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Steroid Joint injections

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Presentation on theme: "Steroid Joint injections"— Presentation transcript:

1 Steroid Joint injections
Updated 2010

2 Why inject joints? Can be joint or soft tissue i.e. articular or periarticular Low risk e.g. septic arthritis occurs 1 in 40,000 Provide good symptom relief

3 Basic principles before you start
History and examination Try conservative treatment first e.g. physio, NSAIDs, orthotics and continue after joint injection. Careful patient selection Consent & provide ARCUK PILeaflet Know your anatomy! Undertake as few injections as possible to settle the problem, max 3-4 monthly (no more than 3 for tennis elbow per lifetime) Increased injection s- incr risk of systemic absorption and joint damage

4 Indications for injection
Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Gouty arthritis Synovitis Bursitis Tendonitis Muscle trigger points Carpal tunnel syndrome

5 Inject with caution Reducing the risk of infection
Never inject an infected joint. Avoiding injecting through infected skin or psoriatic plaques. Avoid injecting adjacent to infected skin/skin ulcers. Avoid injecting patient on concurrent oral steroids. Mediswabs or iodine should be used with a no touch or aseptic technique. Reducing the risk of bleeding If injecting weight bearing joints advise rest for 24 hours post injection. Don’t inject patients on warfarin Reducing the risk of tendon rupture Don’t inject near the Achilles tendon. Don’t inject into tendons.

6 Contraindication to injection
Adjacent osteomyelitis or skin infection Bacteraemia Hemarthrosis Impending (scheduled within 3 months) joint replacement surgery Septic arthritis Joint prosthesis Osteochondral fracture Periarticular cellulitis / severe dermatitis/ soft tissue infection Plaque psoriasis at the injection point Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus Uncontrolled bleeding disorder or coagulopathy

7 Technique Complete the consent form and provide a Patient Information Leaflet prior to the procedure Inject the corticosteroid with as little pain and as few complications as possible. Do not attempt any injections in the vicinity of known nerve or arterial landmarks e.g. lateral epicondyle of elbow ok, medial – beware ulnar nerve Never inject into the substance of a tendon Sterile technique

8 Technique 2 ANTICIPATION!
Get your kit ready ie: Needles, syringes, sterile container, LA, steroid, gloves, drapes, chlorhexidine, cotton wool, plaster. 1 or 2 needle technique (green to draw up and blue to give) Clean area – ensure solution has DRIED (esp iodine) prior to injecting Can mix this with corticosteroid but need bigger needle.

9 Technique 3 Always withdraw syringe back first to ensure not injecting into blood vessel Decide if you want to use lidocaine with the depomedrone Use a different needle to draw up (green) to the one you use to inject (blue or orange). Steroids in increasing order of potency

10 What doses of depo-medrone should you use?
Troc Bursitis 40-80mg Knee mg Shoulder 40mg Tennis elbow mg 9using a ‘peppering’ technique +/- Lidocaine when injecting the shoulder or knee

11 What to warn the patient
Pain returns after 2 hours, when the local anaesthetic wears off – may be worse than before. If pain is severe or increasing after 48hrs, seek advice Warn of local side effects Advise to seek help if systemic s/es develop Eg chest tightness.

12 Local side effects Infection, subcutaneous atrophy, skin depigmentation, and tendon rupture (<1%). Post-injection ‘flare’ in 2-5% Often are the result of poor technique, too large a dose, too frequent a dose, or failure to mix and dissolve the medications properly. NB corticosteroid short duration of action – can be as short as 2-3 weeks relief. Post-injection, relieved with ice to the area for 15mins/ hour, decreased risk if c/t nsaids Resolves 24-48hrs

13 Knee injections Patient on the couch, knee slightly bent
Palpate superior-lateral aspect of patella Mark 1 fingerbreadth above + lateral to this site Clean LA, corticosteroid Clean + bandage

14 Plantar fasciitis Procedure painful + no evidence for long-term benefit Pt indicate tender spot Approach from thinner skin + direct posterior-laterally Small blelbs as near to bony insertion as possible Do not inject fascia itself

15 Shoulder injection Glenohumeral joint AC joint Subacromial space
Long Head of Biceps Older patients: 2-3 x/ year Younger – consider surgery if no improvement (risk rotator cuff rupture)

16 Glenohumeral joint injection
Pt sits, arm by side, externally rotated Find sulcus between head of humerus and acromion Posterolateral corner of acromion (2-3 cm inferior) Direct needle anteriorly toward coracoid process Insert needle to full length Fluid should flow easily Indications Shoulder Osteoarthritis Adhesive Capsulitis Rheumatoid Arthritis affecting the shoulder

17 AC joint injection Palpate clavicle to distal aspect
Slight depression where clavicle meets acromion Insert needle from anterior and superior approach Direct needle inferiorly Indications - OA

18 Sub-acromial joint injection
Posterior and lateral aspect of shoulder Inferior to lower edge of posterolateral acromion Insert inferior to acromion at lateral shoulder Direct needle toward opposite nipple Insert needle to full length Fluid should flow easily Indications Subacromial bursitis (Subdeltoid Bursitis) Rotator Cuff Impingement or tendinosis Adhesive Capsulitis

19 Elbow epicondyle injection
Very effective in short term – 92% Benefits do not normally persist beyond 6 weeks Lateral (tennis elbow) + medial (golfer’s elbow) epicondylitis Patient supine

20 Tennis elbow (lateral)
Arm adducted at side Elbow flexed to 45 degrees Wrist pronated Insert needle perpendicular to skin at point of maximal tenderness Insert to bone, then withdraw 1-2 mm Inject corticosteroid solution slowly

21 Golfer’s elbow (medial)
                                                                                                                                                                 Beware ulnar nerve! Rest arm in comfortable abducted position Elbow flexed to 45 degrees Wrist supinated Point of maximal tenderness - insert to bone, then withdraw 1-2 mm Inject corticosteroid solution slowly

22 De Quervain’s tenosynovitis
Inflammation of thumb extensor tendons -Extensor pollicis brevis -Abductor pollicis longus Occurs where tendons cross radial styloid

23 De Quervain’s tenosynovitis
Maximally abduct thumb (accentuates abductor tendon) Injection site Snuffbox at base of thumb Aim degrees proximally toward radial styloid Insert needle between the 2 tendons (not in tendon) Do not inject if paraesthesias (sensory branch radial nerve)

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