2Neolithic Revolution-Early agricultural societies came about. Neolithic peoples encouraged the growth of edible crops and domesticated animals. This provided a regular and reliable food source compared to hunting and gathering. Eventually led to agricultural surplus, which allowed for specialization of trade and urbanization. The Neolithic Revolution occurred gradually and not all at once. -Economic and social results-Agricultural economy formed. Merchants emerged and carried different types of food from one place to another. Brought wealth to some and not to others. This led to the creation of social classes, the haves and the have-nots.
3Agriculture and Technology DevelopmentOfAgriculture and Technology
4Asia -Steppes allowed for great pastoral lands and domestic animals -Mostly nomadic people in Central Asia-China developed farming around rivers, like the Yellow River-Yangshao Society was formed in the central part of the Yellow River-Mesopotamia- Tigris and Euphrates rivers provided Fertile Crescent and allowed for extensive agriculture in that area
5The Americas-Olmecs- cultivated beans, chili, avocados, squashes, and gourds-Some domesticated animals like turkeys and small dogs, but no larger animals like the horse-Mayas grew cacao beans and used them as money-Built terraces designed to trap silt and then used the rich soil for farming-Potatoes, llamas, and alpaca wool came from highlands-Maize, beans, and squashes came from central valleys-Sweet potatoes, fish, and cotton came from coasts
6Africa-Egypt, the “Gift of the Nile”, relied on the Nile river for irrigation-Gourds, watermelons, wild grains, and cotton-Bantu spread established agricultural villages throughout Sub-Saharan Africa-Extensive floodplains-A lot of hunter –gatherers
7Nature of Village Settlements -Societies that were positioned by rivers usually were more prosperous than others. Some examples of this are in the Indus valley, along the Nile, and between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. One of the reasons Mesopotamia was so advanced was because of their ability to farm and create an agricultural surplus.-Agricultural surplus allowed for the creation of specialized labor. This made more jobs and allowed those societies to expand.
8Impact on the Environment -The need for arable land led to widespread deforestation in many areas-Many times societies would over use the soil and gradually deplete it’s nutrients-As urbanization occurred, more resources were used-Hunting sometimes forced animals into extinction-Some wild animals were domesticated
10Mesopotamia Culture: -earliest writing called cuneiform -iron metallurgy-the wheel-built ships-large cities/templesSocial:-patriarchal-had slaves-temple communities-warriors thought highly of-well-defined classesState:-urban kings-city-states-regional empires formed often
11Egypt Culture: -pyramids -writing was hieroglyphics -mummies -trade networks-widespread education-cult of OsirisSocial:-patriarchal-well-defined classes-no nobles-pharaoh like god on earth-peasants labored hardState:-pharaoh-had bureaucracy of administrators-centralized rule-large united kingdom
13Harrapan Society Culture: -large public buildings, like temple, pools, and markets -consistent measurements-sewers-writing non-decipheredSocial:-patriarchal -distinct rich/ poor-artisans-peasantsState:-no evidence concerning political organization
14Shang China Culture: -large tombs -bronze foundries -lavish capitals -veneration of ancestors-literatureSocial:-patriarchal–specialized labor-trade networks-peasants/ slaves-foot bindingState:-kings -political alliances-revolved around cities-ruling elites
15Mesoamerica Culture: -the governments were authoritarian -calendars -had writing-developed 0-great astronomers-giant headsSocial:-distinct social classes -peasants-artisans-priestsState:-kings-priests/ nobles big part of society-small kingdoms
18Political Developments in China Qin dynasty unified China under a centralized imperial ruleEarly Han Dynasty takes over with centralized governmentConfucian Educational System introduced
19Political Developments in India Maurya brought temporary unification to India with empireRegional kingdoms emerged before imperial rule emerged in the form of the Kushan Empire and, later, the Gupta Dynasty
20Political Developments in the Mediterranean GreeceMycenaean and Minoan societies declinePoleis riseAthenians begin democracyImperial rule by MacedoniansAntigonid, Ptolemaic, and Seleucid Empires established by MacedoniansBegin of Hellenistic Era
21Political Developments in Mediterranean (cont) Roman StateRoman Kingdom establishedRoman Kingdom turns into a republicRoman Republic turns into empire under Julius CaesarJulius Caesar named himself dictator for lifeCentralized and controlled the military and politics
22Political Developments in Mesoamerica Olmecs establish authoritarian governmentMayans set up a hierarchyTeotihuacan set up a centralized governmentEarly Andean society was agriculturalChavín cult led to creation of citiesMochia state developed irrigation and an artistic legacy
23Social and Gender Structures PersiaBureaucracy with bureaucrats, free classes, and slavesFamily and clan relationships were importantChinaPatriarchyMost people were cultivatorsIndiaPatriarchy similar to ChinaRigid caste system
24Social and Gender Structures (cont.) GreecePatriarchy, but Spartan women were more freeSlavesRomePater familias (eldest male rules house)Rich people, cultivators and urban masses, and poor classesSlaves were one-third of the populationMayaHierarchyKings, priests, and nobles; merchants; professional architects and artisans; and majority of peasants and slaves
25Social and Gender Structures (cont.) TeotihuacanDominated by rulers and priestsAlso had professional merchants and artisans
26Major Trading Patterns Within and Among Classical Societies Silk RoadsConnected Asia, Asia Minor, and EuropeRome learned about Greek philosophy and religion through tradeRoman trade was mostly conducted via the Mediterranean SeaIn addition to the silk roads, Indian merchants took advantage of the monsoon system
27Arts, Sciences, and Technology Use of precious metals to make coins (coinage) in PersiaStandardized script in ChinaIron metallurgy in ChinaSilk textiles in ChinaPaper in ChinaDevelopment of advanced mathematics in IndiaDevelopment of astronomy in IndiaDevelopment of advanced medicin
28Arts, Sciences, and Technology (cont) Greece developed tragic dramas to tell storiesThe Roman empire built roads to facilitate trade and faster transportation
30The Fall of Empires-Han China- divisions in the government eventually increased and created factions. The ruling elites were constantly fighting for power. Another problem was equitable land distribution. A few wealthy individuals controlled most of the land in China and peasants could not provide for themselves. Han generals took power for themselves and abolished the Han empire. They then proceeded to divide China into three large regional kingdoms. -Roman Empire- there were a great many internal and external problems. Like in Han China, the government had become unstable. Diocletian divided the Roman Empire into two sections, the east and the west, for administrative purposes. Invasions of Germanic peoples combined with their internal difficulties, made the western part of the Roman Empire fall. The east part survived and went on to become the Byzantine Empire. -Gupta Empire- a nomadic group called the White Huns invaded through the Hindu Kush mountain range. The Gupta’s tried to defend their borders, but they gradually weakened due to the enormous amount of resources they had to commit. The White Huns broke through and started establishing kingdoms in northern and western India. The Gupta empire existed only in name and was no longer a great empire.
31Collapse of Empire in Western Europe Roman Empire united EuropeEventually collapsed due to foreign invasions from the Huns under AttilaWestern Roman Empire collapsed and power shifted to the East in the Byzantine EmpireChristianity rose in the absence of the Western Roman EmpireThe areas that were originally ruled by the Western Roman Empire began to form their own states
34Collapse of Empire in China Qin Shihuangdi united China and sought to expand the empireQin Dynasty gave way to Early Han Dynasty, then the Later Han Dynasty, then the Sui DynastySui Dynasty fell because of rebellions and assassinsThe collapse of empire did not have much overall severity because other empires just took its place and did not change the government very much
36Collapse of Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean Cyrus began the imperial ventures of PersiaDescendents continued to expand the Achaemenid EmpireWhen the Achaemenid Empire dissolved, it was split into the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanid Empires
38Movements of People-Bantu Migrations- Bantu were a people in west central Africa. They started migrating south due to population pressures. They brought iron metallurgy and their language with them. The Bantu also established agricultural villages where ever they went.-Huns- Attila the Hun united many Germanic peoples and formed a military juggernaut. They went on a rampage and dislodged many Germanic people that were living on the Roman Empire’s border.-Germanic People- Many Germans were forced to move into the Roman Empire and establish settlements.-Polynesians- Used their maritime technology to go from island to island with their domesticated animals and agricultural knowledge in the Pacific.
40Interregional Networks Trade- There was the Silk Road that went from the Mediterranean to China. There was the monsoon system that made travel across the Indian Ocean possible. It was very safe and predictable.Spread of Religions-The Silk Road also facilitated the spread of religions. Buddhism spread into central Asia and China, Hinduism spread into southeast Asia, and Christianity spread into southwest Asia and Anatolia.
41Silk RoadSilk Roads-ancient trade routes that extended from the Roman Empire in the west to China in the east.Indian exports – cotton, aromatics, black pepper, pearls, gemsEgypt and Persia-exported grain that fed distant landsIndian imports-horses and bullion from the western lands and silk from China.
42Christianity vs. Judaism Christianity SimilarityHoly TrinityBible made of Old and new TestamentsOrdained ministry presides over sacramentsCatholic, Orthodox, and Protestant sectsBelieve Jesus died and rose againSacramentsOrthodox sectBreaking Bread (communion]Descendants of AbrahamMonotheisticHoly BookLive according Torah for Jews and Ten commandments for the ChristiansJerusalem is holy cityRefused to honor the Roman state cults or revere the emperor as a godHoly book TorahNevi history of Hebrew prophetKetuvim - writings, poems, and prayers in poem formOnly kosherPeople dwell in promised landShabbat- day of rest/prayerYom Kippur-day of atonementOrthodox, conservative, reformed
43Christianity Derived from Judaism Centered around Jesus of Nazareth, who they thought was their savior“Kingdom of God” was spiritual realm. (Heaven)Romans crucified JesusEarly Christians were JewsPaul of Tarsus converted many to ChristianityEarly Christian communities governed by bishopsChristians prosecuted in Roman Empire, but Christianity grew rapidly and appealed to lower classes
45BuddhismSiddhartha Gautama(Buddha) became “enlightened” in India, about 534 B.C.“Turning of the Wheel of the Law” was the speech Buddha gave for the first timeThe Four Noble Truths – all life involves suffering- desire is cause of suffering- elimination of desire ends suffering- accordance with the Noble Eightfold Path brings elimination of desireDharma is basic doctrine shared by all BuddhistsDid not recognize social distinctions, so it appealed to manyAshoka supported Buddhism throughout his reign
47Judaism Recognized only one God, Yahweh Jews rebelled against Roman rule in the Jewish WarRefused to honor Roman state cultsTorah was Jewish religious bookThe Essenes were a sect of Judaism that had a strict moral codeDid not believe that Jesus was the saviorInfluenced the development of Islam and Christianity
48HinduismMahabharata and the Ramayana were epic poems that stated the development of some Hindu valuesThe brahmins (priests) edited them when they were writing them down to include the god VishnuBhagavd Gita stated expectations of individuals and promise of salvationBelieved in distinct social classesFaith will bring salvationReincarnationA proper balance of dharma (obedience of religious/moral laws), artha (pursuit of economic success), and kama (enjoyment of sexual/social/physical pleasure) would help an individual attain moksha (salvation of soul)WORSHIP ME!
49DAOISM Founder of Daoism was a sage named Laozi Pointless to waste time and energy on problemsSpent time and devoted energy to reflection and natural principals that governed the world and learned how to live in harmony with nature.Don’t meddle in peoples affairsDao- The way “the way of nature” or “ way of cosmos”Wuwei- Doing nothing. Staying away from competitive exertions and active involvement of affairs of the world. Don’t strive for Advanced educations and personal success.Individuals to live simple and in harmony with nature
50Confucianism It is not a religion but a way of thought Kong Fuzi first Chinese thinker who addressed the problem of Political and social order in straightforward and self conscious ways.Confucius believed best way to promote good government was to fill positions with individuals with well educated and extraordinary conscientious people. Concentrated on the formation of Junzi “superior individuals.”Confucian ValuesRen- attitude of kindness and benevolence or sense of humanity. Considered courteous, respectful and diligent and loyal people desperately Needed in the government.Li- sense of property(behave according to fashion), treat all humans with courtesy, show respect and deference to elders and superiorsXiao(filial piety)- high significance of family, obligation of children
51Confucianism Cont.To respect parents, and other family elders and to look after their welfare and to support them in old age and to remember their ancestors after death.Confucius believed with the creation of junzi would bring order and stability to China.Mencius- Disciple of Confucius believed all humans were basically good so he emphasized ren and advocated government. Principle would support education, levy light taxes, avoid wars and encourage harmony and cooperation.Xunzi- also a disciple of Confucius believed that human nature was greedy. So he emphasized li. Punished people who pursued individual interest and neglected to the larger society. Used harsh disciplinary actions to keep it in place.Knowledge of Confucianism as basis of civil service
53Polytheistic Earliest form of Religion Belief in many gods personified as nature example would be animismPolytheism was applied to Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Mesoamericans, Africans and all over the world.
54Caste System vs. Other Unequal Social Systems Caste System- one was born into one’s caste and it was hard to move out of one’s casteSlavery- forced labor, no pay; the slaves were usually war prisoners or criminalsPatriarchy- males rule; females were controlled through various means such as foot binding and restriction to household
55The Indian Caste System priest (brahmins)warriors and aristocrats (kshatrias)peasants and merchants (vaishyas)serfs (shudras)
56Patriarchal SocietyMale dominance. Eldest male was the ruler of the household and the women subjected to male authority. This was in place to protect reputations of husbands and the legitimacy of offspring.Example would be the foot binding in China
57Woman’s Role’sWoman's role in Mesopotamia- Sometimes advised or influenced kings and government. Pursued careers as midwives, shopkeepers, brewers, bakers, tavern keepers and textile manufacturers.However during the second millennium men tightened control over social and sexual behavior of women. Protect family fortunes and guarantee legitimacy of heirs. Virginity of brides at marriage, socializing between married woman and men outside family prohibited.Control of Woman's social and sexual behavior spread throughout southwest Asia and Mediterranean basin.Egyptian Woman- Had great influence in Ancient Egyptian and Nubian societies. A woman once took power as pharaoh (Queen Hatshepsut). Many freedoms, some were able to obtain formal educations and get jobs.Christianity- some woman were allowed to active public roles. Spiritual equality of all sexes and welcomed them.
58Bronze and Iron Metallurgy The introduction of bronze and iron to early civilizations made possible many things. New farming tools were made and this increased agricultural output. This led to an agricultural surplus which allowed some people to specialize in a different trades. Also, new weapons could be made which were more effective than wood or bone ones.
59TECHNOLOGYThe role of technology in large states- Technology played an important part in the administration and upkeep of large states.-Roads facilitated trade and communication between cites. -The standardization of money made it easier to collect taxes and trade.-Ships could be used to spread another nation’s influence around also.-Writing and language made it easier to record administrative records and to communicate in all places of a large state. -Domesticated animals like horses, provided another reliable form of transportation.-Iron/Bronze metallurgy made new weapons and tools