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2. Professional Policing (10 hrs) TCLEOSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 07/27/04.

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1 2. Professional Policing (10 hrs) TCLEOSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 07/27/04

2 OBJECTIVES Describe significant historical events that have influenced policing in the United States Describe the historical development of police service models or styles Describe the evolution of policing in Texas List the requirements of licensees under selected sections of the current Commission Rules Explain the traditional police service model Define community policing and explain this service model Interpret the police organizations role in society Recognize the values of providing quality police customer service Analyze the characteristics of traditional (formal) police organizational structure and police subculture (informal).

3 Unit Goal: 2.1. To develop a knowledge of the development and influence of the evolution of police service models and styles.

4 Describe significant historical events that have influenced policing in the United States.

5 Policing in America has its roots in European police methods. This can be seen in such concepts as: County Sheriff Common Law English "bobby" foot patrol methods

6 The northeastern states generally had the watch and ward system. Watch was nighttime while ward was daytime police. As American policing developed in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia, an entire system of criminal justice began to experience corruption.

7 Describe the historical development of police service models or styles.

8 The era from 1900 through the 1940's.

9 The use of the automobile provided a more rapid response to police calls for service. The advent of radio communications provided call for service to be dispatched to officer in the field. Many officers were reassigned from walking beats to radio cars. The assignment of officers from walking beats began the process of distancing the police from the individual citizens due to increased mobility. Police performance level increased due to rapid response, while actual communications with citizens decreased.

10 The absence of quality evaluation was prevalent throughout the period. During this era, law enforcement personnel, (especially the "beat officer") were known by the citizens in the areas in which they worked. This relationship created a bond which made the officer feel an ownership in his work area. The community also felt a more personal relationship with their officer(s).

11 American policing went through a "reform" era marked by the contributions of such men as August Vollmer, whose goal was to bring professionalism to the police. This age also saw the emergence of the present Federal law enforcement system and the contributions of J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI.

12 The National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (Wickersham Commission) reported in 1931 the greatest promise for the future of policing is the college or university.

13 The era from 1950 through the 1970's.

14 Technology continued to improve with computers and communications being common place. The use of automobiles improved response time to calls for service. The increased use of automobile travel and technology created a fast pace service style which further removed peace officers from constant citizen contact. The professional police model developed with emphasis on accountability and in creased standards. Success measures such as response time, crime statistics, citizen complaints, became common indicators of police performance.

15 Police professionalism was again an issue in the late 60s as The Presidents Commission on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice, stated in 1967, in their opinion, police personnel should have two or four years of college education. This Commission indicated that the ultimate aim of all police departments was for personnel with general enforcement powers to have baccalaureate degrees.

16 The National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals (NAC) reported in 1973 that the police still had low educational requirements. The NAC cited the recommendations of the 1967 Commission and established minimum entry-level requirements.

17 The immediate educational standard was to be one year of college. The educational standard increase was to continue by requiring two years of college by 1975, three years of college by 1978, and a baccalaureate degree by A study was done in 1986 of entry-level educational requirements to determine which of the NACs goals had been met.

18 The responding 289 agencies reported that 0.9 percent had no minimum educational requirement, 84.8 percent had a high school or G.E.D. requirement, and 0.6 percent required a four-year baccalaureate degree.

19 Evaluation research became a tool for success measurement. The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) funded numerous projects to speed up the criminal justice process. The use of numerous specialized units became the method for removing patrol officers from most follow-up activities. The patrol system became an incident-driven approach in which police officers often became little more than report takers in most communities.

20 During this era, the police became controlled by the radio system. As a result of officers answering calls for police services in a larger area, the peace officer lost much of the positive relationship and communications with the community.

21 The era from 1980 through today.

22 Increased interest in evaluation research. Interest in other styles of police service led to a considerable interest in new methods and experimentations. The development of community- or problem-oriented policing has opened new potential for progressive policing in agencies using both the traditional model and the problem - oriented model. The implementation of community-or problem-oriented policing projects.

23 In a 1999 Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education (Commission) survey: 16.8 percent of the 65,203 peace officer licensees in Texas have at least a baccalaureate degree, while only 10 percent of the 738 responding agencies required college hours.

24 Describe the evolution of policing in Texas.

25 History During Texas 100 years as a province of Mexico, Mexican governors reigned over the territory that would later become Texas. Its policing was by the Spanish military. This ended when Texas became a free and independent republic after the Battle of San Jacinto in 1836

26 Texas Rangers Stephen F. Austin employed a group of militia to protect the settlers from Indian and bandit raids. This militia became known later as the Texas Rangers.

27 The watch/ward system of police did not evolve in Texas because of its large territory and absence of large cities/urban areas.

28 Elected County Law Enforcement Texas Rangers City Marshal Sheriffs Art. 5, Sec. 23 Texas Constitution Constables Art. 5, Sec. 18 Texas Constitution

29 Article 5 - JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT Section 18 - DIVISION OF COUNTIES INTO PRECINCTS; ELECTION OF CONSTABLE AND JUSTICE OF THE PEACE; COUNTY COMMISSIONERS AND COUNTY COMMISSIONERS COURT; CHANGE IN PRECINCT BOUNDARIES a) Each county in the State with a population of 50,000 or more, according to the most recent federal census, from time to time, for the convenience of the people, shall be divided into not less than four and not more than eight precincts. Each county in the State with a population of 18,000 or more but less than 50,000, according to the most recent federal census, from time to time, for the convenience of the people, shall be divided into not less than two and not more than eight precincts. Each county in the State with a population of less than 18,000, according to the most recent federal census, from time to time, for the convenience of the people, shall be designated as a single precinct or, if the Commissioners Court determines that the county needs more than one precinct, shall be divided into not more than four precincts.

30 Article 5 - JUDICIAL DEPARTMENT Section 23 - SHERIFFS There shall be elected by the qualified voters of each county a Sheriff, who shall hold his office for the term of four years, whose duties, qualifications, perquisites, and fees of office, shall be prescribed by the Legislature, and vacancies in whose office shall be filled by the Commissioners Court until the next general election. (Amended Nov. 2, 1954, and Nov. 2, 1993.)

31 Municipal Law Enforcement Police Force of a Type A General-law Municipality Local Government Code Police Force of a Type C General-law Municipality Local Government Code Police Force of Home-Rule Municipality Local Government Code

32 § Police Force of Type A General-Law Municipality (a) The governing body of a Type A general-law municipality may establish and regulate a municipal police force. (b) The governing body by ordinance may provide for the appointment of police officers the governing body considers necessary and for the terms of office and qualifications of the officers. (c) The governing body by ordinance may provide that the police officers serve at the pleasure of the governing body. (d) Each police officer shall execute a bond as the governing body may require. The bond must be conditioned that the officer will faithfully perform the officer's duties. (e) A police officer has: (1) the powers, rights, duties, and jurisdiction granted to or imposed on a peace officer by the Code of Criminal Procedure; and (2) other powers and duties prescribed by the governing body. (f) A police officer may serve in each county in which the municipality is located all process issued by a municipal court

33 Police Force of Type C General-Law Municipality The governing body of a Type C general-law municipality may appoint police officers that the governing body considers necessary and may define the duties of the officers.

34 Police Force of Home- Rule Municipality A home-rule municipality may provide for a police department.

35 List the requirements of licensees under selected sections of the current Commission Rules.

36 Requirements to be licensed The Occupations Code is the statutory authority for the Commission to establish rules that law enforcement agencies and officers must follow.

37 Reporting Responsibilities of Individuals Rule Occupation Code Minimum Standards for Initial Licensure Rule Occupation Code ,.307 Eligibility to take State Examinations Rule Occupation Code Reactivation of a License Rule Occupation Code

38 Examinee Requirements Rule Occupation Code Legislatively Required Continuing Education for Licensees Rule Occupation Code ,.352,.353,.354 Firearms Proficiency Requirements Rule Occupation Code Active License Renewal Rule Occupation Code

39 Reporting Responsibilities of Individuals Rule Occupation Code

40 § Reporting Responsibilities of Individuals. (a) When a person who holds a commission license or certificate is arrested, charged, or indicted for a criminal offense above the grade of Class C misdemeanor or for any Class C misdemeanor involving the duties and responsibilities of office or family violence, that person must report such fact to the commission in writing within 30 days, including the name of the arresting agency, the style, court, and cause number of the charge or indictment, if any, and the address to which notice of any commission action will be mailed. (b) A person to whom this section applies must also report to the commission the final disposition of the criminal action within 30 days of the effective date of the disposition. (c) A license holder must report any name change to the commission within 30 days. (d) The effective date of this section is March 1, Sec FELONY CONVICTION OR PLACEMENT ON COMMUNITY SUPERVISION. (a) The commission shall immediately revoke the license of a person licensed under this chapter who is convicted of a felony. (b) The commission shall immediately suspend the license of a person licensed under this chapter who is charged with a felony and is placed on community supervision regardless of whether the court defers further proceedings without entering an adjudication of guilt. (c) The commission may reinstate, as provided by commission rules, a license that is suspended under Subsection (b) when the license holder is released from community supervision. (Government Code, Secs (a) (part), (b), (b) (part).)

41 Minimum Standards for Initial Licensure Rule Occupation Code ,.307

42 § Minimum Standards for Initial Licensure. (a) The commission shall issue a peace officer, jailer, temporary jailer, or public security officer license to an applicant who meets the following standards: (1) minimum educational requirements: (A) have passed a general educational development (GED) test indicating high school graduation level; (B) be a high school graduate; or (C) have 12 semester hours credit from an accredited college or university. (2) for peace officers and armed public security officers, be 21 years of age, or 18 years of age if the applicant has received an associates degree or 60 semester hours of credit from an accredited college or university or has received an honorable discharge from the armed forces of the United States after at least two years of active service; for jailers be 18 years of age; (3) be fingerprinted and be subjected to a search of local, state and national records and fingerprint files to disclose any criminal record; (4) not ever have been or currently on court-ordered community supervision or probation for any criminal offense above the grade of Class B misdemeanor or a Class B misdemeanor within the last ten years; (5) not currently under indictment for any criminal offense; (6) not ever have been convicted of an offense above the grade of a Class B misdemeanor or a Class B misdemeanor within the last ten years;

43 (7) never have been convicted of any family violence offense; (8) is not prohibited by state or federal law from operating a motor vehicle; (9) is not prohibited by state or federal law from possessing firearms or ammunition; (10) be subjected to a background investigation and be interviewed prior to appointment by representatives of the appointing authority; (11) be examined by a physician, selected by the appointing or employing agency, who is licensed by the Texas State Board of Medical Examiners. The physician must be familiar with the duties appropriate to the type of license sought and appointment to be made. The appointee must be declared in writing by that professional within 180 days before the date of appointment by the agency to be: (A) physically sound and free from any defect which may adversely affect the performance of duty appropriate to the type of license sought; and (B) show no trace of drug dependency or illegal drug use after a physical examination, blood test, or other medical test;

44 (12) be examined by a psychologist, selected by the appointing or employing agency, who is licensed by the Texas State Board of Examiners of Psychologists. The psychologist must be familiar with the duties appropriate to the type of license sought and appointment to be made. This examination may also be conducted by a psychiatrist. The appointee must be declared in writing by that professional to be in satisfactory psychological and emotional health to serve as the type of officer for which the license is sought within 180 days before the date of appointment by the agency. The examination must be conducted pursuant to professionally recognized standards and methods: (A) the commission may allow for exceptional circumstances where a licensed physician performs the evaluation of psychological and emotional health. This requires the appointing agency to request in writing and receive approval from the commission, prior to the evaluation being completed; and (B) the examination may be conducted by a qualified psychologist exempt from licensure by the Psychologist Certification and Licensing Act, Section 22, who is recognized under exceptional circumstances; (13) not have been discharged from any military service under less than honorable conditions including, specifically; (A) under other than honorable conditions; (B) bad conduct; (C) dishonorable; or (D) any other characterization of service indicating bad character;

45 (14) not have had a commission license denied by final order or revoked, or have a voluntary surrender of license currently in effect; (15) meet the minimum training standards and pass the commission licensing examination for each license sought; (16) not violate any commission rule or provision of Occupations Code, Chapter (b) A person who fails to comply with the standards set forth in this section shall not accept the issuance of a license and shall not accept any appointment. If an application for licensure is found to be false or untrue, it is subject to cancellation or recall. (c) For the purposes of this section, the commission will construe any court-ordered community supervision, probation or conviction for a criminal offense to be its closest equivalent under the Texas Penal Code classification of offenses if the offense arose from: (1) another penal provision of Texas law; or (2) a penal provision of any other state, federal, military or foreign jurisdiction. (d) A classification of an offense as a felony at the time of conviction will never be changed because Texas law has changed or because the offense would not be a felony under current Texas laws. (e) An agency must retain records required under this section for a minimum of five years after the licensees termination date with that agency. These records must be maintained in a format readily accessible to the commission.

46 (f) An agency must report to the commission any failure to appoint an individual in the reported capacity within 30 days of the reported date of appointment. Such report must be made in the currently prescribed commission format for termination. (g) A person must successfully complete the minimum training required for the license sought; (1) training for the peace officer license consists of: (A) the current basic peace officer course; or (B) the criminal justice transfer curriculum, the Texas peace officer sequence identified and approved by the commission, and at least an associates degree; or (C) out of state licensure or certification, submission of the current eligibility application and fee, and successful completion of a POST commission recognized, developed basic law enforcement training course; (2) training for the jailer license consists of the current basic county corrections course(s); (3) training for the public security officer license consists of the current basic peace officer course; (4) have passed any examination required for the license sought, within two years of commission receipt of the licensing application; and (5) the licensing application must be submitted to the commission by a law enforcement or other appointing agency on the completed application format currently prescribed by the commission for the license sought.

47 (h) The commission shall issue a peace officer or jailer license to any person who is otherwise qualified for that license, even if that person is not subject to the licensing law or rules by virtue of election or appointment to office under the Texas Constitution. (i) A sheriff who first took office on or after January 1, 1994, must be licensed by the commission not later than two years after taking office. (j) A constable who first took office on or after January 1, 1985, must be licensed by the commission not later than two years after taking office. A constable taking office after August 30, 1999, must be licensed by the commission not later than 270 days after taking office. (k) The commission may issue a provisional license, consistent with Occupations Code , to an agency for a person to be appointed by that agency upon a written request to the executive director. The request should state the reasons that the agency desires a provisional license and must be signed and dated by the chief administrator. This request must be approved by the executive director before the individual is appointed.

48 (l) A provisional license is issued in the name of the applicant; however, it is issued to and shall remain in the possession of the agency. Such a license may neither be transferred by the applicant to another agency, nor by the agency to another applicant. (m) A provisional license or temporary jailer license may not be reissued and expires: (1) 12 months from the original appointment date; or (2) on leaving the appointing agency. (n) The effective date of this section is November 1, 2001.

49 Sec LICENSE REQUIRED. Except as provided by Sections and , a person may not appoint a person to serve as an officer, county jailer, or public security officer unless the person appointed holds an appropriate license issued by the commission. (Government Code, Sec (a) (part).) Sec ISSUANCE OF LICENSE. (a) The commission shall issue an appropriate license to a person who, as required by this chapter: (1) submits an application; (2) completes the required training; (3) passes the required examination; (4) is declared to be in satisfactory psychological and emotional health and free from drug dependency or illegal drug use; and (5) demonstrates weapons proficiency. (b) The commission may issue a permanent license to a person to serve as an officer and may issue a temporary or permanent license to a person to serve as a county jailer. (Government Code, Secs (a), (b).)

50 Eligibility to Take State Examinations Examinee Requirements Rule Rule Occupation Code

51 § Eligibility to Take State Examinations. (a) To be eligible to take a state licensing examination, a student must have a valid endorsement of eligibility. (b) An endorsement of eligibility to take an examination is issued by an academy coordinator, the executive director of the commission, or a person authorized by the executive director. An endorsement of eligibility based on training that was completed more than two years before the date of issue may be issued only by the executive director of the commission. (c) Duplicate, out-of-state, second, and third endorsements may be issued only by the executive director of the commission. (d) In order to issue the endorsement of eligibility, the person issuing such an endorsement must have on file for the person to whom it is issued, written documentation of successful completion of the basic licensing course for license sought; and (1) written documentation that the person to whom it is issued is currently licensed by the commission, or (2) if the person is not currently licensed by the commission, written documentation that the applicant meets the current enrollment standards. (e) A valid endorsement of eligibility shall: (1) be on the current commission format; (2) be a completed original document bearing all required signatures; (3) state that the examinee has met the current minimum training standards appropriate to the license sought; and (4) include a date of issue.

52 (f) For an endorsement of eligibility to be or remain valid: (1) it must not be issued in error or based on false or incorrect information; specifically, the applicant must meet the current enrollment standards; and (2) it must be presented before two years from the date of issue. (g) An examination may not be taken by an individual who already holds any license or certificate to be awarded upon passing that examination. (h) Once an initial endorsement of eligibility is issued, an examinee will be allowed three opportunities to pass the examination. After three failures, the examinee must requalify by repeating the entire training course for the license sought. If an attempt is invalidated for any reason, that attempt will count as one of the three opportunities. (i) The effective date of this section is August 1, 2001.

53 § Examinee Requirements. (a) To be eligible to sit for an examination, an examinee must: (1) possess and display at the examination site a valid endorsement of eligibility for the specific type of examination sought; (2) bring to the examination site and display upon request some identification card which contains a photograph; (3) report on time; (4) not disrupt the examination; (5) comply with all the written and verbal instructions of the proctor; and (6) shall not: (A) bring into the examination room any books, notes, or other written material related to the content of the examination; (B) refer to, use, or possess any such written material in the examination room; (C) bring into the examination room any cellular phones, pagers, or other such electronic devices;

54 (D) give or receive answers or communicate in any manner with another examinee during the examination; (E) communicate any of the content of an examination to another at any time; (F) steal, copy, or in any way reproduce any part of the examination; (G) engage in any deceptive or fraudulent act to gain admission; (H) engage in any deceptive or fraudulent act during or after an examination; or (I) solicit, encourage, direct, assist or aid another person to violate any provision of this section or to compromise the integrity of the examination. (b) The commission may deny or revoke any license or certificate held by a person who violates any of the provision of this section. (c) The effective date of this section is March 1, is March 1, 2001.

55 Sec EXAMINATION. (a) The commission shall conduct an examination for each type of license issued by the commission at least four times each year at times and places designated by the commission. The commission shall: (1) prescribe the content of an examination for each type of license; (2) include in each examination a written examination that tests the applicant's knowledge of the appropriate occupation; and (3) prescribe standards for acceptable performance on each examination. (b) The commission by rule shall establish minimum qualifications for a person to be examined under this section. A person who is disqualified by law to be an officer or county jailer may not take an examination under this section. (c) A law enforcement agency may request the commission to conduct examinations required by this chapter in the jurisdiction served by the agency. The commission may conduct the examinations in the jurisdiction if: (1) the commission determines that doing so will not place a significant hardship on the commission's resources; and (2) the requesting law enforcement agency reimburses the commission for additional costs incurred in conducting the examination in the agency's jurisdiction. (Government Code, Secs (a), (d), (e).)

56 Legislatively Required Continuing Education for Licensees Rule Occupation Code ,.352,.353,.354

57 § Legislatively Required Continuing Education for Licensees. (a) Each agency that appoints or employs peace officers, reserve law enforcement officers, jailers, or public security officers shall provide each peace officer, reserve law enforcement officer, jailer, or public security officer it appoints or employs a continuing education program at least once every current training cycle. (b) The legislatively required continuing education program for individuals licensed as peace officers shall consist of 40 hours of training. The program shall contain no more than 20 hours of curricula and learning objectives developed by the commission. The remaining hours may consist of additional objectives and materials selected or developed by the appointing or employing agency. The additional topic or topics selected by the agency should be consistent with the peace officers assigned duties. This rule does not limit the number of hours of continuing education an agency may provide to each peace officer, reserve law enforcement officer, jailer, or public security officer it appoints or employs. (c) Part of the of legislatively required peace officer training must include the curricula and learning objectives developed by the commission, to include: (1) civil rights, racial sensitivity, and cultural diversity during each current training cycle; (2) the recognition and documentation of cases that involve child abuse or neglect, family violence, sexual assault, issues concerning sex offender characteristics during each current training cycle. If an agency chief administrator determines these subjects to be inconsistent with the peace officers assigned duties, the chief administrator may substitute other training determined to be consistent with the officers assigned duties and report the substitution to the commission; and

58 (3) supervision issues for each peace officer appointed to their first supervisory position, this training must be completed within 24 months following the date of appointment as a supervisor. (d) Individuals licensed as reserve law enforcement officers, jailers, or public security officers shall meet the requirements in subsection (c)(1) of this section. (e) Each constable and deputy constable shall also complete a 20 hour course of training in civil process during each current training cycle. The commission may waive the requirement for civil process training if the constable requests a waiver, Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education November 1, 2001 by written certification, because of hardship and the commission determines that a hardship exists. (f) The commission shall provide notice to agencies and licensees of impending non-compliance with the legislatively required continuing education. Such notice will be provided not later than six months prior to the expiration of the current training cycle. (g) The commission may suspend or deny renewal of a license for failure to complete the legislatively required continuing education program at least once every training cycle. (h) All individuals who are licensed and reported to the commission as appointed or employed by an agency shall complete the legislatively required continuing education program required under this section beginning in the two year period immediately following the date of licensing. (i) The effective date of this section is March 1, 2001.

59 Sec CONTINUING EDUCATION REQUIRED FOR PEACE OFFICERS. (a) Each peace officer shall complete at least 40 hours of [a] continuing education programs [program at least] once every 24 months. The commission may suspend the license of a peace officer who fails to comply with this requirement. (b) The commission by rule shall provide for waiver of the requirements of this section when mitigating circumstances exist. (Government Code, Sec (g).) (c) The commission shall credit a peace officer with meeting the continuing education requirements of this section if during the relevant 24 month period the peace officer serves as an elected member of the legislature. Credit for continuing education under this subsection does not affect any requirement to demonstrate continuing weapons proficiency under Section

60 Sec CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMS. (a) The commission shall recognize, prepare, or administer continuing education programs for officers an county jailers. (b) The commission shall require a state, county, special district, or municipal agency that appoints or employs peace officers to provide each peace officer with a training program at least once every 48 [24] months that is approved by the commission and consists of[. At least 20 hours of the instruction must be on topics selected by the agency. The course must]: (1) topics selected by the agency [be approved by the commission]; and (2) not more than 20 hours of education and training that contain curricula incorporating [that incorporate] the learning objectives developed by the commission regarding[; and [(3) include education and training in]: (A) civil rights, racial sensitivity, and cultural diversity; and (B) unless determined by the agency head to be inconsistent with the officer's assigned duties: (i) the recognition and documentation of cases that involve child abuse or neglect, family violence, and sexual assault; and (ii) issues concerning sex offender characteristics[; and [(4) include other education and training only if determined by the agency head to be consistent with the officer's assigned duties].

61 (c) A course provided under Subsection (b)[: [(1) may not exceed 40 hours; and [(2)] may use instructional materials developed by the agency or its trainers or by entities having training agreements with the commission in addition to materials included in curricula developed by the commission. (d) A peace officer appointed to the officer's first supervisory position must receive in-service training on supervision as part of the course provided for the officer under Subsection (b) during the 24- month period after the date of that appointment. (e) The commission may require a state, county, special district, or municipal agency that appoints or employs a reserve law enforcement officer, county jailer, or public security officer to provide each of those persons with education and training in civil rights, racial sensitivity, and cultural diversity at least once every 48 [24] months. (f) Training in documentation of cases required by Subsection (b) shall include instruction in: (1) making a written account of the extent of injuries sustained by the victim of an alleged offense; (2) recording by photograph or videotape the area in which an alleged offense occurred and the victim's injuries; and (3) recognizing and recording a victim's statement that may be admissible as evidence in a proceeding concerning the matter about which the statement was made.

62 Sec CONTINUING EDUCATION PROCEDURES. (a) The commission by rule shall adopt procedures to: (1) ensure the timely and accurate reporting by agencies and peace officers of information related to training programs offered under this subchapter, including procedures for creating training records for individual peace officers; and (2) provide adequate notice to agencies and peace officers of impending noncompliance with the training requirements of this subchapter so that the agencies and peace officers may comply within the 24-month period. (b) The commission shall require agencies to report in a timely manner the reasons that a peace officer is in noncompliance after receiving notice by the commission of the peace officer's noncompliance. The commission shall, following receipt of an agency's report or on a determination that the agency has failed to report in a timely manner, conduct a hearing consistent with Section if the peace officer claims that: (1) mitigating circumstances exist; or (2) the peace officer failed to complete the required training because the officer's employing agency did not provide an adequate opportunity for the officer to attend the required training course. (Government Code, Sec (h).)

63 Sec CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR CONSTABLES AND DEPUTY CONSTABLES. (a) If the commission requires a state, county, special district, or municipal agency that employs a constable or deputy constable to provide the constable or deputy constable with a training program under Section , the commission shall require the constable or deputy constable to attend at least 20 hours of instruction in civil process. (b) The commission shall adopt rules and procedures concerning a civil process course, including rules providing for: (1) approval of course content and standards; and (2) issuance of course credit. (c) For the purposes of removal of a constable under Subchapter B, Chapter 87, Local Government Code, a constable is considered to be incompetent if the constable fails to complete the hours of instruction required by this section. (d) The commission may waive the requirement that a constable or deputy constable complete the instruction required by this section if: (1) the constable or deputy constable requests a waiver because of hardship; and (2) the commission determines that a hardship exists. (Government Code, Sec )

64 Firearms Proficiency Requirements Rule Occupation Code

65 § Firearms Proficiency Requirements. (a) Each agency or entity that employs at least two peace officers shall: (1) require each peace officer that it employs to successfully complete the current firearms proficiency requirements at least once each year; (2) designate a firearms proficiency officer to be responsible for the documentation of annual firearms proficiency. The documentation for each officer shall include: (A) date of qualification; (B) identification of officer; (C) firearm manufacturer, model; (D) results of qualifying; and (E) course(s) of fire. (3) keep on file and in a format readily accessible to the commission a copy of all records of this proficiency. (b) The annual firearms proficiency requirements shall include: (1) an external inspection by the proficiency officer, range officer, firearms instructor, or gunsmith to determine the safety and functioning of the weapon(s); (2) a proficiency demonstration in the care and cleaning of the weapon(s) used; and

66 (3) a course of fire that meets or exceeds the minimum standards. (c) The minimum standards for the annual firearms proficiency course of fire shall be: (1) handguns - a minimum of 50 rounds, including at least five rounds of duty ammunition, fired at ranges from point-blank to at least 15 yards with at least 20 rounds at or beyond seven yards, including at least one timed reload; (2) shotguns - a minimum of five rounds of duty ammunition fired at a range of at least 15 yards; (3) rifles - a minimum of 20 rounds of duty ammunition fired at a range of at least 100 yards, however an agency may, in its discretion, allow a range of less than 100 yards but not less than 50 yards if the minimum passing percentage is raised to 90; (4) fully automatic weapons - a minimum of 30 rounds of duty ammunition fired at ranges from seven to at least 10 yards, including at least one timed reload, with at least 25 rounds fired in full automatic (short bursts of two or three rounds), and at least five rounds fired semi-automatic, if possible with the weapon; (d) The minimum passing percentage shall be 70 for each weapon. (e) The executive director may, upon written agency request, waive any standard contained in this section. (f) The effective date of this section is March 1, s section is March 1, 2001.

67 Sec CONTINUING DEMONSTRATION OF WEAPONS PROFICIENCY. (a) An agency that employs at least two peace officers shall designate a firearms proficiency officer and require each peace officer the agency employs to demonstrate weapons proficiency to the firearms proficiency officer at least annually. The agency shall maintain records of the weapons proficiency of the agency's peace officers. (b) On request, the commission may waive the requirement that a peace officer demonstrate weapons proficiency on a determination by the commission that the requirement causes a hardship. (c) The commission by rule shall define weapons proficiency for purposes of this section. (Government Code, Sec )

68 Active License Renewal Reactivation of a License Rule Occupation Code Rule

69 § Active License Renewal. (a) Active licensees who have met the current legislatively required continuing education will have their license(s) automatically renewed on August 31 of each odd numbered year. (b) The executive director shall notify in writing each active licensee who is in noncompliance with the current legislatively required continuing education at least 90 days prior to expiration. The notice shall be mailed to the licensee and to the licensees last appointing agency, if any. The notice shall inform the licensee that the license will expire if the licensee does not meet the current legislatively required continuing education by the expiration date. The notice shall also inform the licensee of his or her opportunity to have the license reinstated. (c) In order for an expired license to be reinstated, the licensee must meet the reactivation requirements. (d) The time between expiration and reinstated of a license is not eligible to be used to meet any requirements for proficiency certification or service time. (e) The effective date of this section is March 1, 2001.

70 § Reactivation of a License. (a) The commission will place all licenses in an inactive status when the licensee has not been reported to the commission as appointed for more than two years after: (1) the last report of termination; or (2) the date of last reactivation. (b) Individuals with basic licensure training over two years old must meet the requirements of § (f) and (g) before they may be appointed. (c) Individuals with basic licensure examination results over two years old must meet the requirements of § (f) and (g) before they may be appointed. (d) The holder of an inactive license is unlicensed for purposes of these sections and the Occupations Code, Chapter (e) This section includes any permanent peace officer qualification certificate with an effective date before September 1, (f) Before individuals with inactive licenses may be appointed they must: (1) meet the current licensing standards with successful completion of a prior basic licensing course fulfilling the current licensing course requirement; and

71 (2) successfully complete the legislatively required continuing education for the current training cycle. (g) Once an individual has: (1) met the current standards; and (2) made application, in the format currently prescribed by the commission, submitted any required fee(s); and upon the approval of the application, the commission will issue the holder of an inactive license an endorsement of eligibility to take the required licensing examination. This endorsement of eligibility will allow the applicant to take the examination three times. If failed three times, the applicant may not be issued another endorsement of eligibility until successful completion of the current licensure course. (h) The effective date of this section is August 1, 2001.

72 Sec REACTIVATION OF PEACE OFFICER LICENSE. (a) The commission shall adopt rules establishing requirements for reactivation of a peace officer's license after a break in employment. (b) The commission may consider employment as a peace officer in another state in determining whether the person is required to obtain additional training or testing. (Government Code, Sec (c) (part).) [Sections reserved for expansion]

73 Distribute copies of the current Commission Rules to all students admitted to a licensing course.

74 REQUIRED The coordinator is required by rule to distribute copies of the current Commission Rules to all students admitted to a licensing course. The coordinator is also responsible for ensuring that a review of the rules pertaining to the following areas is conducted during the teaching of any course that may result in the issuance of a license: Law Enforcement Achievement Awards (211.33), Proficiency Certificate Requirements (221.1), License Action and Notification (223.1), Answer Required (223.3), Suspension of a License (223.15), Revocation of a License (223.19), and Reinstatement of a License (223.17).

75 2.1.5 Explain the traditional police service model.

76 Reactive response Most of the workload of patrol officers and detectives consists of handling crimes that have already been committed, disturbances in progress, traffic violations, and the lot. The exceptions include crime prevention and narcotics investigations.

77 Incident driven Relies on limited information mostly from victims, witnesses, and suspects.

78 Use of the criminal justice system The primary means of resolving incidents is to involve the criminal justice process.

79 Use of aggregate statistics The department's performance is largely measured by statistical comparisons. The department is doing a good job when the city-wide crime rate is low, or the city- wide arrest rate is high. The best officers are those who make many arrests or service many calls.

80 Lack of community and employee involvement in the decision making process Most decisions are made at the management and mid-management level with little citizen involvement.

81 Citizen and employee expectations The expectations of both the community and agency employees are often not met due to the expectation that peace officers will have a high impact on crime in the community.

82 The use of specialized units The traditional model has used specialized units with a high degree of effectiveness. Directed patrol, traffic, investigative, and other related approaches have had a large degree of success in many police agencies.

83 Define "Community Policing" and explain this service model.

84 Definition of Community Policing (in IRG)

85 Ten Principles of Community Oriented Policing (in IRG)

86 How does community policing differ from police community relations?

87 Refer to IRG Handout on Definition of Community Oriented Policing Handout on Ten Principles of Community Oriented Policing Overhead or handout comparison of community policing to police - community relations

88 What is the importance of networking cooperatively with other professionals in the criminal justice system and with professional employed by other community based agencies and service providers?

89 Peace Officer is but one cog in the gear of our modern society. In order to maximize his/her potential as an agent of change in the community, the officer must recognize the need to call on the expertise of other professionals in the resolution of problems directed toward improvement of the quality of life in the particular community served.

90 Some examples

91 Private Attorneys No officer should ever make a referral to a private attorney. This could result in a suit against an officer.

92 Legal Services Local Lawyer Referral Service - usually operated by County or District Bar Association County Bar Association - for complaints against attorneys District or County Attorney - to directly file criminal cases or apply for family protective orders. Small Claims Court - when cases involve money matters of $5, or less and no attorney is required. Both parties to action may represent themselves. (GC ) County/District Grand Jury - citizens may apply directly to Grand Jury to hear a criminal action

93 Social Services State Department of Mental Health and Mental Retardation Alcoholic problems/mental illness/counseling services

94 Texas Department of Health and Human Services Child Protection Elderly Protection Emergency Financial Assistance

95 Local Women's Shelters Battered/abused women and children Local ministers/religious or civil shelters, etc.

96 What is the importance of involving the community in all policing activities which directly impact the quality of community life?

97 Reducing fear by addressing problem of crime in the community Establishing trust and harmony between the community residents and the peace officer Exchanging information to strengthen rapport and enhance community safety Assisting in identifying and resolving community problems Clarifying responsibilities on behalf of citizens and peace officer Helping define service needs

98 What are the philosophical differences between community based policing and traditional approaches?

99 Traditional model is incident driven; reactive. Officer activity is based on calls for service (cfs). C.O.P. is pro-active/co-active. New role is more complex: Law Enforcer-cfs, incident driven and reactive Planner-information gatherer and analyst Problem Solver-strategist, critical thinker Community organizer - co-active role in resolving community problems through joint efforts

100 Student should be instructed to check local departmental policy regarding community referrals

101 Unit Goal: 2.2. To increase the understanding of the organization's role in society and police organizational issues.

102 Interpret the police organization's role in society.

103 What is the purpose of a police organization? To fight crime? To serve and protect To promote the Public Safety

104 The concept of quality police customer service:

105 For whom do we work? The peace officer works for and services the citizen of the community in which he is employed. It is the police officer's duty to protect and serve his/her community even to the point of placing his/her life at risk?

106 To Whom are we responsible? The peace officer is responsible to the citizens of the community through the chain of command in the organization.

107 Whose standards do we attempt to meet? The officer and his agency must meet numerous standards which determine how s/he is to do the job. These standards are set by all levels of government, the agency, family and the community.

108 Who are our customers? Our customers are the citizens of the community, and those citizens from other communities who happen to need our services while on business or visiting in our community.

109 What is quality police customer service? The basic concept of quality police customer service is to provide a level of service in which the citizen not only receives the basic protection expected of a police agency, but receives it in a highly effective and efficient manner, from police personnel who display a highly positive, friendly, and helpful manner. This means the citizen and his needs are placed before the personal desire of the officer, or of the agency in general.

110 Discuss primary mission(s) of law enforcement agencies.

111 Recognize the values and rewards of providing quality police customer service.

112 What are the values of providing quality police customer services? The quality driven police agency and its employees must consider themselves as a business venture in which a high degree of value is placed on quality customer service. The most important idea found in this concept is that the community is well served, and the agency becomes a highly professional, respected service-oriented organization.

113 What are the rewards of providing quality police customer service? The rewards are many. They include the building of pride within the agency and the community. Financial rewards come from a community that is aware of the quality of their police service and is willing to reward their service providers by meeting their needs for salaries benefits and equipment. The peace officer who services in an agency which provides its citizens with a high quality of service has much to be proud of and should enjoy the strong, loyal support of the community (especially in times of critical needs) on a day-to-day basis.

114 Example: only a small number of satisfied citizens can demand and obtain compensation increase for their service providers; however, the same number or less can block such benefit in most communities.

115 Analyze and discuss the characteristics of traditional (formal) police organizational structure and police subculture (informal).

116 Paramilitary Characteristics authoritarian chain of command micro management theory X

117 Theory X Propositions A manager holding to these would be inclined to believe and state that 1.On average my staff really do not want to work. if they had a choice they would not want to commit themselves to work for the employer in the employer's time. They avoid it wherever possible. Basically they are self-interested and prefer leisure rather than working for someone else.

118 2. Because of this I have to structure work and energies my staff. Tasks need to be well-specified. Even then many need pushing and more direction and control so that they apply adequate effort towards what has to be achieved. Even though I provide good rewards - many of my staff are still disinclined to apply consistently the kinds of effort the organization needs. Many accept the rewards, complain that they need more and yet behave in ways that are less than fully committed. I have to resort to more checks, instructions and exhortations - sometimes even punishments. If I relax my gaze and I am too soft sloppiness sets in.

119 3.Indeed most people prefer to be directed. They do not really wish to carry the burden of responsibility indeed they tend to avoid this. They have little ambition and prefer a secure, steady life.

120 Discuss advantages and disadvantages

121 Alternative models Participative Theory Y

122 A Theory Y manager tends to believe that 1.Given the right conditions for employees, their application of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as rest or play. Work is play, offers satisfactions and meaning.

123 2.There are alternatives to reliance on external controls, pushing and threats - implied or real. These are not the only means for linking individual effort with organizational objectives. If people feel committed, they will exercise self-direction and self- control in the service of the firm's objectives.

124 3.Their objectives will complement the firm's and commitment is a function of the "intrinsic" rewards associated with their achievement i.e. not just extrinsic rewards/punishments.

125 4. The Theory Y manager recognizes the influence of learning. He/she believes that if the right conditions are created the average person learns not to accept and seek responsibility.

126 5.The capacity to exercise imagination, ingenuity and creativity in the solution of organizational problems is widely not narrowly distributed in the work force

127 6.In modern organizations, the intellectual potential of the average person are only partially utilized. People are capable of handling more complex problems.

128 Why look at police subculture? to better understand the behavior of others and to allow for informed choices about one's own behavior to understand public perceptions of police to discover ways to change the organization's culture police bureaucracy and organizational structure shapes and molds young officers police system, not personality, produces working personality applicants not attracted by authoritarian role or deep- seated power needs authoritarianism is cultivated by police culture

129 Characteristics of the Police Subculture curiosity and suspiciousness solidarity --taking care of one another secrecy -- protection from hostile environment political and social conservatism cynicism - Hobbesian view of social work social isolation authoritarian approach to control, conformity

130 Subculture social problems stress (cyclic - continuous reinforcement) commitment to community values and needs becomes secondary cynicism and alienation (Niederhoffer) Dirty Harry problem : Good ends, dirty means.

131 Subculture benefits Officers must choose between the subculture and professionalism.

132 "There is nothing sadder than a young pessimist." Mark Twain

133 "If there is one principle, clearer than any other, it is this --that in any business, whether government or merely merchandising, somebody must be trusted." Woodrow Wilson

134

135 READING ASSIGNMENTS FOR PROFESSIONAL POLICING APPROACHES What Works--Research and the Police, George Kelling. NIJ: Crime File Study Guide Policing and Communities: The Quiet Revolution, George Kelling. Perspectives on Policing, No. 1. NIJ. June Crime and Policing, Mark Moore, Robert Trojanowicz, & George Kelling. Perspectives on Policing, No. 2. NIJ. June The Evolving Strategy of Policing, George Kelling & Mark Moore. Perspectives on Policing, No. 4. NIJ. November Debating the Evolution of American Policing, Edited by Francis Hartmann. Perspectives on Policing, No. 5. NIJ. November Police Accountability and Community Policing, George Kelling, Robert Wasserman, & Hubert Williams. Perspectives on Policing, No. 7. NIJ. November Implementing Community Policing, Malcolm Sparrow. Perspectives on Policing, No. 9. NIJ. November Neighborhoods and Police: The Maintenance of Civil Authority, George Kelling & James Stewart. Perspectives on Policing, No. 10. NIJ. May Community Policing: A Practical Guide for Police Officials, Lee Brown. Perspectives on Policing, No. 12. NIJ. September The Evolving Strategy of Police: A Minority View, Hubert Williams & Patrick Murphy. Perspectives on Policing, No. 13. NIJ. January Histories and Futures of Policing: Readings and Misreadings of a Pivotal Present. Victor Strecher. Police Forum: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences Police Section, Vol. 1(1). January 1991.

136 RECOMMENDED/SUGGESTED: Some of these readings should be assigned to some or all of the students. It would useful to consider the student's interest in assigning a particular topic or reading. Community Policing: Would You Know It If You Saw It. Francis Hartmann, Lee Brown, & Darrel Stephens. National Center for Community Policing. Preventing Civil Disturbances: a Community Policing Approach, Robert Trojanowicz. National Center for Community Policing. Community Policing and the Challenge of Diversity, Robert Trojanowicz and Bonnie Bucqueroux., National Center for Community Policing. Policing and the Fear of Crime, Mark Moore & Robert Trojanowicz. Perspectives on Policing, No. 3. NIJ. June Corporate Strategies for Policing, Mark Moore & Robert Trojanowicz. Perspectives on Policing, No. 6. NIJ. November Values in Policing, Robert Wasserman & Mark Moore. Perspectives on Policing No. 8. NIJ. November The Police and Drugs, Mark Moore & Mark Kleiman. Perspectives on Policing, No. 11. NIJ September Problem Oriented Policing, Herman Goldstein. McGraw Hill: New York Chapters One through Three, Community Policing: A Contemporary Perspective, Robert Trojanowicz & bonnie Bucqueroux. Anderson Publishing Co. *NIJ materials may be obtained free of charge by calling *Nation Center for Community Policing materials may be obtained free of charge by calling (517)

137 Definition of Community Policing Community Policing is a new philosophy of policing, based on the concept that police officers and private citizens working together in creative ways can help solve contemporary community problems related to crime, fear of crime, social and physical disorder, and neighborhood decay. The philosophy is predicated on the belief that achieving these goals requires that police departments develop a new relationship with the law-abiding people in the community, allowing them a greater voice in setting local police priorities and involving them in efforts to improve the overall quality of life in their neighborhoods. It shifts the focus of police work from handling random calls to solving community problems. The Community Policing philosophy is expressed in a new organizational strategy that allows police departments to put theory into practice. This requires freeing some patrol officers from the isolation of the patrol car and the incessant demands of the police radio, so that these officers can maintain direct, face-to-face contact with people in the same defined geographic (beat) area every day. This new Community Policing Officer (CPO) serves as a generalist, an officer whose mission includes developing imaginative, new ways to address the broad spectrum of community concerns embraced by the Community Policing philosophy. The goal is to allow CPOs to own their beat areas, so that they can develop the rapport and trust that is vital in encouraging people to become involved in efforts to address the problems in their neighborhoods. The CPO acts as the police department's outreach to the community, serving as the people's link to other public and private agencies that can help. The CPO not only enforces the law, but supports and supervises community-based efforts aimed at local concerns. The CPO allows people direct input in setting day-to-day, local police priorities, in exchange for their cooperation and participation in efforts to police themselves. Community Policing requires both a philosophical shift in the way that police departments think about their mission, as well as a commitment to the structural changes this new form of policing demands. Community Policing provides a new way for the police to provide decentralized and personalized police service that offers every law-abiding citizen an opportunity to become active in the police process.

138 THE TEN PRINCIPLES OF COMMUNITY POLICING

139 1. Community Policing is both a philosophy and an organizational strategy that allows the police and community residents to work closely together in new ways to solve the problems of crime, fear of crime, physical and social disorder, and neighborhood decay. The philosophy rests on the belief that law-abiding people in the community deserve input into the police process, in exchange for their participation and support. It also rests on the belief that solutions to contemporary community problems demand freeing both people and the police to explore creative, new ways to address neighborhood concerns beyond a narrow focus on in individual crime incidents.

140 2. Community Policing's organizational strategy first demands that everyone in the department, including both civilian and sworn personnel, must investigate ways to translate the philosophy into practice. This demands making the subtle but sophisticated shift so that everyone in the department understands the need to focus on solving community problems in creative, new ways that can include challenging and enlisting people in the process of policing themselves. Community Policing also implies a shift within the department that grants greater autonomy to line officers, which implies enhanced respect for their judgment as police professionals.

141 3. To implement true Community Policing, police departments must also create and develop a new breed of line officer, the Community Policing Officer (CPO), who acts as the direct link between the police and people in the community. As the department's community outreach specialists, CPOs must be freed from the isolation of the patrol car and the demands of the police radio, so that they can maintain daily, direct, face-to-face contact with the people they serve in a clearly defined beat area.

142 4. The CPO's broad role demands continuous, sustained contact with the law-abiding people in the community, so that together they can explore creative new solutions to local concerns involving crime, fear of crime, disorder, and decay, with private citizens serving as unpaid volunteers. As full- fledged law enforcement officers, CPOs respond to calls for service and make arrests, but they also go beyond this narrow focus to develop and monitor broad-based, long-term initiatives that can involve community residents in efforts to improve the overall quality of life in the area over time. As the community's ombudsman, CPOs also link individuals and groups in the community to the public and private agencies that offer help.

143 5. Community Policing implies a new contract between the police and the citizens it serves, one that offers the hope of overcoming widespread apathy, at the same time it restrains any impulse to vigilantism. This new relationship based on mutual trust, also suggests that the police serve as a catalyst, challenging people to accept their share of the responsibility for solving their own individual problems, as well as their share of the responsibility for the overall quality of life in the community. The shift to Community Policing also means a slower response time for non-emergency calls and that citizens themselves will be asked to handle more of their minor concerns, but in exchange this will free the department to work with people on developing long-term solutions for pressing community concerns.

144 6. Community Policing adds a vital proactive element to the traditional reactive role of the police, resulting in full-spectrum police service. As the only agency of social control open 24 hours a day, seven days a week, the police must maintain the ability to respond to immediate crises and crime incidents, but Community Policing broadens the police role so that they can make a greater impact on making changes today that hold the promise of making communities safer and more attractive places to live tomorrow.

145 7. Community Policing stresses exploring new ways to protect and enhance lives of those who are most vulnerable - juveniles, the elderly, minorities, the poor, the disabled, the homeless. It both assimilates and broadens the scope of previous outreach efforts, such as Crime Prevention and Police/Community Relations units, by involving the entire department in efforts to prevent and control crime in ways that encourage the police and law-abiding people to work together with mutual respect and accountability.

146 8. Community Policing promotes the judicious use of technology, but it also rests on the belief that nothing surpasses what dedicated human beings, talking and working together, can achieve. It invests trust in those who are on the front lines together on the street, relying on their combined judgment, wisdom, and expertise to fashion creative new approaches to contemporary community concerns.

147 9. Community Policing must be a fully integrated approach that involves everyone in the department, with the CPOs as specialists in bridging the gap between the police and the people they serve. The Community Policing approach plays a crucial role internally, within the police department, by providing information and assistance about the community and its problems, and by enlisting broad-based community support for the department's overall objectives.

148 10. Community Policing provides decentralized, personalized police service to the community. It recognizes that the police cannot impose order on the community from outside, but that people must be encouraged to think of the police as a resource they can use in helping to solve contemporary community concerns. It is not a tactic to be applied, then abandoned, but an entirely new way of thinking about the police role in society, a philosophy that also offers a coherent and cohesive organizational plan that police departments can modify to suit their specific needs.

149 COMMUNITY POLICING Goal: Solve problems - Improved relations with citizens is a welcome by product POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Goal: Change attitudes and project a positive image - improved relations with citizens is a main focus

150 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Line function: Regular contact between officers and citizens Staff Function: Irregular contact between officers and citizens

151 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS A department - wide philosophy and department-wide acceptance Isolated acceptance often localized in the PCR unit

152 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Internal and external influence and respect for officers Well defined role - does both proactive and reactive policing - a full service officer Limited influence and respect for officers Loose role definition; focus on dealing with problems of strained relations between police and citizens; crime prevention encouraged

153 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Direct service - same officer takes complaints and gives crime prevention tips Indirect service - advice on crime prevention from PCR officer but "regular" officers respond to complaints

154 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Citizens nominate problems and cooperate in setting up the police agenda "Blue Ribbon" committees identify the problems and "preach" to police

155 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Police accountability is ensured by the citizens receiving the service in addition to administrative mechanisms Police accountability is ensured by civilian review boards and formal police supervision

156 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Officer is the leader and catalyst for change in the neighborhood to reduce fear, disorder, decay and crime Officer provides consultation on crime issues without having identified beat boundaries or "field responsibilities"

157 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Chief of Police is an advocate and sets the tone for the delivery of both law enforcement and social services in the jurisdiction Chief of Police reacts to only the law enforcement concerns of special interest groups

158 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Officers educate public about issues (like response time or preventive patrol) and the need to prioritize services Officers focus on racial and ethnic tension issues and encourage increased services

159 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Increased trust between the police officer and citizens because of long term, regular contact results in an enhanced flow of information to the police Cordial relationship but often superficial trust with minimum information flow to prevent and solve crime

160 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Officer is continually accessible in person, by telephone, or in a decentralized office Intermittent contact with the public because of city-wide responsibility; contact is made through central headquarters

161 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Regular visibility in the neighborhood Officer is viewed as having a "stake in the community" Officer seldom seen "on the streets" Officer is viewed as an "outsider"

162 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Officer is a role model because of regular contact with citizens (especially youth role model) Citizens do not get to know officer on an intense basis

163 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Influence is from "the bottom up" - citizens receiving service help set priorities and influence police policy Influence is from the "top down" - those who "know best" have input and make decisions

164 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Meaningful organizational change and departmental restructuring - ranging from officer selection to training, evaluation, and promotion Traditional organization stays intact with new" programs periodically added; no fundamental organizational change

165 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS When intervention is necessary, informal social control is the first choice When intervention is necessary, formal means of control are typically the first choice

166 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Officer encourages citizens to solve many of their own problems and volunteer to assist neighbors Citizens are encouraged to volunteer but are told to request and expect more government (including law enforcement) services

167 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Officer encourages other service providers like animal control, fire fighters, and mail carriers to become involved in community problem solving Service providers stay in traditional roles

168 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Officer mobilizes all community resources, including citizens, private and public agencies, and private businesses Officers do not have mobilization responsibility because there is no specific beat area for which they are responsible

169 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS Success is determined by the reduction in citizen fear, neighborhood disorder, and crime Success is determined by traditional measures - i.e., crime rates and citizen satisfaction with the police

170 COMMUNITY POLICING POLICE COMMUNITY RELATIONS All officers are sworn personnel Most staff members are sworn personnel but some are non- sworn

171 Professionalism and Commitment The choice is between a commitment to professionalism or the delinquent subculture. Disenchantment - Return to Cynicism Delinquent commitment _ subculture _ Alienation _ Anomie

172 Dirty Harry Problem MEANS Morally Morally - Good Dirty E A B N D C D S

173 Dirty Harry problem is B: Good ends, dirty means.

174 TCLEOSE History Law enforcement officers of Texas, working through the Legislative Councils of their associations, encouraged the Texas Legislature in 1965 to enact legislation that created the Commission. Over the years, the Act was amended to require all new officers appointed after September 1, 1970 to meet minimum appointment standards; to mandate pre- employment training for Peace Officers; and Reserve Officers; and Armed Public Security Officers; and to require training for County Jailers.

175 From June 2000 data Basic Statistics: Number of active peace officer licenses: 65,203 Number of active county jail licenses: 33,759 Number of active reserve licenses: 8,805 Number of agencies: 2,730 Number of officers approved for the Peace Officer Memorial: 815 (research continues)

176 Diversity (gender and minority) from above active licensees gender: 85.5% male, 14.4% female race: 8.7% African-American,.3% American Indian, Hispanic 17%, Asian-American.4, Caucasian 73.4%

177

178 1764Cesare Beccaria (an Italian social thinker) On Crime and Punishment-a convincing argument against torture and capital punishment. Only the minimum amount of punishment is needed to control crime if criminals could be convinced that their law violations were certain to be discovered and swiftly punished.

179 1900Emergence of Professionalism!!!

180 1919Chicago Crime Commission: Criminal Justice System is recognized. It was a professional organization funded by private contributions. It was a citizen advocate group designed to keep track of the activities of local justice agencies

181 1922Cleveland Crime Commission: was viewed as –first to see the Criminal Justice system is a people processing warehouse system (a view still widely held today). It uncovered widespread use of discretion, plea bargaining and other practices unknown to the public.

182 1926Similar projects were conducted by the Missouri Crime Survey.

183 1929 Illinois Crime Survey followed the Missouri Crime Survey.

184 1931The Wickersham Commission was formed through the National Commission of Law Observance and Enforcement which was appointed by President Herbert Hoover. The study group made a detailed analysis of the U. S. Justice system and helped usher in the era of treatment and rehabilitation. It showed in great detail the variety of rules and regulations that govern the system and exposed how difficult it was for the justice personnel to keep track of the systems legal and administrative complexity.

185 1967The Presidents Commission on –Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice was formed under President Lyndon Baynes Johnson. The Commission published its report entitled, The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society. The educators, lawyers, and practitioners were charged with creating a comprehensive view of the criminal justice process and recommend reforms.

186 1968 The Safe Streets and Crime Control Act of 1968 developed from the Presidents Commission on Law Enforcement. This provide for large federal expenditures to state and local crime control efforts. The LEAA (Law Enforcement Assistance Administration) provide hundreds of millions of dollars in aid for state and local justice activities.

187 If we dont succeed we run the risk of failure -Dan Quayle


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