Presentation on theme: "ANTEBELLUM REFORM MOVEMENTS & KINDLING FOR WAR Subtext: Wheres Lincoln? Cynthia Szwajkowski, Ph.D. Library of Congress (TPSNVA)"— Presentation transcript:
ANTEBELLUM REFORM MOVEMENTS & KINDLING FOR WAR Subtext: Wheres Lincoln? Cynthia Szwajkowski, Ph.D. Library of Congress (TPSNVA)
WHO & WHAT IS AMERICA IN THE 19 TH CENTURY LETS SET THE STAGE
AMERICAN INFANCY GIVES WAY TO TURBULENT TEENAGE YEARS WE FIND OURSELVES: ARTISTICALLY PHILOSOPHICALLY & INTELLECTUALLY POLITICALLY AS TYPICAL TEENAGERS, WE DEMAND CHANGE
Who Were Americans in the Antebellum period? Voters - The Envy of the World Voters - The Envy of the World Unique, relatively classless system Unique, relatively classless system Religious – owned a Bible & Shakespeare Religious – owned a Bible & Shakespeare Land Hungry – Manifest Destiny – Vote Yourself a Farm – Mexican-American War Land Hungry – Manifest Destiny – Vote Yourself a Farm – Mexican-American War Literary focus - Self-reliance Literary focus - Self-reliance
The peasant's wife and Congress reasoned in the same fashion. Tocqueville Bustling Northern Cities
Southern counterpart Broadside by Anti-Slavery Society, William Dorr & Theodore Weld 1835
When I contemplate the condition of the South, I can discover only two modes of action for the white inhabitants of those States: namely, either to emancipate the Negroes and to intermingle with them, or, remaining isolated from them, to keep them in slavery as long as possible. All intermediate measures seem to me likely to terminate, and that shortly, in the most horrible of civil wars and perhaps in the extirpation of one or the other of the two races. When I contemplate the condition of the South, I can discover only two modes of action for the white inhabitants of those States: namely, either to emancipate the Negroes and to intermingle with them, or, remaining isolated from them, to keep them in slavery as long as possible. All intermediate measures seem to me likely to terminate, and that shortly, in the most horrible of civil wars and perhaps in the extirpation of one or the other of the two races. Alexis de Tocqueville, 1831
REFORM MOVEMENTS 1. ABOLITION 2. TEMPERANCE 3. EDUCATION 4. WOMENS SUFFRAGE Stemming from: RELIGION: 2 ND GREAT AWAKENING RELIGION: 2 ND GREAT AWAKENING TRANSCENDENTALISM TRANSCENDENTALISM WESTERN EXPANSION & THE MEXICAN AMERICAN WAR WESTERN EXPANSION & THE MEXICAN AMERICAN WAR THE VOTE & THE FARM THE VOTE & THE FARM As early as 1841, Lincoln wrote that slavery had the power of making me miserable.
ROMANTICISM>>Transcendentalism BEGINS IN EUROPE BUT IS AMERICAN IN ITS INCEPTION: INDIVIDUAL CONSCIOUSNESS BEAUTY OF NATURE PREOCCUPATION WITH THE HERO & THE EXCEPTIONAL FIGURE IMAGINATION & EMOTION AS A ROUTE TO SPIRITUAL TRUTH (2 ND GREAT AWAKENING)
TRANSCENDENTALISM AMERICAN RENAISSANCE 1837 – 1848, or til today Transcendentalists affirm some of the best qualities characteristic of American civilization: Self-reliance, a willingness to question authority, a quest for spiritual nourishment. These writers made us self-consciously aware of who we are.
AMERICAN ART – ROMANTIC, VAST, Focused on NATURE Emotional - aesthetic experience with new emphasis on trepidation, horror and awe Confronts the sublimity of untamed nature Elevates folk art and custom to something noble
Transcendentalists Education for all Education for all Womens rights Womens rights Temperance Temperance Anti-slavery Anti-slavery EMERSON IS A ROCK STAR at the Lyceums
Accept the place the divine providence has found for you, the society of your contemporaries, the connection of events. Great men have always done so, and confided themselves childlike to the genius of their age, betraying their perception that the absolutely trustworthy was seated at their heart, working through their hands, predominating in all their being. And we are now men, and must accept in the highest mind the same transcendent destiny; and not minors and invalids in a protected corner, not cowards fleeing before a revolution, but guides, redeemers, and benefactors, obeying the Almighty effort, and advancing on Chaos and the Dark. Trust thyself: every heart vibrates to that iron string. Accept the place the divine providence has found for you, the society of your contemporaries, the connection of events. Great men have always done so, and confided themselves childlike to the genius of their age, betraying their perception that the absolutely trustworthy was seated at their heart, working through their hands, predominating in all their being. And we are now men, and must accept in the highest mind the same transcendent destiny; and not minors and invalids in a protected corner, not cowards fleeing before a revolution, but guides, redeemers, and benefactors, obeying the Almighty effort, and advancing on Chaos and the Dark.
Henry David Thoreau Walden Pond I know of no more encouraging fact than the unquestioned ability of a man to elevate his life by conscious endeavor. Read The Night Thoreau Spent in Jail with Mexican- American war. The Apostle Of Individuality
Walt Whitman AMERICA HAS NOT FOUND A POET WORTHY OF THE NATIONS AMPLE GEOGRAPHY & INCOMPARABLE MATERIALS. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson I WILL ENCOMPASS ALL OF AMERICAN NATURE AND DEMOCRACY BY MY CELEBRATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL. I celebrate myself; / And what I assume you shall assume; For every atom belonging to me, as good belongs to you. For every atom belonging to me, as good belongs to you. ~Walt Whitman.
Margaret Fuller challenged Emerson & helped meld transcendentalism, anti-slavery & womens rights If the negro be a soul, if the woman be a soul, appareled in flesh, to one master only are they accountable. ~ Margaret Fuller
Harriet Beecher Stowe Reverand Lyman & Roxanna Beecher expected their children to shape their world: ~7 sons became ministers ~Oldest daughter Catharine pioneered education for women ~Youngest daughter Isabella founded the National Women's Suffrage Association ~Harriet believed her purpose in life was to write. Her most famous work exposed the truth about the greatest social injustice of her day - human slavery
Uncle Tom's Cabin can be read as a point of arrival in a long American quest to evolve a morality out of the Puritan heritage, the words of the chartering documents of the Republic, the ethos of the Enlightenment, and the values of Transcendentalism. See Readers Theatre
DEBATE AMONG PROPONENTS OF WOMENS RIGHTS Harriet Beecher Stowe believed that change could only come through acceptable female behavior such as writing.
From Slave Culture to Quaker to Abolitionist to Feminist Angelina Grimke & Harriet & Catherine Beecher Stowe debated on newspaper & magazine covers. Angelina & Sarah Grimke believed women could play the same roles as men.
RELIGION SECOND GREAT AWAKENING SECOND GREAT AWAKENING METHODISTS METHODISTS EMOTIONAL EMOTIONAL Fascination Fascination with exotic, mysterious & occult Some female Some femaleMinisters Itinerant Itinerant Methodist camp meeting, March 1, 1819 Prints and Photographs DivisionMethodist camp meeting, March 1, 1819 Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. (1860)
Sojourner Truth Ex-slave Isabella van Wagener obeys Gods command to change her name & become a preacher On revival circuit, she entrances anti-slavery audiences. On womens rights: I could work as much…and bear the lash as well as a man & arent I a woman?
Title: Lincoln showing Sojourner Truth the Bible presented by colored people of Baltimore. Executive Mansion Washington, D.C. Oct. 29, 1864 Library of Congress
Seneca Falls – 1848 Seneca Falls – 1848 Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott met over Abolitionism (in London) met over Abolitionism (in London) Elizabeth Cady Stanton included a demand for Elizabeth Cady Stanton included a demand for Womens suffrage in the Declaration of Sentiments but took a broad view of womens lives & combined her public role with wife & Mother of 7. Womens suffrage in the Declaration of Sentiments but took a broad view of womens lives & combined her public role with wife & Mother of 7. They met Susan B. Anthony who was They met Susan B. Anthony who was working in Temperance working in Temperance And welcomed Frederick Douglass And welcomed Frederick Douglass
Abigail Adams - Remember the Ladies
Declaration of Sentiments – Seneca Falls
BOTH ABOLITIONISM & WOMENS SUFFRAGE: PROMOTED THE EXPANSION OF THE AMERICAN PROMISE OF LIBERTY & EQUALITY – TO African Americans & to women At the FIRST WOMENS RIGHTS CONVENTION IN SENECA FALLS – Frederick Douglass, the Motts, Wrights, Stantons, McClintocks & Hunts – all active abolitionists
The Antislavery – Womens Suffrage Connection Women can neither take the Ballot nor the Bullet…therefore to use, the right to petition is the one sacred right which we ought not to neglect. Susan B. Anthony, Address to the American Anti-Slavery Society, 1863
AND OTHER CONNECTIONS… BOTH AFRICAN AMERICAN AND WOMENS MOVEMENT REACH MOST OF THEIR GOALS WITH THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 NATIVE AMERICANS PART OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION SUPPORT
TEMPERANCE PROMOTED BY THE PREACHERS OF THE 2 ND GREAT AWAKENING TAKEN UP BY WOMEN ACTIVISTS MOST AMERICANS DRINKING 4 GALLONS OF LIQUOR PER YEAR. Daughter of temperance: Virtue, love and temperance [between 1835 and 1856]
Celebrating the Constitutional Convention First Troop Philadelphia City Cavalry Archives, 1774City Tavern George Washington-Entertainment of 15 Sept., 1787 To 55 Gentlemans Dinners & Fruit (pounds shillings - pence) Rellishes, Olives etc Bottles of Madera of Claret ditto ditto of Old Stock Bottles of Porter ditto of Cyder ditto ditto Beer Large Bowels of Punch Segars Spermacity candles etc To Decantors Wine Glass [e]s & Tumblers Broken etc To 16 Servants and Musicians Dinners Bottles of Claret ditto Madera Bouls of Punch £89 4 2
Composite of two illustrations: 1.Rev. L. Armstrong, Dr. B.J. Clark, Gardiner Stow, and James Mott around table with Holy Bible, Temperance Constitution, and Blackstone's Commentary 2. The Mawney House in which was organized the first temperance society Library of Congress
THE FOCUS OF ALL THESE REFORM MOVEMENTS BECOMES ABOLITION THE GREATEST DANGER TO AMERICAN SURVIVAL … WAS SECTIONAL CONFLICT BETWEEN North and South over the future of slavery. ~ James McPherson, Battlecry of Freedom Sectionalism which had always existed in America became increasingly acute with the rise of abolition in the 1830s. RAN AWAY activity Lincoln: The spectacle of slavery was a continual torment to me.
Frederick Douglass -4 th of July Speech
WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON & THE LIBERATOR
In addition to William Lloyd Garrison & the Liberator, Old Man Eloquent kept up the call to end the GAG Rule. Am I gagged or am I not? J. Q. Adams JQA led the fight against the Gag rule from Over 130,000 petitions praying for action against slavery led to tabling of all such petitions after 1836.
OLD MAN ELOQUENT
MEXICAN AMERICAN WAR
Freshman Whig Congressman on Polks call for war: (Polk) is avoiding the scrutiny of his own conduct…by fixing the public eye upon military glorythat rainbow that rises in showers of bloodthat serpents eye that charms but to destroy. (Polk) talked like an insane man…His mind, taxed beyond its power, is running hither and thither, like an ant on a hot stove.
This House ought to assert, in the strongest manner, this right to call for information; and especially in such cases as those where questions of war and peace are depending. ~ Old Man Eloquent when Polk refused to give all communications regarding the situation to Congress BEFORE they would consider a declaration of war. Should it go abroad that all the power we have here, as the peoples representatives, is to record the edicts of a master? ~ Robert Schenk, Ohio Whig
LINCOLNS SPOT RESOLUTION Lincoln is a Whig In 1849, Lincoln Drafted a gradual Abolition bill for D.C.
Extension of MO Compromise considered
1849 – 1850
Henry Clay on the floor of the Senate. Millard Fillmore presides as Calhoun & Webster look on.
Violence in the Senate Library of Congress
Compromise of 1850 – includes Fugitive Slave Law
Sewards Higher Law
Lincoln in 1852 (if the Republic could remove the danger of slavery and restore a) captive people to their long-lost fatherland that neither races nor individuals shall have suffered by the change (then) it will indeed be a glorious consummation.
Kansas- Nebraska Act 1854 Reynolds's political map of the United States, designed to exhibit the comparative area of the free and slave states and the territory open to slavery or freedom by the repeal of the Missouri Compromise
Buchanan Lewis Cass Stephen Douglas Franklin Pierce ? ? ?
Whigs & Conscience Whigs final split over Kansas-Nebraska Act Lincoln & others begin to believe that it is all a sinister Southern plot to extend slave territory and extend southern power in Washington New, all-Northern Republican Party emerges. Free land (no extension of slavery), Free land (Homestead Act)
1855 HAVE WE REACHED THE POINT AT WHICH CIVIL WAR IS INEVITABLE?
THE LANGUAGE OF THE YEARS See Readers Theatre
MEET CHARLES FINNEY AND THEODORE WELD AND ANGELINA GRIMKE – History through Biography Ways to Organize Info from a Biography Flip Book Fact Sheet Character Map Web Fanny Pack or Bio Cube or brown bag Reenactment Collage