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Steroid Joint injections Updated 2010. Why inject joints? Can be joint or soft tissue i.e. articular or periarticular Can be joint or soft tissue i.e.

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Presentation on theme: "Steroid Joint injections Updated 2010. Why inject joints? Can be joint or soft tissue i.e. articular or periarticular Can be joint or soft tissue i.e."— Presentation transcript:

1 Steroid Joint injections Updated 2010

2 Why inject joints? Can be joint or soft tissue i.e. articular or periarticular Can be joint or soft tissue i.e. articular or periarticular Low risk e.g. septic arthritis occurs 1 in 40,000 Low risk e.g. septic arthritis occurs 1 in 40,000 Provide good symptom relief Provide good symptom relief

3 Basic principles before you start History and examination History and examination Try conservative treatment first e.g. physio, NSAIDs, orthotics and continue after joint injection. Try conservative treatment first e.g. physio, NSAIDs, orthotics and continue after joint injection. Careful patient selection Careful patient selection Consent & provide ARCUK PILeaflet Consent & provide ARCUK PILeaflet Know your anatomy! Know your anatomy! Undertake as few injections as possible to settle the problem, max 3-4 monthly (no more than 3 for tennis elbow per lifetime) Undertake as few injections as possible to settle the problem, max 3-4 monthly (no more than 3 for tennis elbow per lifetime)

4 Indications for injection Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Gouty arthritis Gouty arthritis Synovitis Synovitis Bursitis Bursitis Tendonitis Tendonitis Muscle trigger points Muscle trigger points Carpal tunnel syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome

5 Inject with caution Reducing the risk of infection Never inject an infected joint. Never inject an infected joint. Avoiding injecting through infected skin or psoriatic plaques. Avoiding injecting through infected skin or psoriatic plaques. Avoid injecting adjacent to infected skin/skin ulcers. Avoid injecting adjacent to infected skin/skin ulcers. Avoid injecting patient on concurrent oral steroids. Avoid injecting patient on concurrent oral steroids. Mediswabs or iodine should be used with a no touch or aseptic technique. Mediswabs or iodine should be used with a no touch or aseptic technique. Reducing the risk of bleeding If injecting weight bearing joints advise rest for 24 hours post injection. If injecting weight bearing joints advise rest for 24 hours post injection. Dont inject patients on warfarin Dont inject patients on warfarin Reducing the risk of tendon rupture Dont inject near the Achilles tendon. Dont inject near the Achilles tendon. Dont inject into tendons. Dont inject into tendons.

6 Contraindication to injection Adjacent osteomyelitis or skin infection Adjacent osteomyelitis or skin infection Bacteraemia Bacteraemia Hemarthrosis Hemarthrosis Impending (scheduled within 3 months) joint replacement surgery Impending (scheduled within 3 months) joint replacement surgery Septic arthritis Septic arthritis Joint prosthesis Joint prosthesis Osteochondral fracture Osteochondral fracture Periarticular cellulitis / severe dermatitis/ soft tissue infection Periarticular cellulitis / severe dermatitis/ soft tissue infection Plaque psoriasis at the injection point Plaque psoriasis at the injection point Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus Uncontrolled bleeding disorder or coagulopathy Uncontrolled bleeding disorder or coagulopathy

7 Technique Complete the consent form and provide a Patient Information Leaflet prior to the procedure Complete the consent form and provide a Patient Information Leaflet prior to the procedure Inject the corticosteroid with as little pain and as few complications as possible. Inject the corticosteroid with as little pain and as few complications as possible. Do not attempt any injections in the vicinity of known nerve or arterial landmarks Do not attempt any injections in the vicinity of known nerve or arterial landmarks e.g. lateral epicondyle of elbow ok, medial – beware ulnar nerve e.g. lateral epicondyle of elbow ok, medial – beware ulnar nerve Never inject into the substance of a tendon Never inject into the substance of a tendon Sterile technique Sterile technique

8 Technique 2 ANTICIPATION! ANTICIPATION! Get your kit ready ie: Get your kit ready ie: Needles, syringes, sterile container, LA, steroid, gloves, drapes, chlorhexidine, cotton wool, plaster. Needles, syringes, sterile container, LA, steroid, gloves, drapes, chlorhexidine, cotton wool, plaster. 1 or 2 needle technique (green to draw up and blue to give) 1 or 2 needle technique (green to draw up and blue to give) Clean area – ensure solution has DRIED (esp iodine) prior to injecting Clean area – ensure solution has DRIED (esp iodine) prior to injecting

9 Technique 3 Always withdraw syringe back first to ensure not injecting into blood vessel Always withdraw syringe back first to ensure not injecting into blood vessel Decide if you want to use lidocaine with the depomedrone Decide if you want to use lidocaine with the depomedrone Use a different needle to draw up (green) to the one you use to inject (blue or orange). Use a different needle to draw up (green) to the one you use to inject (blue or orange).

10 What doses of depo-medrone should you use? Troc Bursitis40-80mg Troc Bursitis40-80mg Knee40-80mg Knee40-80mg Shoulder40mg Shoulder40mg Tennis elbow mg 9using a peppering technique Tennis elbow mg 9using a peppering technique +/- Lidocaine when injecting the shoulder or knee +/- Lidocaine when injecting the shoulder or knee

11 What to warn the patient Pain returns after 2 hours, when the local anaesthetic wears off – may be worse than before. Pain returns after 2 hours, when the local anaesthetic wears off – may be worse than before. If pain is severe or increasing after 48hrs, seek advice If pain is severe or increasing after 48hrs, seek advice Warn of local side effects Warn of local side effects Advise to seek help if systemic s/es develop Advise to seek help if systemic s/es develop

12 Local side effects Infection, subcutaneous atrophy, skin depigmentation, and tendon rupture (<1%). Infection, subcutaneous atrophy, skin depigmentation, and tendon rupture (<1%). Post-injection flare in 2-5% Post-injection flare in 2-5% Often are the result of poor technique, too large a dose, too frequent a dose, or failure to mix and dissolve the medications properly. Often are the result of poor technique, too large a dose, too frequent a dose, or failure to mix and dissolve the medications properly. NB corticosteroid short duration of action – can be as short as 2-3 weeks relief. NB corticosteroid short duration of action – can be as short as 2-3 weeks relief.

13 Knee injections Patient on the couch, knee slightly bent Patient on the couch, knee slightly bent Palpate superior-lateral aspect of patella Palpate superior-lateral aspect of patella Mark 1 fingerbreadth above + lateral to this site Mark 1 fingerbreadth above + lateral to this site Clean Clean LA, corticosteroid LA, corticosteroid Clean + bandage Clean + bandage

14 Plantar fasciitis Procedure painful + no evidence for long-term benefit Procedure painful + no evidence for long-term benefit Pt indicate tender spot Pt indicate tender spot Approach from thinner skin + direct posterior- laterally Approach from thinner skin + direct posterior- laterally Small blelbs as near to bony insertion as possible Small blelbs as near to bony insertion as possible Do not inject fascia itself Do not inject fascia itself

15 Shoulder injection Glenohumeral joint AC joint Subacromial space Long Head of Biceps Older patients: 2-3 x/ year Younger – consider surgery if no improvement (risk rotator cuff rupture)

16 Glenohumeral joint injection 1. Pt sits, arm by side, externally rotated 2. Find sulcus between head of humerus and acromion 3. Posterolateral corner of acromion (2-3 cm inferior) 4. Direct needle anteriorly toward coracoid process 5. Insert needle to full length 6. Fluid should flow easily

17 AC joint injection 1. Palpate clavicle to distal aspect 2. Slight depression where clavicle meets acromion 3. Insert needle from anterior and superior approach 4. Direct needle inferiorly

18 Sub-acromial joint injection 1. Posterior and lateral aspect of shoulder 2. Inferior to lower edge of posterolateral acromion 3. Insert inferior to acromion at lateral shoulder 4. Direct needle toward opposite nipple 5. Insert needle to full length 6. Fluid should flow easily

19 Elbow epicondyle injection Very effective in short term – 92% Very effective in short term – 92% Benefits do not normally persist beyond 6 weeks Benefits do not normally persist beyond 6 weeks Lateral (tennis elbow) + medial (golfers elbow) epicondylitis Lateral (tennis elbow) + medial (golfers elbow) epicondylitis Patient supine Patient supine

20 Tennis elbow (lateral) 1. Arm adducted at side 2. Elbow flexed to 45 degrees 3. Wrist pronated 4. Insert needle perpendicular to skin at point of maximal tenderness 5. Insert to bone, then withdraw 1-2 mm 6. Inject corticosteroid solution slowly

21 Golfers elbow (medial) 1. Beware ulnar nerve! 2. Rest arm in comfortable abducted position 3. Elbow flexed to 45 degrees 4. Wrist supinated 5. Point of maximal tenderness - insert to bone, then withdraw 1-2 mm 6. Inject corticosteroid solution slowly

22 De Quervains tenosynovitis Inflammation of thumb extensor tendons Inflammation of thumb extensor tendons -Extensor pollicis brevis -Abductor pollicis longus Occurs where tendons cross radial styloid Occurs where tendons cross radial styloid

23 De Quervains tenosynovitis 1. Maximally abduct thumb (accentuates abductor tendon) Injection site 2. Snuffbox at base of thumb 3. Aim degrees proximally toward radial styloid 4. Insert needle between the 2 tendons (not in tendon) 5. Do not inject if paraesthesias (sensory branch radial nerve)


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