Presentation on theme: "UNIT B EVOLUTION AND MOVEMENT OF FASHION"— Presentation transcript:
1 UNIT B EVOLUTION AND MOVEMENT OF FASHION 2.02 Summarize the movement and acceptance of fashion.
2 Fashion movement: Ongoing change in what is considered fashionable. Fashion: The styles that are accepted and used by a particular group of people at a given time.
3 Theories of fashion movement Trickle-down theoryTrickle-up theoryTrickle-across theory
4 Trickle-down theory (Downward flow theory): The assumption that fashion trends start among the upper class or fashion leaders and move down to the masses or fashion followers.
5 Trickle-down theory World’s oldest and most accepted fashion theory Asserts that fashions are accepted by people of lower socioeconomic income levels only after they have been worn by people of upper socioeconomic income levelsThese styles are seen on high-fashion runways.Jackie Kennedy’s pillbox hat, Barbara Bush’s pearls, Nancy Reagan’s red, Hillary Clinton’s pantsuits in the office
6 Trickle-up theory (Upward flow theory): The assumption that fashion trends start among the young or lower income groups and move upward to older or higher income groups.
7 Trickle-up theoryStyle originates with the lower class and gains approval by upper class or the fashion elite.Ripped jeans, leather jackets
8 Trickle-across theory (Horizontal flow theory): The assumption that fashion moves horizontally through groups at similar social levels from fashion leaders to followers.
9 Trickle-across theory Members of each social group look at the leaders of their own group for fashion trends.A leader within each class influences peers or a leader of one group affects the other group members.Example: Designer fashions are copied quickly for mass production, providing similar styles at most price ranges. However, they don’t become popular until the fashion leaders of each group have accepted them.
10 The fashion cycleFashion cycle: The ongoing introduction, rise, peak, decline, and obsolescence in popularity of specific styles or shapes.All styles that come into fashion rotate through the fashion cycle.Fashion acceptance can be illustrated using a bell-shaped curve.
11 The fashion cycle (cont.) The cycles for some styles are exceptions to the bell-shaped curve.Flops: Fashions that are introduced and expected to sell but that are not accepted by consumers.Fads: Temporary, passing fashions that have great appeal to many people for a short period of time; styles that gain and lose popularity quickly.Classics: Styles that continue to be popular over an extended period of time even though fashion changes; styles that remain in fashion year after year.
12 Stages of the fashion cycle IntroductionRisePeakDeclineObsolescence
13 Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) Introduction: The first stage of the fashion cycle when new styles, colors, textures, and fabrics are introduced.The new style may be accepted by a small number of people called fashion leaders.Promotional activities include fashion shows and advertising in high fashion magazines.Fashions are produced in small quantities at high prices.Retail buyers purchase limited numbers to see if the style will be accepted.
14 Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) Rise: The second stage of the fashion cycle when consumer interest grows and the fashion becomes more readily accepted by consumers.Mass production brings down the price of the fashion, which results in more sales.Styles are manufactured in less expensive materials and in lower quality construction than the original style.Promotional efforts are increased in high fashion magazines to heighten consumer awareness.Retail buyers order items in quantity.
15 Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) Peak (Culmination stage): The third stage of the fashion cycle during which a style is at its height of popularity.The fashion is demanded by almost everyone because it is now within the price range of most consumers and is mass produced in many variations.Each retailer tries to persuade customers that its version of the style is the best.
16 Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) Peak (Culmination stage) The style may have a long or short stay at this stage.Short-run fashions: Styles that are popular for a brief period of time.Fads, usually lasting only one seasonAccepted and rejected quicklyTeenagers’ fashions change the fastest and have the most trends.Styles are easy for the manufacturer to produce and are relatively inexpensive to the consumer.Styles typically have more details than seen in classics.
17 Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) Peak (Culmination stage) Long-run fashions: Styles that take a long time to complete the fashion cycle.Classics, basics, and/or staple fashionsSlow introduction, long peak, slow declineStyles have simple lines, minimal detail.
18 Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) Decline: The fourth stage of the fashion cycle when the market is saturated and popularity decreases.The fashion is overused and becomes dull and boring.As the fashion decreases in popularity, retailers mark down their prices.Promotions center around major clearance or closeout sales of the fashion.
19 Stages of the fashion cycle (cont.) Obsolescence: The fifth stage of the fashion cycle when the style is rejected, is undesirable at any price, is no longer worn, and is no longer produced.
20 Lengths of fashion cycles Cycles have no specific lengths.Recurring fashions: Styles which have been in fashion at one time, gone out of fashion, and come back in fashion again.Fashion trends seem to recur about every generation or every 20 to 30 years.Fashion cycles are less distinct now than in the past.
21 Fashion leaders and followers Fashion leaders: Trendsetters who have the credibility and confidence to wear new fashions and influence the acceptance of new trends.The first to purchase new stylesDesire distinctiveness and uniquenessMay be innovators and/or influencers.Royal families, first families, movie stars, television personalities, athletes, singers, musicians
22 Fashion leaders and followers (cont.) Fashion followers: Those who accept and wear a fashion only after it becomes acceptable to the majority.
23 Basic principles of fashion movement Consumer acceptance or rejection establishes fashion.Price does not determine fashion acceptance.Sales promotion does not determine fashion.Fashion movement is evolutionary rather than revolutionary.Fashion extremes cause reversals or abrupt changes.
24 Factors that accelerate fashion movement Communications and mass mediaGood economic conditionsIncreased competitionTechnological advancesSocial and physical mobilityMore leisure timeHigher levels of educationChanging roles of womenSeasonal changes
25 Factors that decelerate fashion movement Bad economic conditionsCultural and religious customsLaws or other governmental regulationsDisruptive world events