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DEVELOPMENT OF EAR By Dr Samina Anjum. DEVELOPMENT OF EAR Ear is composed of three anatomical parts External ear (Collection of sound waves) auricle,

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Presentation on theme: "DEVELOPMENT OF EAR By Dr Samina Anjum. DEVELOPMENT OF EAR Ear is composed of three anatomical parts External ear (Collection of sound waves) auricle,"— Presentation transcript:


2 DEVELOPMENT OF EAR Ear is composed of three anatomical parts External ear (Collection of sound waves) auricle, external auditory meatus, external layer of tympanic membrane Middle ear (conduction of sound waves) 3 auditory ossicles, tympanic cavity, auditory tube Internal ear (hearing & balance) vestibulocochlear organ whichconverts waves into nerve impulses & register changes in equilibrium

3 DEVELOPMENT OF INTERNAL EAR Otic placodes -- on each side of myelencephalon Inductive influence – notochord, paraxial mesoderm Otic pit, otic vesicle, loses connection from surface ectoderm Two parts of otic vesicle---- memb. labyrinth Ventral component---- saccule & cochlear duct Dorsal component---- utricle, semicircular canals, & endolymphatic duct

4 SACCULE, COCHLEA, & ORGAN OF CORTI In 6 th week saccule forms a tubular out pocketing --- cochlear duct completes 2.5 turns in 8 th week Connected with saccule through ductus reuniens Surrounding mesenchyme differentiates into cartilage In10th week vacuoles develop in cartilage & two perilymphatic spaces formed Scala tympani & scala vestibuli Vestibular & basilar membranes Spiral ligament, modiolus Cells in wall of cochlear duct differentiate into organ of corti; forms two ridges inner ridge---- spiral limbus--- tectorial membrane Outer ridge row of inner hair cells 3-4 rows of outer hair cells Statoacoustic ganglion ---- wall of otic vesicle & neural crest cells




8 UTRICLE & SEMICIRCULAR CANALS Semicircular canals (SSC) appear as out pocketings of utricular part of otic vesicle Central parts of these diverticula fuse & disappear Peripheral unfused parts of diverticula become SSC

9 One end of each canal dilates to form crus ampullare while crus nonampullare, does not widen. Since two of latter type fuse, however, only five crura enter the utricle, 3 with an ampulla & 2 without Cells in the ampulla forms a crest, crista ampullaris containing sensory cells for maintenance of equilibrium Similarly specialized receptor areas macula develop in utricle & saccule Sensory areas are stimulated by positional changes & impulses re transmitted via vestibular ganglion to brain through CN- VIII

10 DEVELOPMENT OF MIDDLE EAR Endoderm of 1st pharyngeal pouch forms the tubotympanic recess which comes in contact with 1st pharyngeal cleft to form the external auditory meatus Distal end is expanded Tympanic cavity Proximal end is narrow auditory tube

11 EAR OSSICLES Malleus & incus---cartilage of 1 st pharyngeal arch Stapes-----cartilage of 2 nd pharyngeal arch Remain embedded in mesenchyme till 8th month when surrounding tissue dissolves

12 Cont… The endodermal epithelial lining of tympanic cavity then extends along the newly developing space When ossicles are entirely free of surrounding mesenchyme, the endodermal epithelium connects them in a mesentery like fashion to the wall of cavity Tympanic cavity expands dorsally by vacuolization of surrounding tissue to form tympanic antrum

13 DEVELOPMENT OF EXTERNAL EAR Begins at 3 rd month External auditory meatus st pharyngeal cleft Ectodermal cells at the bottom of cleft proliferate to form a solid epithelial plate, the meatal plug During 7 th month the plug dissolves to form internal part of external auditory meatus Tympanic membrane is the 1 st pharyngeal membrane b/w cleft & pouch

14 AURICLE Develops from 6 mesenchymal proliferations in 1 st & 2 nd pharyngeal arches surrounding the first cleft These swellings are auricular hillocks 3 on each side of external meatus

15 Cont… These swellings later fuse to form definite auricle As fusion of auricular hillocks is complicated developmental abnormalities of the auricle are common Lobule is the last part to develop As mandible develops the auricle moves to their normal position at the sides of head

16 CONGENITAL ANOMALIES Congenital deafness Mal development of internal ear or auditory ossicles or ear drum External ear defects Due to chromosomal abnormalities


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