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Film History 1960s – 1980s.

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Presentation on theme: "Film History 1960s – 1980s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Film History 1960s – 1980s

2 The 1960s The 1960s were the age of youth.
Seventy million children from the post-war baby boom became teenagers and young adults.  The movement away from the conservative 1950s continued and eventually resulted in revolutionary ways of thinking and real change in the cultural fabric of American life.  The changes affected education, values, lifestyles, laws, and entertainment.  Many of the revolutionary ideas which began in the 1960s are continuing to evolve today.  The 1960s were the age of youth. Seventy million children from the post-war baby boom became teenagers and young adults.  The movement away from the conservative 1950s continued and eventually resulted in revolutionary ways of thinking and real change in the cultural fabric of American life.  No longer content to be images of the generation ahead of them, young people wanted change. The changes affected education, values, lifestyles, laws, and entertainment.  Many of the revolutionary ideas which began in the 1960s are continuing to evolve today. 

3 Groundbreaking Film 1960 “Psycho”
The "mother" of all modern horror suspense films, featuring a famous and memorable score with shrieking, piercing violins, and the notorious shower scene. It also was the first American film ever to show a toilet flushing on screen.

4 Hollywood “Witch Hunts” Officially End
1960 The talented scriptwriter Dalton Trumbo, one of the Hollywood Ten, received full credit for writing the screenplays for “Exodus” and “Spartacus,” thus becoming the first blacklisted writer to receive screen credit. In 1960, Trumbo was finally reinstated in the Writers Guild of America. This official recognition effectively brought an end to the HUAC 'blacklist era'.

5 Movies in the Air 1961 TWA exhibited the first in-flight feature film on a regularly-scheduled commercial airline. It was MGM's “By Love Possessed,” starring Lana Turner and Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., shown on TWA flights from New York to Los Angeles.

6 Groundbreaking Film 1961 “West Side Story”
Its achievement as a ten Oscar winner was only surpassed by three other films (each with 11 Oscars): “Ben-Hur,” “Titanic,” and “The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King.”

7 Martin Luther King gave his “I have a dream” speech.
Civil Rights 1963 The 1960s saw the groundswell of the Civil Rights Movement, which made great changes in society in the 1960s. Martin Luther King gave his “I have a dream” speech. Sidney Poitier was the first African-American to win the Best Actor Oscar.

8 Assassinations Mar the ’60s
1963 President John F. Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas. Other leaders were gunned down in this turbulent decade: Malcolm X 1965 Martin Luther King 1968 Bobby Kennedy 1968

9 Video Goes Consumer – kind of
1963 Ampex, which had developed the world's first practical videotape recorder in 1956 for TV studios, began to offer its first consumer version of a videotape recorder. Sold through the Neiman-Marcus Christmas catalogue for $30,000 - a non-consumer-friendly price.

10 Birth of Multiplex 1963 The first theater originally designed as a “multiplex” opened in the Ward Parkway shopping center in south Kansas City.

11 This film pioneered what would become the music video.
Groundbreaking Film 1964 “Hard Day’s Night” The mockumentary “A Hard Day's Night,” the first Beatles film, premiered. This film pioneered what would become the music video.

12 “Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb”
Groundbreaking Film 1964 “Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb” A brilliant, satirical, provocative black comedy/fantasy regarding doomsday and Cold War politics. It was the first commercially successful political satire about nuclear war, was a cynically-objective, Monty Python-esque, humorous, biting response to the apocalyptic fears of the 1950s.

13 The Vietnam War occurred from 1959 until 1975.
The Decade of the ’60s and Beyond: The Vietnam War occurred from 1959 until 1975. The war was fought between the communist North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other nations. It was a hugely divisive and costly war, its ramifications still reverberating today.

14 Censorship Eased… Somewhat
1966 Sweeping revisions were made in the Hays Code regarding the standards of decency for films, suggesting restraint in questionable themes, rather than forbidding them completely. In the new code of the Motion Picture Association of America, virtue and the condemnation of sin were still encouraged. However, it eliminated previous prohibitions of "lustful kissing" and "passion that stimulates the base emotions," and permitted certain films to be labeled "recommended for mature audiences."

15 Civil Unrest, Protests 1960s The Vietnam War The Draft Civil Rights
The War on Poverty

16 First movie to graphically portray gunshot violence.
Groundbreaking Film 1967 “Bonnie and Clyde” The anti-establishment, violent film, originally criticized at the time of its release, was aimed at youth audiences. First movie to graphically portray gunshot violence.

17 Sony Enters the Video World
1967 Sony introduced a portable (but bulky), expensive, out-of-studio, black-and-white video camera system (or video tape recorder - VTR) called the PortaPak -- it inaugurated the modern era of video.

18 New Rating System 1968 A new voluntary ratings system was developed by the MPAA (Motion Picture Association of America). The new system classified films according to their suitability for viewing by young people, in four categories: "G" for general audiences; "M" for mature audiences; "R," no one under 16 admitted without an adult guardian (later raised to under 17 years of age); and "X," no one under 17 admitted. The four criteria used in the ratings included theme, language, violence, and nudity and/or sexual content. Many parents thought films rated M contained more adult content than those that were rated R; this confusion led to its replacement in 1969 by the rating of GP (or General Public, or General Audiences, Parental Guidance Suggested). In 1970, the GP (or earlier M) rating was changed to PG: Parental Guidance Suggested, and the age limit was increased to 17. [The PG ratings category would again be revised in 1984.]

19 Groundbreaking Film 1968 “Planet of the Apes”
This classic science fiction film was one of the pioneering, modern multimedia marketing blockbusters, spawning not only four sequels and two television series spinoffs, but merchandising, such as action figures. It provided both solid entertainment value, and an effective, politically-charged message of social commentary.

20 Sony Does It Again 1969 Sony introduced a new device -- the videocassette recorder (VCR) for home use.

21 Groundbreaking Film 1969 “Easy Rider” A new wave of independent
filmmaking in Hollywood (dubbed "The New Hollywood") was signaled by the anti-Establishment release of the low-budget “Easy Rider.” Its phenomenal success shook up the major Hollywood studios.

22 Man Walks on the Moon 1969 The United States wins the space race. Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to walk on the moon.

23 The 1970s The chaotic events of the 60's, including war and social change, seemed destined to continue in the 70's.    Many of the "radical" ideas of the 60's gained wider acceptance in the new decade, and were mainstreamed into American life and culture.  Indeed, the events of the times were reflected in and became the inspiration for much of the music, literature, entertainment, and even fashion of the decade.   The chaotic events of the 60's, including war and social change, seemed destined to continue in the 70's.  Major trends included a growing disillusionment of government, advances in civil rights, increased influence of the women's movement, a heightened concern for the environment, and increased space exploration.  Many of the "radical" ideas of the 60's gained wider acceptance in the new decade, and were mainstreamed into American life and culture.  Amid war, social realignment and presidential impeachment proceedings, American culture flourished.  Indeed, the events of the times were reflected in and became the inspiration for much of the music, literature, entertainment, and even fashion of the decade.

24 Disaster Films Disaster films became a main staple of films in the 70s -- the trend began with “Airport.” The entire disaster film craze was really kick-started by “The Poseidon Adventure.”

25 Groundbreaking Film 1972 “Billy Jack”
The first film to be marketed in “wide-release” at many theatrical venues on the same day. This was a change from the previous strategy of testing a film in a few markets to first see if results were positive, before expanding its market. It paved the way for the method in which all major releases are done today.

26 HBO is Born 1972 HBO transmitted its first cable television programming to 365 subscribers in Wilkes-Barre, PA -- this marked the start of pay-TV service for cable.

27 A reinvention of the gangster genre, it won three Oscars.
Groundbreaking Film 1972 “The Godfather” A reinvention of the gangster genre, it won three Oscars. “The Godfather” was the first U.S. film to gross $100 million domestically at the box office in its initial release.

28 Groundbreaking Film and Business Deal
1973 “Star Wars” and George Lucas In negotiations with Fox, George Lucas wisely cut his directing fee for “Star Wars” by $500,000 in order to gain ownership of merchandising and sequel rights. In a revolutionary approach to Hollywood film-making and merchandising, Lucas wisely accepted the small fee of $175,000 in return for the much more lucrative forty percent of merchandising rights for his Star Wars Corporation. Merchandising of movie paraphernalia associated with the film encouraged an entire marketing industry of Star Wars-related items (e.g., toys, video games, novelty items at fast food restaurants, etc.).

29 Groundbreaking Film 1975 “Jaws”
Steven Spielberg's “Jaws” was the first modern blockbuster film to top the $100 million record in box-office business in North America (cruising past previous pace-setters “Gone With the Wind,” “The Sound of Music,” and “The Godfather”). Part of its financial success was due to the fact that Hollywood advertised its release on television with a massive TV marketing campaign costing $700,000. It was also booked into almost 500 theatres for its opening weekend - a record! - making it one of the first major films to open in wide-release throughout the country. The film's tremendous success spurred Hollywood studios to aggressively look for further modern blockbusting, 'big-event' films that could break weekend box-office records - fueled by increasingly more expensive ad campaigns. Steven Spielberg's “Jaws” was the first modern blockbuster film to top the $100 million record in box-office business in North America (cruising past previous pace-setters “Gone With the Wind,” “The Sound of Music,” and “The Godfather”). Part of its financial success was due to the fact that Hollywood advertised its release on television with a massive TV marketing campaign costing $700,000. It was also booked into almost 500 theatres for its opening weekend - a record! - making it one of the first major films to open in wide-release throughout the country. The film's tremendous success spurred Hollywood studios to aggressively look for further modern blockbusting, 'big-event' films that could break weekend box-office records - fueled by increasingly more expensive ad campaigns.

30 By 1987, VHS had acquired about 95% of the consumer market.
VHS Introduced 1976 JVC introduced the VHS (originally meant ‘vertical helical scan,’ and later ‘Video Home System’) -- a ½-inch video format. The first VHS cassettes and players, which cost about $885 each. The system was designed to compete with Sony's Betamax magnetic tape system, with a longer recording time. In 1977, RCA began marketing the first VCRs in the United States based on JVC's system, capable of recording up to four hours. By 1987, VHS had acquired about 95% of the consumer market.

31 Groundbreaking Film 1977 “Star Wars”
Until “Jaws” and then “Star Wars,” the summer was typically Hollywood's slow season -- not true afterwards. This movie truly revolutionized special effects and movie merchandising.

32 Groundbreaking Business
1978 Disney licensed its cartoon compilations – the first Disney videos available to the public.

33 Began the teen slasher film cycle.
Groundbreaking Film 1978 “Halloween” Began the teen slasher film cycle. It was dismissed as schlock by most critics, until championed by critics as a work of art. For many years, it was the highest grossing independent film of all time, and ushered in a glut of other similarly gory films.

34 Groundbreaking Film 1978 “Animal House”
A wildly-successful gross-out teen comedy with unrefined humor, it was the first $100 million hit comedy. It was one of the earliest films to be targeted directly at the teenaged audience - and set the stage for further Hollywood films made just for that demographic.

35 Ticket Prices 1971 $1.65 1978 $2.50

36 Hollywood Changes Conglomerate takeovers.
Hollywood began to produce more material for television than theatres. Films were shot on location, rather than in the studios.

37 The 1980s became the Me! Me! Me! generation of status seekers.
During the 1980s, hostile takeovers, leveraged buyouts, and mega-mergers spawned a new breed of billionaire. Video games, aerobics, minivans, camcorders, and talk shows became part of our lives.   At the turn of the decade, many were happy to leave the spendthrift 80s for the 90s, although some thought the 1980s TOTALLY AWESOME.  

38 Groundbreaking Television
1981 MTV, a music video channel on cable, was launched 24/7. Its style of fast-moving videos with montages and mini-stories had a major influence all across popular culture.

39 Blockbuster Decade 1980s Became the “blockbuster” decade as huge box office hits became the norm. “Raiders of the Lost Ark” “E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial” “Ghostbusters” “The Empire Strikes Back” “Return of the Jedi” “Top Gun” “Batman” “Who Framed Roger Rabbit”

40 Copyrights 1984 The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that home videotaping or recording (for home use) did not violate copyright laws.

41 New Ratings 1984 The PG-13 film rating was introduced, in response to parental protest about the sexualized torture scene (a beating heart was ripped from a victim's chest) in influential producer/director Steven Spielberg's PG-rated “Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom,” and also for violence in “Gremlins.” The PG category was split into two by the Motion Picture Association of America: PG and PG-13 (for a film having a higher level of intensity). Children under the age of 17 could be admitted, but with parental guidance strongly suggested.

42 Groundbreaking Film 1984 “This Is Spinal Tap”
Set the standard for a mockumentary in its depiction of a fictional heavy-metal rock band named Spinal Tap on tour in the U.S. during the fall of 1982. Its most memorable scene was the one in which a band member described how the amplifier had an "11" on its dial: "These go to eleven…"

43 The first Blockbuster Video store opened in Dallas, Texas.
Blockbuster opens 1985 The first Blockbuster Video store opened in Dallas, Texas.

44 Groundbreaking Film 1985 “The Breakfast Club”
Coming-of-age teen film was extremely influential in its depiction of five stereotypical teen characters (populars, jocks, druggies, brains, and loner groups).

45 Groundbreaking Business
1985-6 Pixar Animation Studios, originally part of Lucasfilm --and Industrial Light and Magic (ILM), specialized in developing animation created exclusively on computers. It was purchased by Apple Computer's Steve Jobs and made an independent company in 1986.

46 “Who Framed Roger Rabbit”
Groundbreaking Film 1988 “Who Framed Roger Rabbit” Broke new technological ground with its remarkable blending of animated imagery and live-action human characters.

47 Film Preservation 1988 The landmark Film Preservation Act implemented a plan to allow the federal government to designate 25 films each year as "culturally, historically or aesthetically significant films." In 1989, the National Film Preservation Board began selecting 25 films for entry to a national list of film treasures. The National Film Registry of the Library of Congress was designated as the registry for films that were selected as leading examples of American cinematic art.

48 Groundbreaking Film 1989 “Batman”
It was released in mid-summer as a major 'event' film, and was hyped (with a large marketing budget) long before its release -- a new trend, with various product tie-ins (e.g., Bat merchandise, such as Batmobiles, Batman miniskirts, etc.). It was then available as a video shortly after its theatrical release to add to its box-office take -- influencing how future films would be marketed.


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