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Fingerprint sensing techniques 0920 2007 Biometrics Tech. and Application Dr. Hsu, Wen-Hsing.

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Presentation on theme: "Fingerprint sensing techniques 0920 2007 Biometrics Tech. and Application Dr. Hsu, Wen-Hsing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fingerprint sensing techniques Biometrics Tech. and Application Dr. Hsu, Wen-Hsing

2 Fingerprint sensing techniques Optical readers Reflection Transmission Sweep, sweep with a roller Touchless TFT Electro-optical readers Capacitance Silicon chips TFT RF field - AC capacitance Pressure Resistive membrane on silicon, TFT Tactile MEMS Thermal Ultra-sound

3 Ink Ink and paper are the tried-and-true way to take fingerprints, but technology has found ways to eliminate smudges and ink stains.

4 Optical readers Reflection The oldest 'live-scan' readers use frustrated refraction over a glass prism (when the skin touches the glass, the light is not reflected but absorbed). The finger is illuminated from one side with a LED while the other side transmits the image through a lens to a camera. (FTIR: frustrated total internal reflection).

5 Optical readers - Reflection Generally, one fingerprint is taken at a time, but some devices are able to acquire several fingers at a time. (Rolling Fingerprint) Many companies are offering such devices, this is a common technology.. Nagoya University uses a micro-collimator instead of the fiber optic, enabling direct fingerprint comparison. Here is the example of the Compaq fingerprint reader (CMOS camera, around 2000).

6 Reflection with sweep Kinetic Sciences and Cecrop/Sannaedle have proposed sweep optical sensors based on this principle. Cecrop seems to have abandonned this device Kinetic Sciences Paper describing the sensor Kinetic SciencesPaper describing the sensor Cecrop/Sannaedle

7 Casio + Alps Electric uses a roller with the sensor inside. The roller acts like the prism. Casio Alps Electric As well as Digital Persona with the Firefly Digital Persona Firefly

8 Reflection touchless TST removed the prism by directly reading the fingerprint, so the finger does not touch anything (but still need a guide to get the right optical distance). Thales (formerly Thomson-CSF) also proposed the same, but with the use of a special powder to put on the finger. The BERC lab from Yonsei University (Korea) also developped a touchless sensor (2004). (2005) TBS launch a touchless sensor with the "Surround Imaging". TSTBERC lab from Yonsei UniversityTBS


10 Transmission It is also possible to directly read the light transmitted by the finger.

11 Mitsubishi proposes to read the fingerprint with a regular camera. Mitsubishi

12 NEC and Delsy (and Secom?) use a CMOS camera which is the size of the finger, with a fiber optic in-between, the light is coming from the edges in this case. Mitsumi & NEC proposes the same but with a sweep sensor. Delsy NEC Mitsumi In July 2005, NanoIdent unveils a flexible fingerprint sensor using polymer/organic photodetector.NanoIdent

13 TFT optical / TFT optique Philips replaces the CMOS sensor by a TFT display, used as sensor. Philips has also worked with Ethentica to combine their technologies, but without known product. LG has also studied a TFT sensor.Ethentica

14 Other companies proposing TFT fingerprint sensors: Casio SiliconImageWorks Silicon Display Technology Alps Electric Mitsubishi Seiko/Epson

15 Electro-optical readers A variant of TFT devices is the use of capacitance information instead of reflected light.capacitance

16 Some polymers are able to emit light when properly excited with the proper voltage (generally quite a high voltage is required. This polymer is directly contacting a CMOS camera, which is necessarily the size of the finger. Generally, the finger acts as the ground, and the polymer emits light where the ridges touch. Ethentica and TesTech propose such a solution. Ethentica TesTech

17 Capacitance After optical sensing, the measurement of the capacitance between the skin and the pixel is the most physical effect used to acquire fingerprints. Where there is a ridge or a valley, the distance varies, as does the capacitance. Because an electrical field is measured and the distance between the skin and the pixel must be very low to provide enough sensitivity, the coating must be as thin as possible (a few microns). A significant drawback is vulnerability to strong external electrical fields, the most dangerous being ESD (Electro-Static Discharge).

18 Silicon chips + capacitance Silicon chips can be seen as a variant of the CMOS cameras: instead of using the light, another physical effect is used. Companies proposing (or having proposed) capacitance sensing: Veridicom, Fujitsu, Infineon, Sony, Upek, LighTuning, Melfas, Atrua, NTT, Symwave,... VeridicomFujitsuInfineonSonyUpekLighTuning MelfasAtruaNTTSymwave

19 Labs working (or having worked) on silicon capacitance sensors: Seoul University A 600-dpi Capacitive Fingerprint Sensor Chip and Image-Synthesis Technique (Lee & als, Seoul National University, 1998) A 600-dpi Capacitive Fingerprint Sensor Chip and Image-Synthesis Technique (Lee & als, Seoul National University, 1998) Kaist IML KAIST NTT NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories A Single-Chip Fingerprint Sensor and Identifier (Shigematsu & als) A Single-Chip Fingerprint Sensor and Identifier (Shigematsu & als)

20 Capacitance + TFT Flat panel technology rather than bulk silicon has been studied by Philips Korea and some others, using capacitive sensing. This is still at the laboratory stage. A Capacitive Fingerprint Sensor with Low- Temperature Poly-Si TFTs Mitsubishi Electric Corp. A Capacitive Fingerprint Sensor with Low- Temperature Poly-Si TFTs (April 2004) Alps Electric develops 2 fingerprint sensors. One is transparent, electrostatic (capacitive).Alps Electric

21 RF field - AC capacitance Sometimes confused with capacitance sensing, the only common point between RF field sensing and capacitance sensing is the "capacitance" connection of the signal. Companies proposing (or having proposed) RF/AC- capacitance sensing: Authentec, Fingerprint Cards AuthentecFingerprint Cards

22 Labs working (or having worked) on RF capacitance sensing: Validity / Philips Korea An alternate solution consists in having connection through wires, so the finger is not mandatory directly in contact with the silicon part. Validity

23 Pressure This is one of the oldest ideas, because when you put your finger on something, you apply a pressure. Piezo-electric material has existed for years, but unfortunately, the sensitivity is very low. Moreover, when you add a protective coating, the resulting image is blurred because the relief of the fingerprint is smoothed. These problems have been solved, and now some devices using pressure sensing are available. Several solutions, depending on the material, have been proposed: Conductive membrane on a CMOS silicon chip. Conductive membrane on TFT. Micro-electromechanical switches on silicon chip.

24 Conductive membrane on silicon Opsis (a french company) offered a device using a conductive membrane deposited on a CMOS chip (July 1994).

25 Conductive membrane on TFT Since 2002, BMF is offering a product using a TFT substrate (developed with Sanyo)BMFSanyo Fidelica offers since mid-2004 the FIS-3002, also using a TFT substrate from Sanyo. Fidelica (April 2004) Alps Electric develops 2 fingerprint sensors. One is based on pressure.Alps Electric The Fraunhofer IKTS is working on 1-3 piezocomposites to create a fingerprint sensor (for CrossMatch, 2004).Fraunhofer IKTS

26 Tactile MEMS Micro electro-mechanical devices allow engineers to make extremely tiny silicon switches. When a ridge touches a switch, it closes. But the coating remains a significant problem, and moreover, a binary image is the result, leading to minimal information. No further development has been done with this technique beyond the laboratory.

27 NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories NTT Microsystem Integration Laboratories NTT research group Michigan University (Wise)

28 Tima homepage N.Galy thesis page and the thesisN.Galy thesis page thesis Leti, pressure sensors (Rey)Leti, pressure sensors (Rey)

29 LighTuning Micron Technology: Tactile sensor using an insulated flexible matrix loaded with filler particles US 6,561,044

30 Thermal Pyro-electric material is able to convert changes in temperature into a specific voltage. This effect is quite large, and is used in infrared cameras. This type of sensor doesn't measure the difference of temperature between the skin in the ridges and valleys, because the difference is negligible. In fact, as the finger is directly placed on the material, the ridge's temperature is what's measured, as it's in contact. The valleys don't make contact, so the temperature of the pyro-electric material under the valleys remains almost unchanged. A drawback of the technique is that the image disappears quickly. When you place your finger on the sensor, there is a big change of temperature, and therefore signal, but after a short period (less than a tenth of a second), the image vanishes. The finger and the chip have reached thermal equilibrium, and as there is no change in temperature, there is no signal. This effect disappears when you sweep your finger over the sensor, because of the touch/no touch of ridge/valley. Atmel (formerly Thomson-CSF) proposes the FingerChip AtmelFingerChip Hunno Technologies & Hyung-Kew Lee (Korea, KAIST) have studied a thermal fingerprint sensor in 1999, probably using bolometers. Hunno Technologies Nagoya University has studied a thermal sensor based on MEMS, using a resistor to heat a sensor above a cavity.Nagoya University INO (Institut National d'Optique / Canada) has used bolometers to make a 160x120 pixel fingerprint sensor (US patent 6,633,656). Bolometric FPA for fingerprint recordingBolometric FPA for fingerprint recording

31 Ultra-sound Ultra-sound fingerprint reading is not common. It may be seen as a kind of echography. Ultra-sound sensing requires quite a big device with mechanical parts, and is quite expensive. Moreover, it takes a few seconds to grab an image. It is not suited for large production volumes at low cost. Its main advantage is the reading of the derma, the sub-surface of the skin, rather than the surface. Ultrascan Optel is still at R & D stageOptel Surface impedance impediography (2004) CrossMatch is developping a fingerprint sensor based on piezo-electric pillars glued in teflon and covered with urethan, based on ultra-sound

32 Fingerprint: List of silicon sensors

33 List of fingerprint sensors / sensing area / JF Mainguet 2005 ( sweep sensor area sensor) Company Sensing type BrandT Part number Rele ase date R es. dp i x pi xe l y pi xe l xmmxmm ymmymm notes Atmel Atmel formerly Thomso n-CSF thermal Finger Chip FC8x prototype FC2x prototype FC15A prototype AT77C1 01B formerly FCD4B14 AT77C navigation AT77C navigation & low voltage I/Os

34 Alps pressure- prot o optical TFT- prot o Alps/Casiooptical roller- prot o 2003 Feb sweep rolling tube Atruacapacitive- AT W Formely I-Control / ICS-3000

35 Authentec Authentec spin-off from Harris RF modulation FingerLoc AF- S May AFS May Discontinued. AFS Jan Entr ad AES Sep AES Oct USB. Discontinued. AES Sep AES Nov USB. Replaced by the AES2501. AES Dec USB AES Dec SSI AES Jun serial, 8 bit-parallel Mar bit-parallel, master SSI

36 BMFpressure TFT- BLP Feb pixel pitch is 0.058mm (width/height not OK) BLP Hitachi Casiooptical TFT - prot o 2004 Oct demonstrated over a LCD display / CEATEC prot o Backlight Delsyoptical trans. - CM OS Discontinued? -CCD Digital Personaoptical rollerFireFly Firefl y 2003 May dpi max (500dpi sweep dir.) depends on speed. Ethenticaelectro-opticalTactileSense T- FPM Formerly Who?Vision Fidelicapressure- FIS Feb

37 Fingerprint Cards active capacitive - FPC FPC1011 FPC FPC1031 Fujitsucapacitive- MBF (= Veridicom FPS110) MBF USB. (= Veridicom FPS200) MBF Mar Discontinued. MBF Jul Replaces the MBF300. IdexAC capacitiveSmartFinger Sweep 1 line. Non-active pixels on silicon. InfineoncapacitiveFingerTip FTF Discontinued in INOthermal-FPA2003 Sep Bolometers KAIST univ.capacitive -proto proto integrated processor for recognition. KSIKSI / CecropCecropoptical sweep

38 LetiMEMS pressure-proto LighTuning capacitive- LTT C capacitive- LTT C capacitive- LTT S Oct sweep-type LG-Philipsoptical TFTFingerTalkproto backlight Melfascapacitive- MFCS Michigan univ.tactile-proto Mitsubishi Optical TFT-proto2003 feb capacitive TFT-proto2003 Feb optical trans.-R&D Mitsumioptical- SEF- A jun Proto shown May NanoIdentphoto-organic-proto (announced resolution is likely an error) NECoptical trans.FingerThrough SA Oct (approximative values)

39 Fingerprint sweep sensing

40 Fingerprint sweep (or swipe) sensors is a subcategory of fingerprint sensors, useful because of its lower cost production compared to static (or area) sensors.fingerprint sensors History of fingerprint sweep sensors 1997 May: Thomson-CSF (now Atmel) demonstrated the FingerChip FC2x17, at the CTST'97.AtmelCTST' May: Thomson-CSF demonstrated the FingerChip FC15A140.Thomson-CSF May: Seoul University submits a paper about a capacitance swipe sensor (published April '99).Seoul University July: First prototype from Idex on its first sweep sensor.Idex 1999 May: Sannaedle / Cecrop demonstrates MyFin, a swipe optical reader.Sannaedle / Cecrop May: Kinetic Sciences demonstrates the KC-901 at the CTCT.Kinetic Sciences 2000 May: Atmel unveils the FingerChip AT77C101.Atmel May: Kinetic Sciences demonstrates a new version of their swipe optical sensor (K-1000?).Kinetic Sciences

41 2001 April: Idex & STm announce the development of SmartFinger.Idex Sept: Fingerprint Cards announces the FCP1030.Fingerprint Cards Nov: Citizen & IBM shows the WatchPad, the first watch with a built-in fingerprint reader, the FingerChip.WatchPad 2002 Feb: Fujitsu announces the MBF300, and shows it at the CTST in May.Fujitsu Summer: Tima publishes about a sweep tactile sensor.Tima Oct: I-Control promotes the ICS3000 / PDS3000I-Control Nov: Authentec introduces the AES2500.Authentec Nov: The HP iPAQ h5450 is the first PDA with a built-in fingerprint sensor, the FingerChip AT77C101 from Atmel.HP iPAQ h5450 Nov: STm unveils a TouchStrip prototype at the COMDEX.STm 2003 Feb: Alps Electrics + Casio unveiled their "rolling-tube head" scanner.Alps Electrics + Casio March: STm displays the TouchStrip on the web.STm May: Digital Persona unveils the Firefly, a sweep optical fingerprint sensor using a roller.Digital Persona Jul: Sharp announces the Mebius Muramasa, the first Tablet PC with a build-in sweep fingerprint sensor, the FingerChip.Mebius Muramasa Jul: Fujitsu announces the MBF310.Fujitsu Sept: Melfas announces the MFCS1000.Melfas Oct: YRP shows the Ubiquitous Communicator, a R&D study prototype, containing the Atrua sweep sensor.YRP Nov: Elsafe installs the first safe with a sweep fingerprint reader, the FingerChip.Elsafe 2004 Feb: I-Control becomes Atrua and promotes "Atrua Wings" (ATW100).Atrua Feb: Atmel announces the AT77C104, the FingerChip with integrated navigation.Atmel Feb: Atmel announces the colored FingerChip.Atmel Feb: The Fujitsu F900i cell phone contains the Authentec AES2500. (Japan only)FujitsuAuthentec March: Upek becomes a spin-off from STm.Upek March: Fingerprint Cards announces the FPC1031B.Fingerprint Cards March: Validity unveils the VFS101 (USB), VFS131 (SPI) & FVS161 (LPC) (RF Fingerprint imaging on flexible tape)Validity March: Ritech announces the BioSlimDisk iCool containing the Upek TouchStrip.RitechUpek March: Trek announces Thumdrive Swipe containing the Upek TouchStrip (to check).TrekUpek April: Fujitsu announces the LOOX T series notebooks (t50H & T70H) with the Authentec AES2500.Fujitsut50H & T70HAuthentec April: Motion Computing announces the M1400 tablet PC with the Authentec AES2500.Motion ComputingAuthentec April: MPC unveils the Transport X3000 with the Upek TouchStrip.MPCUpek May: The Fujitsu F506i cell phone contains the Upek TouchStrip. (Japan only)F506iUpek June: The F900it is the same as F900i, but with a twist screen.F900it June: The Gateway notebook 450XL contains the Upek TouchStrip.Upek June: Authentec announces the AES2510, a swipe sensor + navigation, available mid-June, $6.Authentec July: The Fujitsu P7000 laptop containing the Authentec AES2500 is released. Very close from the Loox T series (the same?).P7000Authentec July: Texas Instrument release a DSP development board + Fingerprint Cards FPC1031. The FingerChip is scheduled 04Q3development boardFingerprint Cards July: A prototype of the Hitachi G1000 PDA phone containing the Atrua sensor is demonstrated in Japan.HitachiAtrua August: The Pantech GI100 cellphone containing the Fujitsu MBF310 swipe sensor is announced.PantechFujitsu MBF310 August: LG releases the LG-LP3800 cameraphone containing the Authentec AES2500.LG-LP3800Authentec August: Validity unveils more info about Chip-On-Film, Module, kits...Validity Sep: A Lexar flash disk containing the Fujitsu MBF310 swipe sensor is released.LexarFujitsu MBF310 Sep: YRP shows a new release of the new Ubiquitous Communicator (Atrua sweep sensor?)YRP Oct: LighTuning announces the LTT-S500, a capacitance swipe sensor.LighTuning Nov: Jstac's Victoria 125, 126, 115, 116 hard drive with LightTuning sweep sensor.Jstac Nov: The HP iPAQ hx2750 featuring the Atmel FingerChip AT77C104B is released.HP iPAQ hx2750 Dec: NEC unveiled a sweep sensor prototype.sweep sensor prototype Dec: Linpo announces a flash disk with the S500 sensor from LightTuning.Linpo Dec: The F901iC cell phone contains the Authentec swipe sensor.F901iC

42 2005 Jan: Bionopoly unveilsBio-USB flash drive & Fingerprint Passcode Generator using the Atmel FingerChip.Bio-USB flash drive & Fingerprint Passcode Generator Feb: IBM announces a keyboard (and peripheral) with a swipe sensor.IBMkeyboard Feb: Atmel releases the FingerChip AT77C105Atmel Feb: Yulong announces the Coolpad 858F GSM with the Atrua swipe fingerprint sensor.Yulong March: Authentec unveils the Entr ad 1510, a swipe sensor + navigation, $5.Authentec March: Sandisk unveils the Cruzer?Profile USB drive (using the Upek swipe sensor?).Sandisk March: IRevo introduces the Gateman MB740 door lock using the Atmel FingerChipIRevo March: Atrua announces the ATW200. No photo.Atrua March: G&D unveils the StarSign Bio Token containing the FingerChip sweep sensor.G&D

43 March: The Fujitsu Stylistic ST5022 Tablet PC with the Authentec swipe sensor.Fujitsu April: IBM unveils the ThinkPad X41 with the TouchStrip from Upek.IBM April: LG releases the LG-LP3550 cameraphone containing the Authentec AES2500.LG-LP3550Authentec April: Scandinavian Ecotechnologies presents a biometric card with an embedded swipe sensor likely from Fingerprint Cards.biometric card April: Toshiba introduces the Libretto U100 with the Authentec AES2500.Toshiba April: Toshiba introduces the Portege R200 = the Dynabook SS SX/190 with the Authentec AES2500.Toshiba April: Tychi unveils the BioKnob (door knob)Tychidoor knob April: MPC's Transport X3100 with the sweep-type Upek TouchStrip.MPC May: Ritech unveils the iDEA containing the Upek TouchStrip.Ritech May: Ritech unveils the BioMouse with the Upek TouchStrip.Ritech May: Motion Computing announces the M1600 tablet PC with the Authentec AES2500.Motion Computing May: Fujitsu LifeBook S6240, S7020 & S7021 / B6000 with the Authentec swipe sensor.Fujitsu June: IBM unveils the ThinkPad X41 Tablet with the TouchStrip from Upek.IBM June: Aratek Fingo Mouse / Fingo Reader / Fingo Lock using a swipe sensor from Authentec.Aratek Fingo Mouse / Fingo Reader / Fingo Lock June: NEC Versa C250/M350/P550 with the Upek TouchStrip sweep sensorNEC June: LaCie unveils the SAFE Mobile Hard Drive using a Upek TouchStrip sensor.LaCie June: HP nx6125 laptop with an Authentec 2501 swipe sensor.HP June: Mitsumi announces an optical sweep fingerprint sensor, the SEF-A1Mitsumi July: The Pantech & Curitel PT-K1200 cellphone containing an Authentec swipe sensor is unveiled.Pantech & Curitel July: Motion Computing unveils the LS800 A5 tablet PC with the Authentec AES2501.Motion Computing July: Card Media announces the Storeguard with the AUthentec swipe sensor.Card Media July: MPC's Transport T3100 with the Upek TouchStrip.MPC Aug: Fujitsu LifeBook P1500 with the Authentec swipe sensor.Fujitsu Aug: More info about the Symwave capacitance sweep fingerprint sensor SW-6888Symwave Aug: The Fujitsu Stylistic ST5032 Tablet PC with the Authentec swipe sensor.Fujitsu Aug: Sony announces the Vaio BX series with the Upek swipe sensor.Sony Aug: The Lenovo ThinkPad R52 now offers a Upek fingerprint sensor (as an option).Lenovo Sep: Itronix announces the GoBook?VR-1 with the Upek swipe sensor.Itronix Sep: Lenovo unveils the ThinkPad Z60m & Z60t with the Upek swipe sensor.Lenovo Sep: Toshiba announces the Tecra S3 M740 & M780Toshiba Sep: Willcom unveil a cellphone proto using the Fujitsu swipe fingerprint sensor.Willcom Sep: HP released the HP iPAQ hx2790 with Windows Mobile 5.0 with the Atmel FingerChip.HP iPAQ hx2790 Oct: Fujitsu Lifebook FMV P8210, T8210 & TB12 Tablet PCs with the Authentec swipe sensor.Fujitsu Oct: Sony introduces the Vaio AX series (VGN-AX570G) with the Upek swipe sensor.Sony Oct: Samsung unveils the SCH S370 cellphone using the Authentec swipe sensor.Samsung Oct: Amoi announces the M606, M616 and A717 notebook PCs with the Upek swipe sensor.Amoi Oct: Medion introduces the MD notebook PC with the Authentec EntrePad 2501A swipe sensor.Medion Oct: The F902i cell phone contains the Authentec swipe sensor.F902i Nov: The Fujitsu P7120 laptop containing the Authentec AES2500 is released.Fujitsu P7120

44 Atmel · Official homepage of the FingerChip: Atmel website See also the (local) FingerChip products page for more information.Atmel website FingerChip products

45 Seoul University · A 600-dpi Capacitive Fingerprint Sensor Chip and Image-Synthesis Technique (Lee & als, Seoul National University, 1998)A 600-dpi Capacitive Fingerprint Sensor Chip and Image-Synthesis Technique

46 Idex · Homepage: IdexIdex · (1998) IFF120: first sweep active AC capacitance sensing prototype, started with Sintef. sweepactive AC capacitance sensing · (2001) SmartFinger©: development with ST. SmartFinger©IFF 120

47 Sannaedle / Cecrop / Kinetic Sciences · Homepage: Cecrop/Sannaedle.Cecrop/Sannaedle · Homepage: Kinetic Sciences (KSI).Kinetic Sciences · In 1999, Sannaedle (now Cecrop) offered a device called MyFin. At the same time, KSI offered the KC-901, which was probably the same device.KC-901 · In 2002, Cecrop was offering the CFS2000, while KSI offered the K · In 2004, KSI is still displaying the device on their web site, while there is no more information about an optical sweep sensor on the Cecrop website.

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