic, elite, masculine-camaraderie, competitive activities Advertising theme: communicate aggressiveness, high status, and competitive heritage of the airline.
5-24 © 2007 Prentice Hall Depth Interview Techniques: Symbolic Analysis Symbolic analysis attempts to analyze the symbolic meaning of objects by comparing them with their opposites. The logical opposites of a product that are investigated are: non-usage of the product, attributes of an imaginary non- product, and opposite types of products. What would it be like if you could no longer use airplanes? Without planes, I would have to rely on letters and long- distance calls. Airlines sell to the managers face-to-face communication. Advertising theme: The airline will do the same thing for a manager as Federal Express does for a package.
5-25 © 2007 Prentice Hall Focus Groups Versus Depth Interviews Table 5.4 Characteristic Focus Groups Depth Interviews Group synergy and dynamics + - Peer pressure/group influence- + Client involvement+ - Generation of innovative ideas + - In-depth probing of individuals - + Uncovering hidden motives - + Discussion of sensitive topics -+
5-26 © 2007 Prentice Hall Focus Groups Versus Depth Interviews Table 5.4, cont. Note: A + indicates a relative advantage over the other procedure, a - indicates a relative disadvantage. Interviewing competitors Interviewing professional respondents Scheduling of respondents Amount of information Bias in moderation and interpretation Cost per respondent CharacteristicFocus Groups Depth Interviews
5-27 © 2007 Prentice Hall Definition of Projective Techniques An unstructured, indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes or feelings regarding the issues of concern. In projective techniques, respondents are asked to interpret the behavior of others. In interpreting the behavior of others, respondents indirectly project their own motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings into the situation.
5-28 © 2007 Prentice Hall Word Association In word association, respondents are presented with a list of words, one at a time, and asked to respond to each with the first word that comes to mind. The words of interest, called test words, are interspersed throughout the list which also contains some neutral, or filler words to disguise the purpose of the study. Responses are analyzed by calculating: (1) the frequency with which any word is given as a response; (2) the amount of time that elapses before a response is given; and (3) the number of respondents who do not respond at all to a test word within a reasonable period of time.
5-29 © 2007 Prentice Hall Word Association EXAMPLE STIMULUSMRS. MMRS. C washday everyday ironing fresh and sweet clean pure air soiled scrub don't; husband does clean filth this neighborhood dirt bubbles bath soap and water family squabbles children towels dirty wash
5-30 © 2007 Prentice Hall Completion Techniques In sentence completion, respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. Generally, they are asked to use the first word or phrase that comes to mind. A person who shops at Sears is ______________________ A person who receives a gift certificate good for Sak's Fifth Avenue would be __________________________________ J. C. Penney is most liked by _________________________ When I think of shopping in a department store, I ________ A variation of sentence completion is paragraph completion, in which the respondent completes a paragraph beginning with the stimulus phrase.
5-31 © 2007 Prentice Hall Completion Techniques In story completion, respondents are given part of a story – enough to direct attention to a particular topic but not to hint at the ending. They are required to give the conclusion in their own words.
5-32 © 2007 Prentice Hall Construction Techniques With a picture response, the respondents are asked to describe a series of pictures of ordinary as well as unusual events. The respondent's interpretation of the pictures gives indications of that individual's personality. In cartoon tests, cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem. The respondents are asked to indicate what one cartoon character might say in response to the comments of another character. Cartoon tests are simpler to administer and analyze than picture response techniques.
5-33 © 2007 Prentice Hall A Cartoon Test Lets see if we can pick up some house wares at Sears. Figure 5.4Sears
5-34 © 2007 Prentice Hall Expressive Techniques In expressive techniques, respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation. Role playing Respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else. Third-person technique The respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and the respondent is asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person rather than directly expressing personal beliefs and attitudes. This third person may be a friend, neighbor, colleague, or a typical person.
5-35 © 2007 Prentice Hall Advantages of Projective Techniques They may elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or unable to give if they knew the purpose of the study. Helpful when the issues to be addressed are personal, sensitive, or subject to strong social norms. Helpful when underlying motivations, beliefs, and attitudes are operating at a subconscious level.
5-36 © 2007 Prentice Hall Disadvantages of Projective Techniques Suffer from many of the disadvantages of unstructured direct techniques, but to a greater extent. Require highly-trained interviewers. Skilled interpreters are also required to analyze the responses. There is a serious risk of interpretation bias. They tend to be expensive. May require respondents to engage in unusual behavior.
5-37 © 2007 Prentice Hall Guidelines for Using Projective Techniques Projective techniques should be used because the required information cannot be accurately obtained by direct methods. Projective techniques should be used for exploratory research to gain initial insights and understanding. Given their complexity, projective techniques should not be used naively.
5-38 © 2007 Prentice Hall Comparison of Focus Groups, Depth Interviews, and Projective Techniques 1. Degree of Structure 2. Probing of individual respondents 3. Moderator bias 4. Interpretation bias 5. Uncovering subconscious information 6. Discovering innovative information 7. Obtaining sensitive information 8. Involve unusual behavior or questioning 9. Overall usefulness Relatively high Low Relatively medium Relatively low Low High Low No Highly useful Relatively medium High Relatively high Relatively medium Medium to high Medium To a limited extent Useful Relatively low Medium Low to high Relatively high High Low High Yes Somewhat useful Focus Groups Depth Interviews Projective Techniques Criteria Table 5.5
5-39 © 2007 Prentice Hall Analysis of Qualitative Data 1) Data reduction – Select which aspects of the data are to be emphasized, minimized, or set aside for the project at hand. 2) Data display – Develop a visual interpretation of the data with the use of such tools as a diagram, chart, or matrix. The display helps to illuminate patterns and interrelationships in the data. 3) Conclusion drawing and verification – Considers the meaning of analyzed data and assess its implications for the research question at hand.
5-40 © 2007 Prentice Hall
5-41 © 2007 Prentice Hall Qualitative research is crucial The moderator should be familiar with the language, culture, and patterns of social interaction Nonverbal cues (voice intonations, inflections, gestures) are important The size of the focus group could vary across cultures Focus Groups may not be appropriate in some cultures International Marketing Research
5-42 © 2007 Prentice Hall International MR, cont. Equivalence of meaning of stimuli across cultures should be established. Line drawings subject to fewer problems of interpretation than photographs.
5-43 © 2007 Prentice Hall Ethical Issues Ethical issues related to the respondents and the general public are of primary concern. Disguise can violate the respondents' right to know and result in psychological harm. In debriefing sessions, respondents should be informed about the true purpose and given opportunities to ask questions. The use of qualitative research results for questionable purposes raises ethical concerns
5-44 © 2007 Prentice Hall Ethical Issues, cont. Deceptive procedures that violate respondents right to privacy and informed consent should be avoided Video- or audio-taping the respondents without their prior knowledge or consent raises ethical concerns. The comfort level of the respondents should be addressed.
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