Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 - Social Influence and Persuasion"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 13 - Social Influence and Persuasion Two Types of Social InfluenceTechniques of Social InfluencePersuasionResisting PersuasionThis is an overview of the topics of the chapter. Before beginning the chapter there is a slide based on the chapter introduction that can be used to stimulate classroom discussion.
2Social Influence and Persuasion James Warren JonesJonestown (1978)How could Jim Jones have influenced his followers to such a deep level that more than 900 committed revolutionary suicide?Technology Tip: The affidavit of Deborah Layton Blakey, an escapee from Jonestown, attesting to conditions there, is available online (http://www.rickross.com/reference/jonestown/jonestown12.html).Technology Tip: An interesting interview with Laura Johnston Kohl, a Jonestown survivor who happened to be away from the camp on the day of the mass suicide, is available from CNN.com (http://www.cnn.com/2003/US/West/11/17/cnna.kohl/index.html)Technology Tip: An extensive set of resources including primary documents are available from the Religious Studies Department at San Diego State University (http://jonestown.sdsu.edu/AboutJonestown/Tapes/tapes.htm).
3Normative Social Influence Normative InfluenceGoing along with the crowd to be likedAsch (1955) study of normative influenceConformity increases as group size increasesDissension reduces conformityDeviating from the groupSocial rejectionNormative influence going along with the crowd in order to be liked and acceptedTechnology Tip: An interesting article in Slate online magazine, “The Kerry Cascade: How a 50’s Psychology Experiment Can Explain the Democratic Primaries,” compares John Kerry’s primary wins to the normative social influence in Asch’s line studies (http://www.slate.com/id/ /).Technology Tip: The website Changing Minds presents an overview of normative social influence, why it mattes, and ways to combat it (http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/normative_social_influence.htm).
4Figure Effect of group size on conformity in the Asch experiment: As the number of confederates increased from one to four, conformity increased dramatically; as more confederates were added, conformity leveled off.
5Informational Social Influence Going along with the crowd because you believe the crowd knows more than you doAmbiguous situationCrisis situationTechnology Tip: The website Changing Minds presents an accessible overview of informational influence, why it is important, and ways to combat it (http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/informational_social_influence.htm).Discussion Tip: Ask students to imagine their first days on campus. In what ways were they influenced by informational social influence? At the cafeteria? In their dorms? In class?
7Two Types of Social Influence Informational influence produces private acceptanceGenuine inner belief that others are rightNormative influence produces public complianceInner belief that the group is wrong
8Techniques of Social Influence Foot-in-the-Door TechniqueStart with small request to gain eventual compliance with larger requestLow-ball TechniqueStart with low-cost request and later reveal the hidden costsBoth based on principles of commitment and consistencyTeaching Tip: Robert Cialdini’s book Influence: Science and Practice presents numerous examples of social influence that you can use with your class (http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/informational_social_influence.htm).Technology Tip: A very interesting glimpse inside the mind of someone recruited into a cult-like self-help group is available at CityPages.Technology Tip: A PBS Frontline episode on marketing is available in its entirety at PBS.org, which also offers discussion groups, interviews, and teacher guides (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/persuaders/view/).Technology Tips: Steve Booth-Butterfield provides examples of the foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face techniques on his website (http://www.as.wvu.edu/~sbb/comm221/chapters/twosteps.htm).Technology Tip: A current car financing scam called yo-yo financing is a variation on the low-ball technique. See, for example, the article “Yo-Yo Deals: Stringing Car Buyers Along” at Washingtonpost.com.
9Techniques of Social Influence Bait-and-Switch TechniqueDraw people in with an attractive offer that is not available and then switch to a less attractive offer that is availableBased on principle of commitment and consistency
10Techniques of Social Influence Labeling TechniqueAssigning a label to an individual and then making a request consistent with that labelBased on commitment and consistencyLegitimization-of-Paltry-Favors TechniqueMake a small amount of aid acceptable
11Techniques Based on Reciprocation Door-in-the-face TechniqueStart with an inflated request and then retreat to a smaller one that appears to be a concessionDoes not work if the first request is viewed as unreasonableDoes not work if requests are made by different people
12Techniques Based on Reciprocation That’s-Not-All TechniqueBegin with inflated request but immediately adds to the deal by offering a bonus or discountTeaching Tip: Have students seek out persuasive appeals that exemplify one of the techniques discussed in the book. Have them describe the appeal and then explain why it fits in the particular category.
13Techniques Based on Scarcity Rare opportunities are more valuable than plentiful onesScarcity heuristic in decision makingPsychological reactanceWhen personal freedoms are threatened, we experience this unpleasant emotional responseTechnology Tip: Debra Mashek received a 2006 Action Teaching Tip Award Honorable Mention from the Social Psychology Network for her teaching activity on persuasion. Students use various persuasion techniques to seek aid for victims of Hurricane Katrina. See details at
14Techniques Based on Capturing and Disrupting Attention Pique TechniqueOne captures people’s attention by making a novel requestDisrupt-Then-Reframe TechniqueIntroduce an unexpected element that disrupts critical thinking and then reframe the message in a positive lightTechnology Tip: A recent television commercial for a product called Head On received much attention for its use of the pique technique. See NBC news report at YouTube.com (http://youtube.com/watch?v=TiAIhHJCtRs)Teaching Tip: See the JoinIn on TurningPoint CD for an interesting activity regarding pique technique.
15Attempt to change a person’s mind Three components of persuasion Who – Source of the messageSay What – Actual messageTo Whom – AudienceTechnology Tip: The NBC program Dateline (episode titled “Friendly Persuasion”) varied individuals’ features in various persuasion attempts.
16Who: The SourceSource credibilityExpertise and trustworthinessSleeper effect – over time, people separate the message from the messengerSource likabilitySimilarity and physical attractiveness
17Food for Thought - Convert Communicators and Health Messages Individuals who tell us how they overcame their previous undesirable behaviorsSubway’s JaredLikeable because they are similar to audienceMastery over behavior increases credibility
18People in a good mood – more responsive to persuasive messages Say What: The MessageReason Versus EmotionPeople in a good mood – more responsive to persuasive messagesModerate fear appeals – most persuasiveTechnology Tip: Using humor to reduce audience fear is highlighted in “Terminix Keeps Ads Light So They Don’t Creep Out Customers,” available at USAToday.com.
19The Social Side of Sex - Scared into Safe Sex? Effect of fear inspiring anti-AIDs filmsFear-inducing message was rejected by sexually active college studentsInstilling fear is unreliable mode of influencePeople resist feeling bad
20Say What: The MessageStealing ThunderRevealing potentially incriminating evidence to negate its importanceSource appears more honest and credible
21Is Bad Stronger Than Good? Negative Political Campaigning Negative campaigns involve risks and tradeoffsTends to produce lower evaluations of both candidatesMost effective as a desperation measure
22Say What: The MessageRepetitionIf neutral or positive response initially, repeated exposure = persuasive messageAdvertisement wear-outRepetition with variety
23To Whom: The AudienceModerately intelligent are easiest to persuadeHigh in need for cognition are more persuaded by strong argumentsAttitudes are more resistant to changeHigh in public self-consciousness are more persuaded by name brand and styles
24To Whom: The AudienceImpressionable years hypothesisMiddle age people most resistant to persuasionAttitudes formed in young adulthood remain fairly stable over timeMessages consistent with cultural values are more persuasive
25“Overheard” messages are more persuasive Product placements To Whom: The Audience“Overheard” messages are more persuasiveProduct placementsDistractionEffective if the message is weakLess effective with a strong messageDiscussion Tip: Ask students whether they think the Head On commercial (http://youtube.com/watch?v=Is3icfcbmbs) is a “good” ad. Ask them to justify their beliefs based on research on persuasion.
26Two Routes to Persuasion Elaboration likelihood modelHeuristic/systematic modelBoth propose automatic and conscious processing are involved in persuasion
27Two Routes to Persuasion Central routeInvolves conscious processingCareful and thoughtful considerationPeripheral routeInvolves automatic processingInfluenced by some simple cue
28Figure 13.3 Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion
29Elaboration Likelihood Model Motivation to process messagePersonal relevanceNeed for cognitionAbility to processDistractionsKnowledgeTeaching Tip: Ask students to located good examples of print advertisements using either the central route or the peripheral route to persuasion. What features of the ad make it central of peripheral? For whom will the ad be successful, and for how long?
30Figure Distraction decreases our ability to think about a persuasive message. When the message arguments are weak, distraction increases the persuasiveness of the message. When the message arguments are strong, distraction decreases the persuasiveness of the message (Tsal, 1984; cited in Petty & Cacioppo, 1986).
31Elaboration Likelihood Model Type of cognitive processingQuality of the argumentsInitial attitudePeripheral cuesSpeaker credibilityReaction of othersExternal rewardsTechnology Tip: A collection of award-winning television ads is available at adawards.com
32Alpha and Omega Strategies Alpha strategiesPersuade by increasing approach forcesOmega strategiesPersuade by decreasing avoidance forcesWhen approach forces are greater than avoidance forces – movement toward goal
33Make messages more persuasive Strong arguments that compel action Alpha StrategiesMake messages more persuasiveStrong arguments that compel actionAdd incentivesIncrease source credibilityProvide consensus informationTeaching Tip: Television shopping networks’ use of counters to indicate how many people have purchased the product are an example of normative influence.
34Omega StrategiesSidestep resistanceRedefine the relationshipDepersonalize the interactionMinimize the requestUse comparison that makes original offer look more attractivePush the choice into the future
35Omega StrategiesAddress resistance forces directlyGuarantees or using two-sided messagesAddress resistance forces indirectlyRaising confidence, esteem, self-efficacyUse resistance to promote changeReverse psychology
36Resisting PersuasionAttitude InoculationWhen people resist persuasion, they become more confident in their initial attitudesAdvance warning of a persuasive messageLess persuaded by itBoomerang effectReduce cognitive energySleep deprivation and use of music
37Defenses Against Techniques Commitment and ConsistencyReexamine the sense of obligationReciprocationEvaluate favors or concessions to avoid guilt over lack of reciprocity
38Defenses Against Techniques ScarcityRecognize psychological reactance as a signal to think rationallyEvaluate the reason we want the itemCapturing and Disrupting AttentionStop and think before actionSocial ProofRecognize ‘fake’ social proofs
39What Makes Us Human?Only humans have two routes to persuasionOnly humans respond to social pressures while keeping their doubts to themselvesPeople are uniquely able to resist persuasion