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Stepping Up the Ladder in all Curriculum Areas to Improve Critical Thinking Cheryl Hutchison Carolina Springs Elementary

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Presentation on theme: "Stepping Up the Ladder in all Curriculum Areas to Improve Critical Thinking Cheryl Hutchison Carolina Springs Elementary"— Presentation transcript:

1 Stepping Up the Ladder in all Curriculum Areas to Improve Critical Thinking Cheryl Hutchison Carolina Springs Elementary

2 Think About It …. Socrates believed that questioning was the only defensible form of teaching.

3 Think About Questions Questions are the force that powers our thinking. Questions determine what information we seek. Questions are a crucial part of our thinking.

4 What do you do with a LADDER? Use it to reach higher places Supports you as you climb upward Gives you something to lean on

5 What is Jacobs Ladder? Jacobs Ladder is a process for students that begins with targeted short readings and moves through an inquiry process from basic understanding to critical analyses of the texts read. The levels vary according to students ability.

6 What is the Purpose of Jacobs Ladder? To enhance reading comprehension skills To build reading skills from lower order to higher order Build scaffolding for students to better employ higher level thinking skills To enhance student discussion of textual meaning

7 HOW WILL JACOBS LADDER HELP ME IN THE CLASSROOM? Tasks are organized by skill ladders, each containing questions and activities. Curriculum units are designed to enhance reading comprehension and build critical thinking skills. How???????? Ladder rungs increase in complexity to meet students intellectual demands.

8 Complex Text Text Text interrelated ideas most often represented in a human artifact Text is intended to convey a message. message. Thinking Thinking is the ability to explain and manipulate a text.

9 You have to go below the surface

10 To Uncover Really Big Ideas, and Deeper Understanding To Uncover Really Big Ideas, and Deeper Understanding

11 Pauls Elements of Reasoning

12 Ladder A Goal – to develop prediction and forecasting skills by encouraging the reader to make connections among the provided information. Consequences & ImplicationsRung 3, Consequences & Implications –Draw on the consequences and implications from a text for application in the real world. –Requires students to think about both short-term and long- term events that may happen as a result of an effect they have identified. Rung 2, Cause & Effect –Requires students to think about relationships and identify what causes certain effects an/or what effects were brought about because of certain causes Rung 1, Sequencing –Requires students to organize a given piece of information contained within the text in order. Ladder A – Consequences & Implications

13 Case Closed Jacobs Ladder A A3A3 A2A2 A1A1 Consequences and Implications What are some of the implications of using fingerprinting during the investigation of a crime? Cause and Effect Why are fingerprints taken at a crime scene? Sequencing What steps are used by a detective at a crime scene to obtain fingerprints?

14 The Ant and the Dove

15 Ladder B Goal – to develop deductive reasoning skills, moving from the concrete to the abstract GeneralizationsRung 3, Generalizations –Readers use the lists and categories generated in Rungs 1 and 2 to develop two to three general statements that apply to all of their examples from the lists. Rung 2, Classifications –Readers categorize examples and details based on characteristics. Rung 1, Details –Asks the reader to list examples or details from what they have read and/or to list examples they know from the real world or ones they have read previously. Ladder B – Generalizations

16 Chances Jacobs Ladder B Generalization Make three generalizations about probability based on your examples and categories. Category/Classification Place your examples in categories based on common ideas. Details/Examples Brainstorm a list of things you have learned about probability. B1B1 B3B3 B2B2

17 MoLi Stone Jacobs Ladder B Generalization Make three generalizations about Egyptian symbols based on your examples and categories. Category/Classification Based on your observations, how could you categorize the carvings on the wall? Explain your reasoning. Details/Examples Study the photograph of the ancient Egyptian wall. Make four observations about the carvings on the wall. B1B1 B3B3 B2B2

18 Wall of ancient Egyptian numerals at Karnak. MoLi Stone – M3 placeholder.html Study the photograph from an ancient wall in Egypt. Make at least four observations about the carvings on the wall. Ladder B Rung 1 Ladder B Rung 3 Make three generalizations about Egyptian symbols based on your examples and categories.

19 Compare the symbols in this photograph with the one on the previous slide. Make three generalizations about how the Egyptians used their number symbols. Ladder B Rung 3

20 Ladder C Goal – to develop literary analysis skills based on their already established understanding of the literary elements Theme/ConceptRung 3, Theme/Concept –Asks the reader to state the central idea or theme for the reading. Rung 2, Inference –Asks the reader to think through a situation in the text and come to a conclusion based on the information and clues provided in the reading. Rung 1, Literary Elements –The reader identifies or describes one of the literary elements and sometimes compare them to the elements from other texts (characterizations, setting, plot, etc.) Ladder C – Theme / Concepts

21 The Skating Lesson Mama and I are skating on the pond in our back yard. Shes a really good skater but I think its very hard. Mama glides around me and shows me what to do. How is she able to do that? Oh, how I wish I knew! Mama smiles at me warmly as she watches me fall and fall. She says that getting up again Is the most important lesson of all. The Mindful Garden of Verses by Marie Ciota

22 Habits of Mind Jacobs Ladder C Title of Reading Selection C3C3 C2C2 C1C1 Main Idea/Theme Which Habit of Mind is best represented by this poem? Provide evidence to support your answer. Evidence/Inference What inferences can we make about the mother in this poem? Context/Setting/Characterization The setting of this poem is on a frozen pond. Why do you think the author choose this setting? C1 C2 C3

23 List in order of importance five images or details portrayed in the picture.


25 Delilah She has blue eyes like the ocean. Her tongue like a rose. Her nose like a heart. Her tail like a fan. Her black coat like the night sky. By Casey Carroll Grades 4-5 Honorable Mention Center for Gifted Education Talent Search

26 Delilah C1C1 C3C3 C2C2 Theme/Concept Write a poem like Delilah to describe your pet or an animal you know. (Use the poem as your model.) Evidence/Inference What evidence is important in deciding on Delilahs identity? What or who is Delilah in the poem, based on the evidence? Characterization What words does the poet use to show Delilah as a lovable creature? C3 C2 C1

27 Ladder D Goal – to develop skills in creative synthesis in order to foster students creation of new material based on information gleaned from a text. Creative SynthesisRung 3, Creative Synthesis –The reader will create something new using what he/she has learned from the reading and their synopsis of it. Rung 2, Summarizing –Asks readers to summarize larger sections of text by selecting the most important key points within a passage. Rung 1, Paraphrasing –The reader restates a shorter passage using their own words. Ladder D – Creative Synthesis

28 Analyze This The US finishes the London Olympics on top with 46 gold medals, the most it has ever won in a non-boycotted Olympics since Rich Clabaugh/Staff

29 Analyze This Jacob s Ladder D D1 D3 D2 Using the data on the table, create a different way to represent this data. Write an article for a newspaper sharing the information from the table with your readers. Summarize the information from the table. Include the terms mean, median, and mode in your summary. In your own words, state two facts from the table.

30 Using your own words, what is happening in this photo?

31 Analyze This Jacob s Ladder D D1 D3 D2 Using evidence from the picture write a paragraph about your situation from the point of view of the people in the photograph. Based on evidence from the photograph, what story is the photographer trying to share with the audience? What image does the photographer want you to notice in this photograph?

32 Ladder E emotional intelligenceGoal – to develop skills in using ones emotional intelligence in order to regulate and modulate learning behavior. –It moves from the students understanding of emotion in self and others, to expressing emotion, to channeling emotion for cognitive means. Ladder E – Using Emotion

33 Gettysburg

34 Jacobs Skill Ladders Ladder E Using Emotion If you were a survivor of the battle, how would your feelings/emotions impact you in future battles? Expressing Emotion Write a short poem, letter, or story to express the emotions you feel when looking at this image. Understanding Emotion What emotions was the photographer trying to evoke in this image taken after the battle at Gettysburg? E3 E2 E1

35 Goal – to develop skills in information gleaned from a text Playing with WordsRung 3, Playing with Words –The reader will accurately apply figurative language and new vocabulary to newly created contexts Rung 2, Thinking About Words –Asks readers to analyze the use of words within the context as related to the theme of the text. Rung 1, Understanding Words –The reader identifies and explains the meaning of figurative language or new vocabulary within the conxtext of a story or poem Ladder F – Playing with Words Primary Ladder F

36 Goal – to develop skills in planning, monitoring and evaluating academic and career goals. ReflectingRung 3, Reflecting –The reader will reflect on what they have learned from their study of biography and how the principles may apply to their own life planning and career development Rung 2, Monitoring and Assessing –Asks readers to think about the capacity to complete tasks and to move forward with goals and outcomes. Rung 1, Planning and Goal Setting –The reader considers how talented people have deliberately thought about how they live their lives. Then the reader models their behavior in setting their own academic and career goals. Ladder F – Metacognition Middle School Ladder F Middle School


38 Jacobs Skill Ladders Ladder F - Primary Playing with Words What other characteristics could a leader have? Describe how these characteristics make an effective leader. Thinking About Words Do you think the pictures or the words have a greater impact on the reader? Explain your answer using evidence from the book. Understanding Words Based on the examples from the book, what is a leader? According to President Obama, what qualities does a leader have? F2 F3 F1

39 Jacobs Skill Ladders Ladder F – Middle School Reflecting Write five ways you are a leader in your life and five things you need to work on to become a more effective leader. Design a personal growth plan with realistic and achievable goals to become more successful in at least one area of life as a leader. Monitoring and Assessing Which of the leaders President Obama mentioned do you identify with as being similar to you? Explain your reasoning. Planning and Goal Setting Based on our generalizations and examples of the types of leaders President Obama shares in his book, what advice would you give someone on how to be an effective leader of others? F2 F3 F1

40 Goal - To promote learning through interactiondiscussion interaction and discussion of reading material in the classroom Students will be able to: -Articulate their understanding of a reading to a partner. - Solve problems collaboratively. -Engage in a dialogue about the meaning of a selection. Additional Goal

41 Text Mapping By the line you want to talk about # By the line that you would like to know more about ? By the line you are confused about or that doesnt make sense to you By the line that really meant something to you Number the lines Circle any word you are not familiar with __ stars by the ideas you think are the most important ? By the line you are confused about or that doesnt make sense to you



44 Thoughts on Questioning Thinking is not driven by answers but by questions. The art of questioning is important to excellence of thought. If we want to engage students in thinking through our content we must stimulate their thinking with questions that lead them to further questions.

45 Extending Thinking Remember that lower rungs are the vehicle to the higher level questions and thinking proposed on the top rung. Therefore, top rung responses may be used as a part of a graded, open-ended writing response.

46 Extensions –Write a persuasive essay to justify what you think the story is about. –Create a symbol to show the meaning of the story. Write two sentences to justify your symbol. –In one word or phrase, what is this story mostly about? Justify your answer using examples from the story. –Write a letter from the authors point of view, explaining what the meaning of the story is to young children.

47 Roosevelts Four Freedoms In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression -- everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way -- everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want -- which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants -- everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear -- which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor-- anywhere in the world. That is no vision of a distant millennium. It is a definite basis for a kind of world attainable in our own time and generation. That kind of world is the very antithesis of the so-called new order of tyranny which the dictators seek to create with the crash of a bomb.

48 Norman Rockwell Study the painting. Pay attention to the people and their faces. Summarize: In your own words, tell what is happening in this painting.

49 Norman Rockwell Freedom of Speech Creative Synthesis: Has there ever been a time in your life when you felt compelled to speak out on an important topic? What happened? How would you illustrate the freedom of speech if you were asked to create a poster? Why did you use the images you placed in your illustration?

50 Norman Rockwell Freedom of Speech Using Emotion: Have you ever had to take a stand on a topic in front of other people? What emotions did you feel as you made your point? What emotions helped you make your point understood by others?

51 Extending Our Thinking Set A Personal Goal: –Listen better to what others are saying. –Explain your ideas using textual evidence. –Ask questions when you do not understand. –Contribute to the discussion at least ____ times.

52 Discussion of Text Students refer to the line by number that they will discuss. Students lead the discussion. Students work together to clarify their thinking. Individual accountability after the discussion

53 Jacobs Skill Ladders Ladder F - Primary Playing with Words Questions inserted here. Thinking About Words Questions inserted here. Understanding Words Questions inserted here. F2 F3 F1

54 Jacobs Skill Ladders Ladder F – Middle School Reflecting Questions inserted here. Monitoring and Assessing Questions inserted here. Planning and Goal Setting Questions inserted here. F2 F3 F1

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