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Presentation on theme: "TEACHING TECHNIQUES AND METHODS"— Presentation transcript:


2 Brainstorming Problem Solving Method Cooperative Learning Technique Case Method Drama Technique

3 Brainstorming:

4 OBJECTIVES Students will be able to say possible problems of the given case using brainstorming technique. Students will be able to say the possible solutions for the problems for the given case using brainstorming technique.

5 CASE: Mrs. Yıldız has a very passive character, she reflects it to the class and it affects her classroom management in a negative way. Her students also have realized this situation and it leads her to come across with some problems in the class. What are the possible problems and solutions for this case?

6 PROBLEMS: Lack of student involvement Noise Cheating in exams
The students may not attend the class The students may not listen to the teacher The students may not do their homeworks or tasks The students may come to the class on purpose The students do different kinds of things in the class such as sleeping or drawing pictures etc.

7 SOLUTIONS: The teacher should choose activities which appeal to the students The teacher may set some classroom rules with the students The teacher should try to keep the students as busy as possible and should not let them to be interested in different things The teacher should attend personal development courses The teacher may want one of her collegues to help her

8 The teacher should take the attendance regularly to solve the problems about attending the class
The teacher should talk with the students and decide what to do with the late comers The teacher may ask for one of her collegue’s help in the exams in order to prevent cheating The teacher may talk to some students individually, if it is necessary The teacher should work cooperatively with the ministry

Brainstorming is a group creativity technique that was designed to generate a large number of ideas for the solution of a problem. It is particularly helpful when you need to break out of stale, established patterns of thinking, so that you can develop new ways of looking at things. This can be when you need to develop new opportunities, where you want to improve the service that you offer, or when existing approaches just aren't giving you the results you want.

10 Used with your team, it helps you bring the experience of all team members into play during problem solving There are four basic rules in brainstorming.These are intended to reduce the social inhibitions that occur in groups and therefore stimulate the generation of new ideas. The expected result is a dynamic synergy that will dramatically increase the creativity of the group.

Focus on quantity: This rule is a means of enhancing divergent production, aiming to facilitate problem solving through the maxim, quantity breeds quality. The assumption is that the greater the number of ideas generated, the greater the chance of producing a radical and effective solution. No criticism: It is often emphasized that in group brainstorming, criticism should be put 'on hold'. Instead of immediately stating what might be wrong with an idea, the participants focus on extending or adding to it, reserving criticism for a later 'critical stage' of the process. By suspending judgment, one creates a supportive atmosphere where participants feel free to generate unusual ideas.

12 Unusual ideas are welcome: To get a good and long list of ideas, unusual ideas are welcomed. They may open new ways of thinking and provide better solutions than regular ideas. They can be generated by looking from another perspective or setting aside assumptions. Combine and improve ideas: Good ideas can be combined to form a single very good idea, as suggested by the slogan "1+1=3". This approach is assumed to lead to better and more complete ideas than merely generating new ideas alone. It is believed to stimulate the building of ideas by a process of association.

13 OUTLINE OF THE METHOD Set the problem
One of the most important things to do before a session is to define the problem. The problem must be clear, not too big, and captured in a definite question such as “What service for mobile phones is not available now, but needed?“. If the problem is too big, the chairman should divide it into smaller components, each with its own question.

14 Create a background memo
The background memo is the invitation and informational letter for the participants, containing the session name, problem, time, date, and place. The problem is described in the form of a question, and some example ideas are given. The ideas are solutions to the problem, and used when the session slows down or goes off-track.

15 Select participants The chairman composes the brainstorming panel, consisting of the participants and an idea collector. Ten or fewer group members are generally more productive than larger groups. Many variations are possible but the following composition is suggested.

16 Several core members of the project who have proved themselves.
Several guests from outside the project, with affinity to the problem. One idea collector who records the suggested ideas.

17 Create a list of lead questions
During the brainstorm session the creativity may decrease. At this moment, the chairman should stimulate creativity by suggesting a lead question to answer, such as Can we combine these ideas? or How about a look from another perspective?. It is advised to prepare a list of such leads before the session begins.

18 Session conduct The chairman leads the brainstorming session and ensures that the basic rules are followed. The activities of a typical session are: A warm-up session, to expose novice participants to the criticism-free environment. A simple problem is brainstormed, for example What should be the next corporate Christmas present? or What can be improved in Microsoft Windows?.

19 The chairman presents the problem and gives a further explanation if needed.
The chairman asks the brainstorming panel for their ideas. If no ideas are coming out, the chairman suggests a lead to encourage creativity. Every participant presents his or her idea, and the idea collector records them. If more than one participant has ideas, the chairman lets the most associated idea be presented first. This selection can be done by looking at the body language of the participants, or just by asking for the most associated idea.

20 The participants try to elaborate on the idea, to improve the quality.
When time is up, the chairman organizes the ideas based on the topic goal and encourages discussion. Additional ideas may be generated. Ideas are categorized. The whole list is reviewed to ensure that everyone understands the ideas. Duplicate ideas and obviously infeasible solutions are removed. The chairman thanks all participants and gives each a token of appreciation

21 The process: Participants who have an idea but no possibility to present it are encouraged to write down their idea and present it later. The idea collector should number the ideas, so that the chairman can use the number to encourage quantitative idea generation, for example: We have 44 ideas now, let’s get it to 50!. The idea collector should repeat the idea in the words he or she has written it, to confirm that it expresses the meaning intended by the originator.

22 When more participants are having ideas, the one with the most associated idea should have priority. This to encourage elaboration on previous ideas. During the brainstorming session the attendance of managers and superiors is strongly discouraged, as it may inhibit and reduce the effect of the four basic rules, especially the generation of unusual ideas

23 QUESTIONS: 1. Which one of the followings is not one of the rules of brainstorming? combine and improve ideas no critisism the chairman selects ideas focus on quantity

24 2. Which one of the followings is not one of the possible compositions for selecting participants in brainstorming technique? One idea collector who records the suggested ideas Whomever wants can attend Several core members of the project who have proved themselves Several guests from outside the project, with affinity to the problem

25 What is the role of a chairman in brainstorming technique?
4. What happens in creating a background memo step in brainstorming?

26 Problem-Solving Method:

27 OBJECTIVES This method helps students to gain the ability of scientific problem solving and using it in the every area of life. Whit this method,teachers aim is to raise a youth which can solve problems in scientific way not just creating problems.

28 CASE Mr.Goodluck is a teacher.He teaches English in a high school. He carefully plans and prepares his lessons the day before.If something lasts longer than he expected and planned,he feels rather irritated.He likes his students but he thinks that it is waste of time to chat with students at the beginning of the lesson.He prefers to start the lesson immediately.During the lessons,he tells everything in front of the classroom.He asks questions but does not give any time to students to think on it and answers it himself.He always implements the lessons in the same way:he is the centre of the lesson,students just listen to him.He sometimes ask questions but whenever students give wrong answers,he gets angry.So the student hesitate to say something.If a problem emerges,he can not solve it,he is so helpless.He never makes jokes or smiles during the lesson.So the lessons are boring. Because of this,students get bored and start to talk to each other and of course this causenoise in the classroom and makes him angry,too.Sometimes he wants students to form groups and give them tasks but while students are wrking on it they make noise and he stops the activity.He turns back his traditional way...

Problem solving is a process to choose and use the effective and benefical tool and behaviours among the different potentialities to reach the target. It contains scientific method,critical thinking,taking decision,examining and reflective thinking. This method is used in the process of solving a problem to generalize or to make synthesis.

1-Choosing the topic and emergence of problem. 2-Delimitation of the problem. 3-Planning the application. 4-Preparing the working guide. 5-Providing the sources. 6-Examining the problem. 7-Getting a conclusion. 8-Disputating the topics,views and findings.

It provides the active participation of the students in teaching-learning activity. It habituates student to study regularly and organized. It provides students o gain scientific view and thinking. It makes students to be interested in learning. It helps to improve the sense of responsibility of students. It provides students to face the problems boldly and to deal with it in a scientific approach.

32 It helps students to adopt the view of benefit from others ideas and to help each other.
It predicates the learning to a more logical and doughty foundation. It improves the ability of making proposes and putting forward the hypothesis. It helps students to adopt the idea of not to be hurry to make a decision.

It takes too much time. It is not possible to apply this method to all disciplines. It can load some worldly burdensomes to students. It can be diffucult for students to provide the materials and sources which is required for solving the problem. Evaluating the learning can be difficult.

A) INDUCTION It is like teaching with discovering method.Cases are observed carefully.The similarities and dissimilarities are found.Then you can reach the general rule or law with the techniques "generalization" or "making abstract" from the similarities.

35 B) DEDUCTION It is reverse of induction technique.Some general laws and rules which are reached before are given to the students and want them to apply this method to different singular case.The convenience of it to the one of the case is controlled mentally.

36 QUESTIONS 1-Which one is wrong about the problem solving method?
It takes too much time. It is not possible to apply this method to all disciplines. Evaluating the learning is easy. It has some worldly burdens.

37 2-Which one is not the step of problem solving method?
Delimitation of the problem Planning the application Preparing the working guide Deduction

38 3-Discuss the importance of problem-solving method.
4-Explain the limitations of the problem solving method and solutions for them.

39 Cooperative Learning Technique:

40 OBJECTIVES At the end of the lesson students will be able to
develop positive interdepence contribute each others’ learning take responsibilities in group Works

41 CASE: Mr. Tutumlu first used cooperative learning technique. He wanted students to turn to their friends, who were sitting behind them to make groups of four. After that he only said the subject on which we were going to study. Also, he said that he rewarded the most succesful group. He did not do responsibility disribution. We did not know what we do. Furthermore, we only had ten minutes. Then he sat his table and started to read his newspaper. After two minutes passed, for all hell to break loose. Everything was so unsystematic. Nobody listened to each other and everybody wanted to speak. There was an awfulnoisy in the class so Mr. Tutumlu got angry, dispelled the groups and he said that ‘ I put forth an effort for you uselessly.’

42 PROBLEMS 1.noisy 2.insufficient time
3.inappropriate classroom setting for the cooperative learning activity 4.lack of instinct motivation 5.uncertanities of responsibilities 6.lack of communication 7.undetermined, unclearly stated task 8.there is no encouragement and direction from the teacher 9.competition between the groups

43 POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 1.The task can be clearly defined and understood by all the members of groups. 2.Roles and individual assigments can be clearly understood, needed sources can be made available. 3.Realistic time Schedule can be developed with appropriate progress. 4.Classroom setting can be arranged according to activity.

44 5.The teacher can create and maintain a mutual feeling of resposibility to achieve group goals.
6.Careful encouragement and direction which is needed constantly can be given to the students. 7.The teacher can observe the group members studies.

Coopeartive learning is asuccesful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability,use variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject.Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught buut also for helping teammates learning,thus creating and atmosphere of achivement.Student work trough the assignment until all the members succesfuly understand and complete it.Cooperative efforts result in participants striving for mutual benefit so that all group members ;

46 1.gain confidence from each other’s effort (yuor success benefits me and my success benefits you.)
2.recognize that all group members share a commen fate ( we all sin kor swim togetherhere.) 3. know that one’s performance is mutually caudes by oneself and one’s team members(we can not do it without you.) 4.feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group member is recognized for achievement.(we all congratulate you on your accoplishment.)

Research has shown that cooperative learning techniques; 1.promote sts learning and academic achievement 2.increase sts retention 3.enchance sts satisfaction with learning experience sts develop skills in oral communication 5.develop sts social skills 6.promete sts self-esteem to promote positive race relations.

1.Positive interdepence 2.Face to face interaction 3.Individual and group accountability 4.Interpersonal and small-group skilss 5.Group processing

1.Jigsaw 2.Three-step interview 3.Think-pair-share 4.Round robin brainstorming 5.Three-minute review 6.Numbered heads 7.Team pair solo 8.Circle the sage 9.Partners

1.The group provides each member with an oppotunity to participate and thereby influences decison making. 2.Face to face learning situations promote an atmosphere of cooperation and empathy seldom achieved in other learning situations. 3.Personal relationships are usually less problematic. There is also a greater chance of different opinions and varied contributions.

51 4.It encourages broader skills of cooperation and nagotition.
5.It promotes learner autonomy by allowing sts to make their own decisions in the group without being told what to do by the teacher. 6.Although we do not wish any individuals in groups to be completely passive neverthless some sts can choose their level of participation more readily than in a whole-class or pairwork situation.

1.It is likely to be noisy.Some teachers feel that they lose control., and the whole-class feeling which has been painstakingly built up may dissipate when the class is split into smaller entities. 2.Notall the students enjoy it, since they would prefer to be the focus of the teacher’s attention rather than working with their peers.Sometimes sts find themselves in uncongenial groups and wish the could be somewhere else.

1.The teacher can merelyprovides a setting and atmosphere in which such attitudes and behaviours may develop. 2.Careful encouragement and direction is needed constantly by the teacher. 3.The teacher creates and maintains a mutual feeling of responsibility to achieve group goals. 4.The teacher is responsible for contributing specific info when needed.

54 SUMMARY Cooperative learning is a succesful teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of diffrent levels of ability, use variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. All group members: -gain confidence from each other’s effort. -all group members share a common fate. -know that one’s performance is mutually caused by oneself and one’s team members. -feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group member is recognised for achievement.

55 QUESTIONS 1.What are the benefits of cooperative learning?
2.What are the elements of cooperative learning

56 3.Which is the following statements not related to the cooperative learning?
a-Your success benefits me and my success benefits you. b-We all sin kor swim together here. c-We all congratulate you on your accomplishment. d-Every group member is responsible for his\her own learning. e-We can not do it without you.

57 4.Which one of the following activities is not used in cooperative learning?
a-jigsaw b-role play c-think-pair-solo d-three-step interview e-circle the sage

58 Case Method:

59 OBJECTIVES Students will be able to explain what the case method become. Students will be able to express what the limitations and values of the case method Students will be able to express the role of teacher in the process of the case method.

60 CASE He was said that 5/C is the most problem class in the school. When the bell rang , some teachers looked at him pityingly. When he entered the class he saw that the students did not realize him. Everybody was laughing , joking with each other and shouting .He remembered what other teachers had said and how they had looked at him. He got angry . He would not permit of teachers’ making joke with him.He would deal with these naughty students.He catched the student who was the nearest to him and shouted at and told them to sit down .When he saw that the students didn’t listened to him , he took the ruler and hit on the desk angrily. The students stopped making noise in the class and sat down.They were anxious about what the teacher would do.The teacher told them not to talk with each other.İf it weren’t , he would do everything to make them be silent. After the lesson , he met a colleague and told what he had done in the class. He said that the students listened to him during the lesson , they didn’t talk with each other. And then they walked to the teachers’ room by going on their talking.

61 PROBLEMS Classroom Management lack of communication
discipline problem in the class

62 SOLUTIONS determining some rules with students in the class
empathy in students

63 WHAT IS THE CASE METHOD ? A case is an account of an actual problem or situation which has been experienced by an individual or a group. It includes facts available to those facing the problem, along with a description of perceptions and attitudes of those who are confronted with the problem

The discussion analysis is initiated when the teacher asks, in some manner , “what is the issue or the problem in this case ?” The second step is the analysis of the facts in the situation.Here the emphasis is upon the what actually happened rather than personal opinion of the facts. I

65 A third step in the analysis may be conceived as sentiments and beliefs .Here expressed feelings or attitudes are considered. The strongest proposal is chosen , sometimes it becomes apparent that more than one decision is best.

should be flexible. Accept the fact that this is necessary in using case materials. should ask questions when necessary, should never become emotionally involved in the case discussion should summarize at the end and leave time to pull together the key points of the case

67 ADVANTAGES The case method is realistic.
By capturing and analyzing real problems , the student is able to bridge the gap between school and real-life experiences. Case analysis treats feelings as facts By treating human emotion and feelings, the case approach captures the interest and imagination of thr learner.

68 DISADVANTAGES Although the case method is realistic it is not actual reality The case method tends to collapse time and space dimensions If used extensively, it will definitely limit the content material which can be covered. Use of already prepared , fictional cases may limit the realism of case sitiation.

69 QUESTIONS What are the roles of the teacher in the case method ?

70 Which of them is not between the advantages of the case method ?
Case method is realistic. Case problems , taken from real life experiences. Case analysis treats feelings as facts Use of already prepared , fictional cases may limit the realism of case sitiation. By capturing and analyzing real problems , the student is able to bridge the gap between school and real-life experiences.

71 Drama Technique:

72 OBJECTIVES Students will be able to recognise and practice individual skills Students will be able to communicate with other group members,easily Students will be able to gain an understanding of the feeling of others Students will be able to learn to use body language

73 DRAMATIZATION One of the teaching techniques which teach students how to behave in which situation by living it Physical environment/costumes/ accessories are important,effects the concentration of students Students use their own imagination thus improve their creativeness

Informal drama: no preparation,no written material.for ex;traffic accident, Role playing: students may get preparation for their role before acting, Formal drama: completely under the teacher control. Everybody uses written material

75 Puppets: students use puppets and say what they want from behind of the puppets
Pantomime: students use only mime and gestures, no oral acts,such as washing his face,eating something.. Finger game: especially for younger students. A story is given and want students to complete it by making their fingers talk

76 ADVANTAGES; It is fun Provides direct involvement in learning on the part of all students Improves language using Communicating/speaking and listening skills are improved Allows for exploration on solutions

77 DISADVANTAGES: Needs too much time
Costumes,decors and preparation of physical environment may create difficulties If students be limited, it may be boring Students may be too self-conscious Not appropriate for large groups Students may feel threatened

78 Summary: Provides opportunity to recognise and practise the skills
Improves using language Allows for exploration of solutions The more students involve,the more they learn

79 QUESTIONS: What is the role of the physical environtment in dramatisation technique? What are the benefits of dramatization?

80 3.Which is not one of the sub-techniques of daramatization?
A)Informal drama B)Pantomime C)Drawing D)Puppets E)Finger game

81 4.Which one is one of the disadvantages of dramatization?
A)It is fun B)Sts may feel threatened C)Sts use their imagination D)Not teacher-centered E)Helps sts’ concentrating

82 REFERENCES: brainstorming, (n. d. ). Retrieved on april, 14, 2007 from brainstorming, (n. d. ). Retrieved on april, 14, 2007 from

83 ÖZDAŞ,Ali.Öğretim İlke ve Yöntemleri, İstanbul,1997 KÖKSAL,Güler.Orta Doğu Teknik Üni.,Eğitimde Toplam Kalite Yöntemi Semineri,Yalova,Haziran 2001 TAN,Şeref,Yard.Doç.Dr,KAYABAŞI,Yücel Dr,ERDOĞAN,Alaattin.Öğretimi Planlama ve Değerlendirme Cooperative learning.(Online article).Retrieved April 13,2007, from the World Wide Web: Sınıf Yönetimi, Doc.Dr.Ayhan Aydın,1998, Page 58-60

84 Cooperative learning. (Online article)
Cooperative learning.(Online article).Retrieved April 13,2007, from the Word Wide Web: Harmer,J.(2001)The Practice of English Language Teaching.(pp ).England:Person Education Limited. Kenneth H.H.The Professional Teacher’s Handbook(2nd ed.) (pp ) Emmer, E.T., Clemets,B.S.&Worsham,M.S. Classroom Management for Secondary Teachers.(3th ed.) (pp ) The Professional Teacher’s handbook, Kenneth H. Hoover, 1976, page

85 KARADAĞ,Asiye. Dramatizasyon Öyküleri, Kostümleri,Aksesuarları
KARADAĞ,Asiye.Dramatizasyon Öyküleri, Kostümleri,Aksesuarları.Anı Yayıncılık,Şubat 2006,ANK ÜSTÜNDAĞ,Tülay.Yaratıcı Drama-Öğretmenin Günlüğü.Başak Matbaacılık, 3.Baskı,Temmuz 2002,ANK

86 Prepared by: Birsen Kaya Güzin Yahaneci E.Fatma Yıldırım Erden Çınar
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