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FOUNDATIONS Spencer Brown Jonathan Ng Demyan Kim Jarrett McPike.

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Presentation on theme: "FOUNDATIONS Spencer Brown Jonathan Ng Demyan Kim Jarrett McPike."— Presentation transcript:

1 FOUNDATIONS Spencer Brown Jonathan Ng Demyan Kim Jarrett McPike

2 Neolithic Revolution -Early agricultural societies came about. Neolithic peoples encouraged the growth of edible crops and domesticated animals. This provided a regular and reliable food source compared to hunting and gathering. Eventually led to agricultural surplus, which allowed for specialization of trade and urbanization. The Neolithic Revolution occurred gradually and not all at once.  -Economic and social results-Agricultural economy formed. Merchants emerged and carried different types of food from one place to another. Brought wealth to some and not to others. This led to the creation of social classes, the haves and the have-nots. 

3 Agriculture and Technology
Development Of Agriculture and Technology

4 Asia -Steppes allowed for great pastoral lands and domestic animals
-Mostly nomadic people in Central Asia -China developed farming around rivers, like the Yellow River -Yangshao Society was formed in the central part of the Yellow River -Mesopotamia- Tigris and Euphrates rivers provided Fertile Crescent and allowed for extensive agriculture in that area

5 The Americas -Olmecs- cultivated beans, chili, avocados, squashes, and gourds -Some domesticated animals like turkeys and small dogs, but no larger animals like the horse -Mayas grew cacao beans and used them as money -Built terraces designed to trap silt and then used the rich soil for farming -Potatoes, llamas, and alpaca wool came from highlands -Maize, beans, and squashes came from central valleys -Sweet potatoes, fish, and cotton came from coasts

6 Africa -Egypt, the “Gift of the Nile”, relied on the Nile river for irrigation -Gourds, watermelons, wild grains, and cotton -Bantu spread established agricultural villages throughout Sub-Saharan Africa -Extensive floodplains -A lot of hunter –gatherers

7 Nature of Village Settlements
-Societies that were positioned by rivers usually were more prosperous than others. Some examples of this are in the Indus valley, along the Nile, and between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. One of the reasons Mesopotamia was so advanced was because of their ability to farm and create an agricultural surplus. -Agricultural surplus allowed for the creation of specialized labor. This made more jobs and allowed those societies to expand.

8 Impact on the Environment
-The need for arable land led to widespread deforestation in many areas -Many times societies would over use the soil and gradually deplete it’s nutrients -As urbanization occurred, more resources were used -Hunting sometimes forced animals into extinction -Some wild animals were domesticated


10 Mesopotamia Culture: -earliest writing called cuneiform
-iron metallurgy -the wheel -built ships -large cities/temples Social: -patriarchal -had slaves -temple communities -warriors thought highly of -well-defined classes State: -urban kings -city-states -regional empires formed often

11 Egypt Culture: -pyramids -writing was hieroglyphics -mummies
-trade networks -widespread education -cult of Osiris Social: -patriarchal -well-defined classes -no nobles -pharaoh like god on earth -peasants labored hard State: -pharaoh -had bureaucracy of administrators -centralized rule -large united kingdom


13 Harrapan Society Culture:
-large public buildings, like temple, pools, and markets -consistent measurements -sewers -writing non-deciphered Social: -patriarchal -distinct rich/ poor -artisans -peasants State: -no evidence concerning political organization

14 Shang China Culture: -large tombs -bronze foundries -lavish capitals
-veneration of ancestors -literature Social: -patriarchal –specialized labor -trade networks -peasants/ slaves -foot binding State: -kings -political alliances -revolved around cities -ruling elites

15 Mesoamerica Culture: -the governments were authoritarian -calendars
-had writing -developed 0 -great astronomers -giant heads Social: -distinct social classes -peasants -artisans -priests State: -kings -priests/ nobles big part of society -small kingdoms

16 Classical Civilizations

17 Political Developments

18 Political Developments in China
Qin dynasty unified China under a centralized imperial rule Early Han Dynasty takes over with centralized government Confucian Educational System introduced

19 Political Developments in India
Maurya brought temporary unification to India with empire Regional kingdoms emerged before imperial rule emerged in the form of the Kushan Empire and, later, the Gupta Dynasty

20 Political Developments in the Mediterranean
Greece Mycenaean and Minoan societies decline Poleis rise Athenians begin democracy Imperial rule by Macedonians Antigonid, Ptolemaic, and Seleucid Empires established by Macedonians Begin of Hellenistic Era

21 Political Developments in Mediterranean (cont)
Roman State Roman Kingdom established Roman Kingdom turns into a republic Roman Republic turns into empire under Julius Caesar Julius Caesar named himself dictator for life Centralized and controlled the military and politics

22 Political Developments in Mesoamerica
Olmecs establish authoritarian government Mayans set up a hierarchy Teotihuacan set up a centralized government Early Andean society was agricultural Chavín cult led to creation of cities Mochia state developed irrigation and an artistic legacy

23 Social and Gender Structures
Persia Bureaucracy with bureaucrats, free classes, and slaves Family and clan relationships were important China Patriarchy Most people were cultivators India Patriarchy similar to China Rigid caste system

24 Social and Gender Structures (cont.)
Greece Patriarchy, but Spartan women were more free Slaves Rome Pater familias (eldest male rules house) Rich people, cultivators and urban masses, and poor classes Slaves were one-third of the population Maya Hierarchy Kings, priests, and nobles; merchants; professional architects and artisans; and majority of peasants and slaves

25 Social and Gender Structures (cont.)
Teotihuacan Dominated by rulers and priests Also had professional merchants and artisans

26 Major Trading Patterns Within and Among Classical Societies
Silk Roads Connected Asia, Asia Minor, and Europe Rome learned about Greek philosophy and religion through trade Roman trade was mostly conducted via the Mediterranean Sea In addition to the silk roads, Indian merchants took advantage of the monsoon system

27 Arts, Sciences, and Technology
Use of precious metals to make coins (coinage) in Persia Standardized script in China Iron metallurgy in China Silk textiles in China Paper in China Development of advanced mathematics in India Development of astronomy in India Development of advanced medicin

28 Arts, Sciences, and Technology (cont)
Greece developed tragic dramas to tell stories The Roman empire built roads to facilitate trade and faster transportation


30 The Fall of Empires -Han China- divisions in the government eventually increased and created factions. The ruling elites were constantly fighting for power. Another problem was equitable land distribution. A few wealthy individuals controlled most of the land in China and peasants could not provide for themselves. Han generals took power for themselves and abolished the Han empire. They then proceeded to divide China into three large regional kingdoms.   -Roman Empire- there were a great many internal and external problems. Like in Han China, the government had become unstable. Diocletian divided the Roman Empire into two sections, the east and the west, for administrative purposes. Invasions of Germanic peoples combined with their internal difficulties, made the western part of the Roman Empire fall. The east part survived and went on to become the Byzantine Empire.  -Gupta Empire- a nomadic group called the White Huns invaded through the Hindu Kush mountain range. The Gupta’s tried to defend their borders, but they gradually weakened due to the enormous amount of resources they had to commit. The White Huns broke through and started establishing kingdoms in northern and western India. The Gupta empire existed only in name and was no longer a great empire.

31 Collapse of Empire in Western Europe
Roman Empire united Europe Eventually collapsed due to foreign invasions from the Huns under Attila Western Roman Empire collapsed and power shifted to the East in the Byzantine Empire Christianity rose in the absence of the Western Roman Empire The areas that were originally ruled by the Western Roman Empire began to form their own states

32 Map of the Roman Empire

33 Collapse of the Roman Empire

34 Collapse of Empire in China
Qin Shihuangdi united China and sought to expand the empire Qin Dynasty gave way to Early Han Dynasty, then the Later Han Dynasty, then the Sui Dynasty Sui Dynasty fell because of rebellions and assassins The collapse of empire did not have much overall severity because other empires just took its place and did not change the government very much

35 Map of Qin Dynasty

36 Collapse of Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean
Cyrus began the imperial ventures of Persia Descendents continued to expand the Achaemenid Empire When the Achaemenid Empire dissolved, it was split into the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanid Empires

37 Map of Persian Empire

38 Movements of People -Bantu Migrations- Bantu were a people in west central Africa. They started migrating south due to population pressures. They brought iron metallurgy and their language with them. The Bantu also established agricultural villages where ever they went. -Huns- Attila the Hun united many Germanic peoples and formed a military juggernaut. They went on a rampage and dislodged many Germanic people that were living on the Roman Empire’s border. -Germanic People- Many Germans were forced to move into the Roman Empire and establish settlements. -Polynesians- Used their maritime technology to go from island to island with their domesticated animals and agricultural knowledge in the Pacific.

39 Bantu Migrations

40 Interregional Networks
Trade- There was the Silk Road that went from the Mediterranean to China. There was the monsoon system that made travel across the Indian Ocean possible. It was very safe and predictable. Spread of Religions-The Silk Road also facilitated the spread of religions. Buddhism spread into central Asia and China, Hinduism spread into southeast Asia, and Christianity spread into southwest Asia and Anatolia.

41 Silk Road Silk Roads-ancient trade routes that extended from the Roman Empire in the west to China in the east. Indian exports – cotton, aromatics, black pepper, pearls, gems Egypt and Persia-exported grain that fed distant lands Indian imports-horses and bullion from the western lands and silk from China.

42 Christianity vs. Judaism
Christianity Similarity Holy Trinity Bible made of Old and new Testaments Ordained ministry presides over sacraments Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant sects Believe Jesus died and rose again Sacraments Orthodox sect Breaking Bread (communion] Descendants of Abraham Monotheistic Holy Book Live according Torah for Jews and Ten commandments for the Christians Jerusalem is holy city Refused to honor the Roman state cults or revere the emperor as a god Holy book Torah Nevi history of Hebrew prophet Ketuvim - writings, poems, and prayers in poem form Only kosher People dwell in promised land Shabbat- day of rest/prayer Yom Kippur-day of atonement Orthodox, conservative, reformed

43 Christianity Derived from Judaism
Centered around Jesus of Nazareth, who they thought was their savior “Kingdom of God” was spiritual realm. (Heaven) Romans crucified Jesus Early Christians were Jews Paul of Tarsus converted many to Christianity Early Christian communities governed by bishops Christians prosecuted in Roman Empire, but Christianity grew rapidly and appealed to lower classes

44 Spread of Christianity

45 Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama(Buddha) became “enlightened” in India, about 534 B.C. “Turning of the Wheel of the Law” was the speech Buddha gave for the first time The Four Noble Truths – all life involves suffering- desire is cause of suffering- elimination of desire ends suffering- accordance with the Noble Eightfold Path brings elimination of desire Dharma is basic doctrine shared by all Buddhists Did not recognize social distinctions, so it appealed to many Ashoka supported Buddhism throughout his reign


47 Judaism Recognized only one God, Yahweh
Jews rebelled against Roman rule in the Jewish War Refused to honor Roman state cults Torah was Jewish religious book The Essenes were a sect of Judaism that had a strict moral code Did not believe that Jesus was the savior Influenced the development of Islam and Christianity

48 Hinduism Mahabharata and the Ramayana were epic poems that stated the development of some Hindu values The brahmins (priests) edited them when they were writing them down to include the god Vishnu Bhagavd Gita stated expectations of individuals and promise of salvation Believed in distinct social classes Faith will bring salvation Reincarnation A proper balance of dharma (obedience of religious/moral laws), artha (pursuit of economic success), and kama (enjoyment of sexual/social/physical pleasure) would help an individual attain moksha (salvation of soul) WORSHIP ME!

49 DAOISM Founder of Daoism was a sage named Laozi
Pointless to waste time and energy on problems Spent time and devoted energy to reflection and natural principals that governed the world and learned how to live in harmony with nature. Don’t meddle in peoples affairs Dao- The way “the way of nature” or “ way of cosmos” Wuwei- Doing nothing. Staying away from competitive exertions and active involvement of affairs of the world. Don’t strive for Advanced educations and personal success. Individuals to live simple and in harmony with nature

50 Confucianism It is not a religion but a way of thought
Kong Fuzi first Chinese thinker who addressed the problem of Political and social order in straightforward and self conscious ways. Confucius believed best way to promote good government was to fill positions with individuals with well educated and extraordinary conscientious people. Concentrated on the formation of Junzi “superior individuals.” Confucian Values Ren- attitude of kindness and benevolence or sense of humanity. Considered courteous, respectful and diligent and loyal people desperately Needed in the government. Li- sense of property(behave according to fashion), treat all humans with courtesy, show respect and deference to elders and superiors Xiao(filial piety)- high significance of family, obligation of children

51 Confucianism Cont. To respect parents, and other family elders and to look after their welfare and to support them in old age and to remember their ancestors after death. Confucius believed with the creation of junzi would bring order and stability to China. Mencius- Disciple of Confucius believed all humans were basically good so he emphasized ren and advocated government. Principle would support education, levy light taxes, avoid wars and encourage harmony and cooperation. Xunzi- also a disciple of Confucius believed that human nature was greedy. So he emphasized li. Punished people who pursued individual interest and neglected to the larger society. Used harsh disciplinary actions to keep it in place. Knowledge of Confucianism as basis of civil service

52 Spread of Confucianism

53 Polytheistic Earliest form of Religion Belief in many gods
personified as nature example would be animism Polytheism was applied to Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Mesoamericans, Africans and all over the world.

54 Caste System vs. Other Unequal Social Systems
Caste System- one was born into one’s caste and it was hard to move out of one’s caste Slavery- forced labor, no pay; the slaves were usually war prisoners or criminals Patriarchy- males rule; females were controlled through various means such as foot binding and restriction to household

55 The Indian Caste System
priest (brahmins) warriors and aristocrats (kshatrias) peasants and merchants (vaishyas) serfs (shudras)

56 Patriarchal Society Male dominance. Eldest male was the ruler of the household and the women subjected to male authority. This was in place to protect reputations of husbands and the legitimacy of offspring. Example would be the foot binding in China

57 Woman’s Role’s Woman's role in Mesopotamia- Sometimes advised or influenced kings and government. Pursued careers as midwives, shopkeepers, brewers, bakers, tavern keepers and textile manufacturers. However during the second millennium men tightened control over social and sexual behavior of women. Protect family fortunes and guarantee legitimacy of heirs. Virginity of brides at marriage, socializing between married woman and men outside family prohibited. Control of Woman's social and sexual behavior spread throughout southwest Asia and Mediterranean basin. Egyptian Woman- Had great influence in Ancient Egyptian and Nubian societies. A woman once took power as pharaoh (Queen Hatshepsut). Many freedoms, some were able to obtain formal educations and get jobs. Christianity- some woman were allowed to active public roles. Spiritual equality of all sexes and welcomed them.

58 Bronze and Iron Metallurgy
The introduction of bronze and iron to early civilizations made possible many things. New farming tools were made and this increased agricultural output. This led to an agricultural surplus which allowed some people to specialize in a different trades. Also, new weapons could be made which were more effective than wood or bone ones.

59 TECHNOLOGY The role of technology in large states- Technology played an important part in the administration and upkeep of large states. -Roads facilitated trade and communication between cites. -The standardization of money made it easier to collect taxes and trade. -Ships could be used to spread another nation’s influence around also. -Writing and language made it easier to record administrative records and to communicate in all places of a large state.  -Domesticated animals like horses, provided another reliable form of transportation. -Iron/Bronze metallurgy made new weapons and tools

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