Presentation on theme: "Aseptic Technique, Surgical Support and Anesthesia"— Presentation transcript:
1Aseptic Technique, Surgical Support and Anesthesia LAT Chapter 11
2LAT Presentations Study Tips If viewing this in PowerPoint, use the icon to run the show.Mac users go to “Slide Show > View Show” in menu barClick on the Audio icon: when it appears on the left of the slide to hear the narration.From “File > Print” in the menu bar, choose “notes pages”, “slides 3 per page” or “outline view” for taking notes as you listen and watch the presentation.Start your own notebook with a 3 ring binder, for later study!
3IntroductionMany minor procedures use aseptic technique in a clean environment, such as a research laboratory.Other procedures require a dedicated surgery room similar to that used for human patients.
4Aseptic Technique Contamination = introduction of pathogenic organisms A disinfected or sterile area = a fielddisinfecting the field with chemical solution + manipulating sterile instruments to avoid touching contaminated surfacesfield = surgery site and adjacent areas, surgery table, area where instruments will be placed or inside of laminar flow hoodrequires specialized knowledge and careful attention to detailTo prevent contamination, so healing => without infection.Initial procedures:preparation of surgical team, operating room, instruments, patientDuring procedures:Contact of a sterile surface with other surfaces avoided.Like a chain, only as strong as its weakest link.
9Aseptic Technique (continued) Required for all vertebrate animals which are to recover.Survival surgery on the smaller laboratory animals performed in a sanitized lab area, with appropriate aseptic technique.A dedicated surgery required for non-rodent mammals.Major surgery = entering a body cavity or causing permanent post-surgical disability.Contamination prevention procedures:1. Cleansing and disinfection of operating room2. Preparation of incision site and draping the animal3. Aseptic preparation of the surgical team4. Sterilization of surgical instruments and materialsPrevention also includes responsibility of surgeon.gentle handling of tissue and proper suturing technique
10Aseptic Technique (continued) Preparation of the incision site and draping the animal.
11Maintaining Sterility Other precautions for maintaining a sterile field are:1. Never turn backs on a sterile surface.2. An unsterile area not touched or leaned over.3. Sterile instruments never be below the edge of the surgical table.4. Arms and hands remain above the waist and below the shoulder.5. Lift up materials, do not drag over edges of containers.6. Keep all sterile surfaces dry.7. Avoid excessive movement during surgery.8. Avoid shaking of gowns, towels, drapes, and other materials.9. Keep conversation to a minimum during surgery.10. If waiting, clasp hands in front of your body above the waist.If contamination occurs during any part of the procedure, stop and correct the situation immediately.
13SanitationSterility and Asepsis: Sterility = state in which there are no living microorganisms present. Asepsis = state in which the number of disease-producing microorganisms (pathogens) have been greatly reduced.Antiseptics: substances that destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms, but do not sterilize the area, and can be used on living tissueDisinfectants: destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms, but do not sterilize, usually damaging to living tissueContamination: the process by which something is rendered unclean or non-sterile
14Pre-surgical Care of Patient Special care aids the well-being of the animals and contributes to the success of the operation.Food may be withheld before surgery (6–8 hours, depending on the species) to reduce the chance that the animal may vomit while anesthetized.Sometimes an enema or laxative will be given, in addition to withholding food, to empty the contents of the lower intestinal tract prior to intestinal surgery.Perform physical exam before surgery.Specimens of blood and urine may be taken to help determine the animal’s state of health.
15Patient Preparation Patient prep. includes the following steps: 1. Clip a broad area around site being careful not to cut the skin.2. Scrub area with surgical soap for five min.Start at center of the site and work outward in larger and larger circles. Every time you go back to the center, use a new piece of gauze and start again.3. Wipe area with sterile gauze sponge, starting at the center of the site, until all the surgical scrub material is gone.4. Some surgeons follow the scrub with 70 percent ethyl alcohol.5. Sterile surgical drapes are placed around the incision site, only people wearing sterile surgical gloves should touch the site.6. Particularly dirty animals require bathing prior to surgical prep.
16Surgical Personnel Preparation Scrubbing:1- Don a mask and cap.2- Scrubbing done with a surgical hand brush and soap.3- Apply soap to hands and arms, lathering without brush.4- Rinse - elevate hands above the level of elbows, so that rinse water runs off the elbows, not back over hands.5- Reapply soap and scrub hands and arms with brush.6- Scrub from hands to elbows so cleanest area is hands.Each finger = > 10 strokes on each surface (40 strokes / finger)Fingernails and both surfaces of hands = 20 strokes eachEach arms surface = 10 strokes7- Rinse in warm water, allowing the water to drip from the elbows.8- Repeat entire scrubbing procedure twice.
18Drying, Gowning & Gloving Pick up sterile towel by 1 end using 1 hand.Dry fingers and hand of the opposite arm, then dry arm to elbow.Grasping opposite end of towel with dry hand, repeat.Once towel is used on arms, don’t use on hands or fingers.Unscrubbed assistant opens gown pack outer wrapping.Scrubbed surgeon grasps folded gown at the shoulder.Places the left arm into the sleeve, right arm into the sleeve.Assistant grasps inside of gown and pull the sleeves into place.grasps the inside of the gown and pull down to straighten the frontties the neck and waistassistant opens glove packLeft pick up right glove rolled cuff, pull over the right...Throughout gowning and gloving procedures, bare fingers should never touch any part of gown or any part of outside of gloves.
19Gowning Principles of Surgery Images courtesy of:Copyright Trustees of the University of PennsylvaniaGowningPrinciples of SurgeryGo to -
20Gowning Principles of Surgery Images courtesy of:Copyright Trustees of the University of PennsylvaniaGowningPrinciples of SurgeryGo to -
21Gowning Principles of Surgery Images courtesy of:Copyright Trustees of the University of PennsylvaniaGowningPrinciples of SurgeryGo to -
22Gowning Principles of Surgery Images courtesy of:Copyright Trustees of the University of PennsylvaniaGowningPrinciples of SurgeryGo to -
23Gloving Principles of Surgery Images courtesy of:Copyright Trustees of the University of PennsylvaniaGlovingPrinciples of SurgeryGo to -
24Gloving Principles of Surgery Images courtesy of:Copyright Trustees of the University of PennsylvaniaGlovingPrinciples of SurgeryGo to -
25Gloving Principles of Surgery Images courtesy of:Copyright Trustees of the University of PennsylvaniaGlovingPrinciples of SurgeryGo to -
26Gloving Principles of Surgery Images courtesy of:Copyright Trustees of the University of PennsylvaniaGlovingPrinciples of SurgeryGo to -
27Gloving Principles of Surgery Images courtesy of:Copyright Trustees of the University of PennsylvaniaGlovingPrinciples of SurgeryGo to -
28Gloving Principles of Surgery Images courtesy of:Copyright Trustees of the University of PennsylvaniaGlovingPrinciples of SurgeryGo to -
29Gloving Principles of Surgery Images courtesy of:Copyright Trustees of the University of PennsylvaniaGlovingPrinciples of SurgeryGo to -
30Gloving Principles of Surgery Images courtesy of:Copyright Trustees of the University of PennsylvaniaGlovingPrinciples of SurgeryGo to -
31Surgical Instruments I Forceps: for compressing or grasping tissue. Thumb forceps and hemostats are typical forceps. Hemostats aid in compressing tissue, especially blood vessels, to stop bleeding (hemostasis).Needle holders: hemostat-like devices that hold needles used to suture wounds closed.Needles: permanently attached suture material = swaged-on. Tip may be blunt, tapered, sharp, cutting, or some other configurationScalpel handle and blades: size 10 blade most popular, 11 has a straight edge and a sharp point.15 has a very small cutting edge, used for fine, delicate surgery(e.g. eye). 20 is similar to 10 but larger.
32Surgical Instruments II Scissors: blunt-blunt, blunt-sharp, or sharp-sharp. They may also be straight or curved. Some scissors are serrated for cutting thick bandages or cartilage.Retractors: pull overlying tissue away from the surgical site. Hand-held retractors and self-retainingSuture materials: thickest suture is given the number 6.<6 = smaller diameter.Sutures having smaller diameter indicated by 0 (“aught”) smallest suture is designated 12-0 (twelve-aught).Synthetic = nylon, or natural = silk or gut.Some absorbed by the body during the healing process, nylon removed after wound heals, usually in 7–10 days.Gauze pads: sponges used for soaking up blood and other fluids from the surgical site.
33Cleaning Surgical Instruments Manual Cleaning:1. Rinse instruments in cold water ASAP.2. Open all locks and disassemble instruments.3. Inspect each instrument, for proper function and cleanliness.4. Scrub each instrument.5. Rinse instruments with hot, clear water.6. Dry thoroughly before re-packing.Ultrasonic Cleaning: converts high frequency sound waves into mechanical vibrations.Removes ~ 90 % of the dirt and debris but does not sterilize or eliminate the need for initial removal of blood and dirt.Lubrication: After cleaning but before autoclaving, use only antimicrobial, water-soluble lubricants.
34Sterilizing Surgical Materials Chemical sterilization, “cold” sterilization, reserved for surgical instruments and other items that are heat-sensitive and can be immersed in liquid.Glutaraldehyde requires 10 hrs to sterilize instruments.Very irritating to tissues, rinse off thoroughly with sterile saline.Ethylene oxide requires chamber with vent to the outsideVery toxic gas; items must “air out” for a minimum of 24 hours after procedure to prevent exposure.Plasma vapor autoclave utilizes non-toxic hydrogen peroxide to sterilize heat-sensitive items.Dry heat sterilization in an oven or glass bead sterilizer.Small glass beads are super-heated in a stainless steel chamber. Instruments sterilized within 10 seconds.
36Autoclave Sterilization 1. Soak gowns, drapes and launder.2. Pack materials by procedure and surgeon’s preference.3. Don’t densely pack.4. Pack and wrap to allow opening without contaminating.5. Color change occurs on the indicator in the center of the pack If that location reached 121°C for 15 minutes.6. Label packs on the outside with date sterilized.Packs correctly wrapped remain sterile for up to six months if they’re stored properly and remain dry and sealed.Wetness destroys the effectiveness of the wrapper as a contamination barrier.
38AnesthesiaLocal - Xylocaine (Lidocaine®) and bupivicaine (Marcaine®) injection examplesTopical liquids, sprays, ointments, or creams. Proparacaine (Ophthaine®), anesthetic eye dropsGeneral injection = barbiturates (thiopental and pentobarbital) and ketamine.Ketamine used to immobilize nonhuman primatesPoor analgesia and muscle relaxation, combined with analgesicAnesthesia can be maintained in small rodents using a plastic syringe case as a nose cone.Use under a certified fume hood that prevents the breathing of anesthetic gas by the person doing the procedure.Gas anesthetics include halothane and isoflurane. Isoflurane produces rapid anesthesia and rapid recovery, and is often used in short procedures such as blood collection in rodents.
40Monitoring Anesthetized Patient Vital signs - color of mucous membranes,capillary refill time, heart, pulse, respiratory rate and respiratory depthColor of the foot pads (perfusion) used as an indicator of adequate blood circulation.BP, EKG or ECG & blood gasFrequent measurement of body temp.General anesthetics can cause hypothermia.Place on warm surface to prevent hypothermia.Monitor to determine that animal is adequately anesthetized.Too deep = close to death, insufficient = feeling pain.If the animal withdraws the foot when it is pinched, then the surgery or painful procedure must be delayed until proper anesthesia is achieved.
41Post-surgical Care of Patient If still unconscious, turn from side to side frequently to prevent blood pooling in tissues of the down side.Waking animals => involuntary and uncontrolled motions.Place by itself in a recovery cage, food and water bowls removed.Be aware behavior during recovering is not like conscious animal.Be on the alert for complications that endanger life or well-being.It is crucial that all medications be given in the correct dose and at the designated time intervals.Keep veterinarian aware of how treatments are progressing. Veterinarian may decide to change the treatment. Technicians should not make these decisions.
43Assessing Pain & Distress Pain perception results from stimulation of specialized nerve endings in the tissues.Impulses from these nerve endings reach the cerebral cortex through specific nerve pathways.Pain sensation => withdraw from noxious stimuli => protective.Local anesthesia, nerve pathways blocked, no pain perceived.General anesthesia, loss of consciousness, pain perception in cerebral cortex not functioning.Stress from physiologic, psychologic, environmental or physical factors which alter normal state of homeostasis.distress => physiological changes, difficult to observeAcute = short and often severe / Chronic = longer timePain to humans is assumed pain to other species.
45Chronic Pain 1. Limping or carrying a limb 2. Licking or rubbing an area of the body3. Reluctance to rise and move4. Loss of appetite5. Change in temperament or behavior toward handlers6. Change in bowel and/or urinary activity7. A lack of self-groominganalgesic drugs - acetaminophen (Tylenol®) buprenorphine and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) like aspirin and ibuprofen.Analgesic reduces pain sensation. Tranquilizer diminishes anxiety.The most important component of pain or distress control is ability of technician to recognize and assess abnormal behavior.
47Additional Reading1. Flecknell, P.A. Laboratory Animal Anesthesia, 2nd Ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, 1996.2. Knecht, C.D. et al. Fundamental Techniques in Veterinary Surgery, 3rd Ed. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1987.3. Short, C.E., ed. Principles and Practice of Veterinary Anesthesia. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MA, 1987.4. Recognition and Alleviation of Pain and Distress in Laboratory Animals. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1992.